Flash Cards for the Final
Flash Cards for the Final FSCN 1112
U of M
Popular in Principles of Nutrition
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Cummins on Wednesday December 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to FSCN 1112 at University of Minnesota taught by Mashek, Douglas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 12/16/15
Flash Cards Carbs • Provides 4 kcal/gram of energy • Found as sugars and long chain carbs Lipids • Provides 9 kcal/gram of energy (most energy dense macronutrient) • Found mostly as triglycerides Proteins • Provides 4 kcal/gram of energy • Mainly builds and replenishes structures in the body Phytochemicals • Foods that are not required in diet, but provide huge health benefits • Ex: capsaicin DRI • Dietary Reference Intakes • Nutrient recommendations EAR • Estimated Average Requirement • Meets 50% of the population’s need to avoid disease RDA • Recommended Dietary Allowance • Meets 98% of the population’s needs • Should be a daily goal for intake UL • Upper Intake Levels Nutrient density • The amount of calories compared to the nutrients • Ex: milk is more nutrient dense than coke Nutrient content claim • Describes nutrient content • Regulated by the FDA • Ex: Twislers “low fat candy” Health claim • Relationship between nutrients in product and a disease • Must have scientific proof (closely regulated by FDA) • Ex: Cheerios reducing risk of heart disease Preliminary Health claim • Limited scientific proof for relationship between nutrient and benefit, but the FDA still regulates • Ex: antioxidants Structure/Function claim • The relationship between a nutrient in the product and your health is stated • Not FDA approved Food categories • Dairy, meat/beans, fruits, vegetables, grains, (oil) GMO • Genetically Modified Organisms – technology is used to put new genes into DNA • Ex: vitamin A in rice GRAS • Generally Recognized As Safe • Ex: salt, sugar • To test this they feed large doses to mice over a short period of time (no long term data) Foodborne illness • 3,000 deaths/year • People at risk – pregnant, elderly, infants • Ex: salmonella, E.coli, campylobacter, norovirus Order of digestive system • Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum Digestion • The process of breaking down foods into a form the body can use Absorption • Uptake of nutrients from the GI tract into the body Mouth • Chewing – increases surface area of food • Saliva is made up of water, lysosomes (kills bacteria, mucus (holds bolus together) and amylase (breaks down carbs) Esophagus • Swallowing – moves bolus from mouth to esophagus • Epiglottis – protects the windpipe from food Stomach • Acid (HCl) breaks down proteins (pepsin is also released) • Not much absorption • Lipase is also released to break down fat Small intestine • Most digestion, and especially absorption occurs here • Villi and microvilli capture nutrients and feed them into the bloodstream Liver • Produces bile to help absorb fat • Filters water soluble nutrients that come from the portal vein (fat soluble go to the lymphatic system) Gallbladder • Stores bile Pancreas • Produces hormones to aid digestion • Produces bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid • Breaks down enzymes that break down food Large intestine • BACTERIA – make vitamins, essential short chain fatty acids Pro-biotic • Live bacteria are eaten to improve gut health • Ex: Activia Pre-biotic • Non-digestible fiber that promotes bacterial growth Influences on the micro- • Diet, genetics, immune system, pathogens, biome the environment during the first few weeks of life, antibiotic use Heartburn • GERD – gastro-esopheal reflux disease • Stomach acid comes back up the esophagus • Fatty and spicy foods increase risk • Treatments include antacids and HCl inhibitors Food intolerance • Caused my enzyme deficiency • Ex: lactose intolerance comes from a lack of the enzyme lactase Diarrhea • One of the leading causes of death • The body becomes very dehydrated IBS (irritable bowel • Irregular pain, bloating, constipation syndrome) • Affects 15% of the US population • The cause is not known Celiac disease • Inherited autoimmune disease • The immune system responds to gluten (a protein in flour) • The immune system attacks cells that absorbed the gluten • Destroys the villi in the small intestine • Treatment – avoid eating gluten monosaccharides • Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose Disaccharides • Monosaccharides are connected by specific bonds • Sucrose, maltose, lactose Oligosaccharides • Several monosaccharides linked together • Raffinose, stachyose • Can’t be digested by humans (for bacteria only) Polysaccharides • Digestible – amylose, amylopectin and glycogen • Indigestible – dietary fiber, soluble fiber (pectin helps lower cholesterol), insoluble fiber (bran regulates GI tract) Carb digestion • Amylase in saliva • Small intestine absorbs most sugars • Bacteria breaks down