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Final Review

by: Summon Mahmood

Final Review SOCI 2236

Summon Mahmood
Tarrant County College
GPA 3.8
Cheryl North

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Cheryl North
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Summon Mahmood on Wednesday December 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 2236 at Tarrant County College taught by Cheryl North in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tarrant County College.

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Date Created: 12/16/15
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Criminology Chapter 1 Deviance 0 The fact or state of departing from usual or accepted standards especially in social or sexual behavior 0 Any violation of society norms social Crime 0 An action or omission that constitutes an offense that may be prosecuted by the state and is punishable by law 0 A violation of norm that have been made into law Criminology 0 The scientific study of crime and criminals Discretion 0 The freedom to decide What should be done in a particular situation 3 basic divisions of the CJ system including puppose and duties 0 Law EnforcementPolice 0 Courts 0 Corrections Basics of the penal code feloniesmisdemeanors prisonsi ails etc Theme of individual rights vs public order 1 Public Order Crime Control Society rights to be protected against crime 2 Individual Rights Due Process 2 ReformBasic human rights should be given to every human being Chapter 2 Chronic offender 0 A person W multiple criminal convictions spread across multiple criminal events Anomie 0 Lack of unsocial or unethical standards in an individual or group Strain theory 0 States that social structures may pressure citizens to commit crimes Crime rate 0 Defined as the number of offenses per 100000 population is derived by first dividing a jurisdiction39s population by 100000 and then dividing the number of offenses by the resulting figure Chapter 3 Civil law 0 Plainti cDefendant the system of law concerned With private relations between members of a community rather than criminal military or religious affairs Criminal law 0 DefendantState a system of law concerned With the punishment of those who commit crimes Common laW 0 Developed from custom 0 Originally uncodified 0 Based on precedents Defenses under criminal law Excuse ense Ins ani Into Justi ation Duress Self Defense Necessi En ment Bill of Rights Speech Bear Arms SearchSeizure Double Jeopardy Speedy Trial Trial by Jury No Cruel and Unusual Punishment State Established Laws ense i WNQP PPE Chapter 5 Detective A person especially a police officer Whose occupation is to investigate and solve crimes Patrol 0 General driving around 0 Directed patrol a specific area of criminal activity Use of force 0 Deadly force unconstitutional 0 Reasonable force constitutional bc of immunity Tennessee v Garner 0 Fleeing felon statute When a laW enforcement officer is pursuing a eeing suspect he or she may not use deadly force to prevent escape unless quotthe officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a significant threat of death or serious physical injury to the officer or othersquot Hot spots 0 A place of significant activity or danger Broke n window theorV 0 Criminological theory of the normsetting and signaling effect of urban disorder and vandalism on additional crime and antisocial behavior Chapter 6 4th 5th and 6th Amendments 0 4th No illegal search and seizure 0 5th No double jeopardyselfincrimination 06th speedy trial Search and seizure 0 Police or other authorities and their agents who suspect that a crime has been committed do a search of a person39s property and confiscate any relevant evidence to the crime Probable cause 0 Reasonable grounds for making a search pressing a charge etc 1 Personal observation Environmentwitnessimpact sight 2 Information Intelligence gatheringdatatestimoniespaper or computer 3 Evidence MaterialsobjectsDNA 4 Association Possible suspects Arrest 4 Elements 0 Seize someone by legal authority and take into custody 1 Intent to arrest 2 Authority to arrest 3 Subjection to the arrest 4 Understanding by the arrestee arrest happened Arrest warrant 0 Is a warrant issued by a judge or magistrate on behalf of the state which authorize the arrest amp detention of an individual or search and seizure of individual s property Searchessearch warrants 1 Search incidental to an arrest 2 Consent 3 Automobile searches US vs Carol 4 Hot pursuit 5 Plain view 6 Abandoned property 7 Border searches 8 Stop amp Frisk Inherent coercion 0 Implied and cohesive environment 0 Use of intimidation or threats or some other form of pressure or force It involves a set of various types of forceful actions that violate the free will of an individual to induce a desired response Miranda rights Miranda warning Miranda v Arizona related Amendments 0 Arrest Question 0 5th Amendment 0 Miranda vs Arizona The Court held that prosecutors could not use statements stemming from custodial interrogation of defendants unless they demonstrated the use of procedural safeguards quoteffective to secure the privilege against self incrimination Chapter 7 2 underlving values in our CJ svstem 1 Public Order Crime Control Society rights to be protected against crime 2 Individual Rights Due Process 2 ReformBasic human rights should be