Introduction to International Politics Final Exam Review
Introduction to International Politics Final Exam Review PSC 1003
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Jok on Tuesday December 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Farrell, H in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 196 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 12/15/15
1. Realism a. Based on the view of the individual as primarily fearful, selfish and power seeking. Individuals act in pursuit of national interest defined in terms of power. - Key actors: States – most powerful matter most - View of the individual: insecure, selfish, power-seeking - View of the state: Insecure, selfish, unitary, power-seeking as evidence of rationality. - View of the international system: Anarchic, more stable as distribution of power approaches uni-polarity. - Beliefs about change: Possibility of perpetual peace logically precluded, emphasis shifted to managing the frequency and intensity of war - Major Theorist: Thucydides, Saint Augustine, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Morgenthau, Waltz, Gilpin, Mearsheimer 2. Liberalism a. Holds that human nature is basically good and that people can improve their moral and material conditions. - Key actors: States, nongovernmental groups, international organizations - View of the Individual: basically good; social; capable of cooperating. - View of the State: states are selfish, have relationships, can be good or bad - View of the International System: anarchy abridged by interdependence among actors an international order - Beliefs about change: self interest managed by structure leads to possibility of perpetual peace. - Major Theorists: Montesqieu, Kant, Wilson, Keohane, Doyle, Ikenberry 3. Constructivism a. State conduct is shaped by elite beliefs, identities, and social norms. - Key actors: People, elites, cultures - View of the individual: key component in creation of meaning; bound by education, socialization and culture - View of the state: an artifact whose significance is socially constructed through discourse - View of the international system: an artifact whose significance is socially constructed through discourse - Beliefs about change: Possible by means of discourse - Major Theorists: Foucault, Derrida, Kratochwil, Hopf, Wendt 4. Levels of Analysis: Way of dividing analysis of international politics to help orient questions and suggest the type of evidence to explore a. Individual Level: focuses on the personality, perceptions, choices, activities of individual decisions makers and individual participants i. Ex: Saddam Hussein, George W. Bush - Personality - Perceptions - Activities - Choices b. State Level: focus on domestic factors derived from characteristics of the state (type of government, economic system, interest groups or national interests) - Interest groups - National interests - Government - Economy c. International/System Level: characteristics of the system (distribution of power), international organizations and their relative strengths and weaknesses. - International norms/rules - Multinational corporations - Intergovernmental organization - Alliances 5. Security Dilemma a. The situation in which one state improves its military capabilities, especially its defenses, and those improvements are seen by other states as threats; each state in an anarchic international system tries to increase its own level of protection leading to insecurity in others, often leading to an arms race. 6. Offense-Defense Balance a. The degree to which a country is suspicious of others depends on the world around them (the weapons in play, tactics etc.) b. 7. Hypocrisy in International Relations a. When it comes to foreign affairs, issues of good governance, democracy and human rights are usually low on the agenda (realist leaning) 8. Self-Help a. A state can only completely rely on itself for its survival 9. Waltzian realism a. States just want to defend themselves and distrust others and are therefore pushed into competition and fight for balance 10. Offensive realism a. States want to achieve hegemony – need power and control to secure their security 11. Motivational realism a. States want to figure out who they can work with – there is the ability to discern another states intention. 12. Anarchy a. Lack of central government that can enforce rules in the international realm 13. International Institutions a. Key to cooperation between states to help make communication easier. They make rules which they hope states will follow (liberal leaning) 14. WTO a. World Trade Organization; An organization begun in 1995 that expanded the GATT’s traditional focus on manufactured goods and created monitoring and enforcement mechanisms. Role: Sets rules of world trading systems and provides a way of states to resolve disputes 15. Liberal order a. Created by the United states to advance the ideas of the United States and reflect U.S. priorities and values. 16. Ideas a. Basis for world view and understanding of politics. 17. Norms a. Unspoken rules that have a feeling of “oughtness” 18. Social Facts a. Facts that aren’t the result of physical laws or personal preferences, rather communal or collective beliefs. 19. Nuclear Taboo a. Unspoken rule and norm against the use of nuclear weapons. If anyone does use them, they are asking for mutually assured destruction. 20. Perceptions a. View of an actor that affect the expectations of other states behaviors and guide the interpretation of their actions 21. 2008 Financial Crisis a. began due to the collapse of a speculative bubble in the United States economy that started in the financial sector and spread. 22. G20 a. Group of finance ministers and heads of central banks of major economic powers including China, Russia, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey as well as representatives form the G-7; meets periodically to discuss economic issues. 23. Sanctions a. Pressure exerted through trade and markets to try to change the political or physical behavior of another state. 24. Smart sanctions a. Sanctions targeted against individuals or companies as opposed to entire countries. 25. Deterrence a. Often in the sense of nuclear deterrence, when conflict between two powers would be mutually destructive, violence is less likely to occur. (Mutually Assured Destruction) 26. Brinkmanship a. Actors may push to the brink of disaster and take the risk in order to gain credibility to show resolve. Due to the risk and costs, this is usually a last resort. EX: Russia, West Berlin, Cuban Missile crisis 27. Commitment mechanisms a. Allow you to commit yourself by making it more costly to refrain from implementing a threat than to deliver on it. Need to demonstrate resolve to carry out costly actions in the future. 28. Credibility a. States that carry out their word can be assured that other states believe in them when they set an ultimatum 29. Modernization theory a. Development of a state as a product of war. EX: Cold war liberalism and technology. States use this as justification to help other states in which they structure goals when giving aid to other countries based on the one track that every other state followed. 30. Washington Consensus a. 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the “standard” reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries. 31. Structural Adjustment a. Set of economic policies often introduced as a condition for gaining a loan from the International monetary fund. 32. Grand Strategy a. The collection of the goals and means of a state to maintain its security. Having a clear and defined grand strategy helps a state to communicate to other s what its intentions and expectations are. 33. Neo-Isolationism a. The Idea that states should mind their own business and focus its resources on domestic problems and situations instead of wasting valuable resources on the rest of the worlds problems. 34. Selective (Deep) Engagement a. The idea that it is important to have a continuous presence in the international realm to help promote a states power and dominance. 35. National Security Strategy a. A document periodically prepared by the executive branch outlining the major national security concerns of the United States and how the administration plans to deal with them. 36. Global warming a. Widely agreed concept that the increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere is caused by human activity and increased levels of greenhouse gasses. 37. Kyoto Protocol a. An international treaty that committed states to reducing greenhouse gas emissions based on the premises that (a) Global warming exists dn that (b) man-made CO2 emissions are the cause. 38. UN Framework Convention on Climate Change a. International environmental treaty aimed at dealing with climate change issues. 39. Collective action a. Action taken together by a group whose goal is to enhance status, credibility and achieve common objectives 40. Attribution problem a. Not knowing who is the actor behind an attack. Most often associated with cyber security and terrorism. 41. Deterrence by denial a. A form of deterrence where one actor convinces the enemy not to attack through claiming that his attack will be defeated, and that there will be consequences. 42. Olympic Games (Stuxnet) a. Covert actions taken by the United States to delay Iran’s Nuclear program by attacking its uranium cycles and spyware. 43. Westphalian sovereignty a. The Westphalian treaty ending the thirty years war in 1648 which gave states sovereignty (the authority) based on recognition by other states and by non-state actors to govern matters within its own borders that affect its people, economy security and form of government. 44. Responsibility to Protect a. A set of principles that states and the international community is responsible for protecting citizens form any catastrophes. This gets complicated when it comes to political strategy and human rights issues.
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