fiber in large intestine • Extra glucose is stored as glycogen in muscles and liver Insulin • Made in pancreas • Targets liver, muscle and adipose to take up glucose from the blood Diabetes – Type 1 • Less common (early onset) • The immune system destroys insulin response cells in the pancreas Diabetes – Type 2 • Common (adult onset) • Cells build tolerance to insulin, so pancreas continues to increase production until it can’t anymore • Directly linked to the obesity epidemic Triglycerides • Most of the fats we eat • Made up of glycerol with 3 fatty acids • Categorized by chain length (long and short) Saturated fat • No double bonds in the fatty acid chain • Levels of unsaturation increases with more double bonds • Ex: butter Trans fat • Unsaturated fats are hydrogenated to look more like saturated fats and increase shelf life • Hydrogenation is the process of breaking the double bonds in the fatty acid Properties of fats • Fats that are solid at room temperature will have a long chain length, be very saturated and will have trans bonds instead of cis Phospholipids • Make up cell membranes • Found in egg yolks Fat digestion • Mouth – lipase is released • Liver – produces bile to make fat soluble in water • Most is absorbed in the small intestine Sterols • Ex: cholesterol • Ring structure • Makes hormones • Get from plants (the body can make what it needs) Fat absorption • Enzymes break down fat • They are put back together and packaged in chylomicron • Transported to lymphatic system • Short chain fatty acids are water soluble • Chylomicron transports dietary fat to the body VLDL • Transfers fat from liver to body LDL • Bad cholesterol • Carries cholesterol from liver to body HDL • Good cholesterol • Helps remove cholesterol from the body Cardiovascular disease • Atherosclerosis – LDL cholesterol is oxidized, immune system attacks to neutralize, but they get overwhelmed and die, building plaques in the blood vessels • Factors that increase risk – old age, being male, genetics, blood triglycerides, smoking, obesity Mediterranean diet • Lower risk of metabolic disease • Lots of fruits and vegetables, fish, red wine, whole grains • Limit red meat and sweets Conditionally essential • Normally not essential, but under stress your proteins body can’t make them, so they need to come from the diet Complete proteins • Proteins that contain adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids • Mostly from animal sources, also soy Incomplete proteins • Proteins that don’t have a good mix of amino acids • Mostly from plant sources Complimentary proteins • Plant proteins are combined to overshadow incomplete parts • Ex: pitta and hummus Protein synthesis • DNA is read • DNA is transcripted to RNA • mRNA leaves the nucleus for the ribosome • Transfer RNA bind at specific RNA sites on the ribosome to make the protein Genetic mutation • DNA is changed • The change in the code changes the amino acids that are used to make the protein Denaturing proteins • The tertiary structure of the protein is changed • Acid, base, heat, enzymes or agitation can denature proteins Protein quality tests • Biological value – measures % nitrogen absorbed (egg white is 100%) • Chemical score – values types of amino acids • Protein digestibility corrected amino acid score – (the best measure) accounts for the digestibility of proteins, seen on food labels Nitrogen balance • Positive (gaining protein) – needed for growth, pregnancy, recovery • Equilibrium (protein in = protein out) – most healthy adults are in this category • Negative (loosing protein) – aging, sickness Protein digestion/absorption • Stomach – acid denatures proteins, pepsin breaks amino acid chain • Small intestine absorbs amino acids • Branched chain amino acids skip the liver and go straight to the muscle • Some amino acids can be made into glucose Protein function • Produces structure • Transports nutrients • Forms hormones, enzymes and neurotransmitters • Can be made into glucose • Provides energy Allergies • Proteins can cause an immune response • 8 most common allergens – peanuts, tree nuts, eggs, fish, shellfish, soy, wheat and milk Alcohol • 7 kcal/g • Made through fermentation – bacteria turn starch into alcohol Alcohol absorption • The liver takes alcohol out of the bloodstream and converts it to acetaldehyde, which is converted to acetyl CoA, which is then converted to fat Pathways for alcohol • Alcohol dehydrogenase pathway – processes metabolism normal levels of alcohol • MEOS – for excess levels of alcohol (less efficient so most goes to fat) Anabolic pathways • Pathways that build compounds • Require energy Catabolic pathways • Pathways that break down compounds • Gives off energy • Paired with anabolic reactions ATP • The body’s basic source for usable energy (made by breaking down food) Acetyl-CoA • All sources of energy are converted to this before entering the citric acid cycle Glycolysis • 1 glucose is made into 2 pyruvate