given to every human being Jurisdiction 0 The official power to make legal decisions and judgments 1 Geographical 2 International 3 Universal 4 Subject matter Extradite 0 Hand over a person accused or convicted of a crime to the jurisdiction of the foreign state in which the crime was committed Appeal process and procedure 0 Who can appeal CriminalDefendant 0 Who can approve Judges Dual court svstem 0 State Courts 1 Magistrates 2 Trail Courts 0 Federal Courts 3 State Court of 1 US District Appeals CourtsSpecialized Courts 2 US Court of Appeals US Supreme Court and 2 ways it 3 US Supreme Court establishes policv 1 Judicial Review the ability of a court to examine and decide if a statute treaty or administrative regulation contradicts or violates the provisions of existing law a State Constitution or ultimately the United States Constitution 2 Interprets the Law process of determining the intended meaning of the Constitution Chapter 8 Adversary system 0 Legal system used in the common law countries where two advocates represent their parties39 positions before an impartial person or group of people usually a jury or judge who attempt to determine the truth of the case Prosecutors 0 A lawyer who conducts the case against a defendant in a criminal court Defense attorneVs 0 A lawyer specializing in the defense of indiViduals and companies charged with criminal actiVity Plea bargain 0 An agreement that permits a defendant to plead guilty to a lesser charge instead of pleading not guilty to a more serious one N010 contendere 0 A plea by which a defendant in a criminal prosecution accepts conViction as though a guilty plea had been entered but does not admit guilt Chapter 9 Presumption of innocence 0 Innocent till proven guilty Burden of proof 0 What is the standard Beyond a reasonable doubt 0 Who has the burden Prosecutor Appeal 0 When available All felonies conVictions 0 When required Capital punishment cases 0 What is the process Request cert reView brief oral arguments Death penalty 0 Death penalty are known as capital crimes or capital offences 0 Death as a form of punishment Furman v Georgia 0 Ruled on the requirement for a degree of consistency in the application of the death penalty Purposes of sentencing 1 Retribution eye for an eye Deterrence setting an example Incapacitation separated from society Rehabilitation criminals are given resources to change behaVior pattern P93 Chapter 10 Probation 0 Remain in community vs serving prison sentence as long as they follow conditions set by court Community corrections 0Tasked With rehabilitating offenders and protecting the public Without the use of incarceration Deferred adiudication 0 A form of plea deal available in various jurisdictions Where a defendant pleads quotguiltyquot or quotNo Contestquot to criminal charges in exchange for meeting certain requirements laid out by the court Within an allotted period of time also ordered by the court Revocation 0 Cancelling or annulment of something by some authority When revocation happens a privilege title or status is removed from someone Recidivism 0 It refers to a person39s relapse into criminal behavior often after the person receives sanctions or undergoes intervention for a previous crime Cha ter 11 Prisons vs Jails 0 Jails are most often run by sheriffs andor local governments and are designed to hold individuals awaiting trial or a serving short sentences 0 Prisons are operated by state governments and the Federal Bureau of Prisons BOP and are designed to hold individuals convicted of crimes Chapter 12 Total institution 0 Isolated enclosed social system Whose primary purpose is to control most aspects of its participants lives Parole be clear on how it differs from probation 0 Criminal offenders Who are conditionally released from prison to serve the remaining portion of their sentence in the community Mandatorv release 0 Entire sentence has been served and prisoner must be released Pardon 0 Is a government decision to allow a person Who has been convicted of a crime to be free and absolved of that conviction as if never convicted Chapter 13 Juvenile 0 Relating to young people Status offense 0 Is an action that is prohibited only to a certain class of people and most often applied only to offenses committed by minors Ex violating curfew drinking under legal age Aging out 0 Crime rate decline with the rise of age Chapter 14 Terrorism 0 The use of threat or violence to achieve political objective al Qaeda 1 General antiwestem social movement 2 Osama bin laden terrorist organization US Patriot Act 0 Allows govt agencies to share info on suspected terrorist 0 Created the crime knowingly harboring a terrorist 0 Allows greater freedom in seizing emails 0 Allowing suspects to be detained up to 7 days wo being informed of the charges 0 Eliminates the statutes of limitation for terrorist crimes Homeland SecuritV 0 Reconstructed govt agencies 0 Placed 22 agencies under the umbrella of DHS 0 Shifted the focus from investigating crimes to intelligence gathering Policing terrorism and con icts with constitutional amendments 0 4th amendment 1 Requires reasonable suspicion that a crime has been committed 2 Protects against unreasonable search and seizure 0 5th amendment 1 No person shall be deprived of life liberty or property wo due process of law


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