molecules • Need: glucose, 2NAD , 2ADP and 2 P i • Produces 2 pyruvate 2ATP, H O, 2nd 2 NADH • Happens in cytosol The transition reaction • 1 pyruvate makes 1 acetyl-CoA molecule (multiply everything by 2 for one glucose molecule) • Makes NADH and CO (py2uvate looses a carbon) • Acetyl-CoA is produced • Multiply everything by 2 for one glucose molecule + Citric acid cycle • Need: acetyl-CoA, 3NAD , FAD, GDP (then converted to ATP) • Produced: CO ,21 ATP (as GTP), 3 NADH, and FADH 2 • Multiply everything by 2 for one glucose molecule Electron transport chain • Uses the electrons that the carriers have (NADH) • NADH and FADH don2te electrons and protons (H ) • H is pumped in between membranes in mitochondria to build a gradient • H is then released back and when it crosses membrane it makes ATP • Oxygen is needed to take away electrons so the process can continue • Brown fat studies have found that H ions are leaked in brown fat cells when the body needs more heat Anaerobic metabolism • Occurs in cells without mitochondria • Pyruvate is converted into lactic acid instead of acetyl-CoA ATP production from fat • Lipolysis – triglycerides are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol (takes place in the mitochondria and yields acetyl CoA) • Beta oxidation – chops off 2 carbons at a time, makes a lot of acetyl CoA, NADH and FADH • When sugars are low ketogenesis occurs Protein metabolism • The amino acid must first loose the nitrogen • The backbone can be converted to glucose or acetyl CoA for energy Fasting • First glycogen is broken down • Then fat will be burned • Protein will be burned once there is no more fat • Glucogenesis increases as time goes on Feasting • Glycogen is stored, then fat is stored, protein is stored and urea is synthesized • Fatty acids and alcohol can’t be converted to glucose, but just about everything can be made into fat for storage Inborn errors of metabolism • Mutations occur that change specific pathways making those products (and the foods they come from) impossible to use • PKO (phenylketonuria) – the body can’t digest phenylalanine, so it builds up in the brain and can cause damage • Galactosemia – the body is unable to metabolize galactose (found in milk) • Glycogen storage disease – the body can’t make glucose from glycogen, so blood sugar must be closely monitored to prevent hypoglycemia Basal metabolic rate • The minimal amount of energy used in a fasting state (60-75% of total energy expenditure) Physical activity • Most variable source of energy expenditure • Includes working out as well as other daily movements (walking, standing) Thermic effect of food • It takes energy to digest, absorb, build enzymes… (20-30% of total energy expenditure) Body composition • BMI – weight/height (in kg/m ) measurements • Underwater weighing – uses water displacement to measure fat • Skinfold thickness – measures subcutaneous fat by pinching skin • Bioelectrical impedance – electrical resistance through fat is measured to determine composition • DEXA – measures soft tissue by x-ray, the most accurate and most expensive Fat location • Upper body – android or apple shape, lots of visceral fat • Lower body – gynecoid or pear shape, more subcutaneous fat • Subcutaneous fat – fat just under the surface of the skin • Visceral fat – fat around the internal organs (not very healthy) Factors of body composition • Genes, environment, disease and disorders Weight control • Behavior modification • Drug treatments • Very low calorie diets • Gastric bypass surgery Gastric bypass • Most of the stomach is cut off so the full feeling comes with less food • Cancer risk greatly decreased after surgery • Is almost a perfect cure for diabetes • Side effects include hernias, as well as other GI tract issues • Long term effects are relatively unknown Eating disorders • Anorexia nervosa • Bulimia nervosa Benefits of fitness • Very good for you • Prevents disease Good fitness program • Duration, frequency, intensity, progression, characteristics consistency, variety Carbs in exercise • For short, high intensity workouts • During anaerobic workouts carbs come from the blood and muscles • During aerobic exercise carbs come from glycogen stores, glycerol, lactate and amino acids Fat in exercise • Fat is burned during low intensity, long duration exercise with lots of access to oxygen • Walking burns more fat than carbs Muscle fiber type 1 • Slow twitch (red) • High myoglobin aimed at fat burning Muscle fiber type 2A • Fast twitch (high intensity) • Mix of aerobic and anaerobic • More carbs are burned Muscle fiber type 2X • Fast twitch • Anaerobic (glucose metabolism) • Ex: sprinting Dietary advise for exercise • Have carbs and fluids • Small amounts of fat are good • Protein is needed for building muscle • Vitamins and minerals (especially calcium and iron for women) help the body • The body can loose 3-8 cups of water per hour through sweat Weight regulation with • Visceral fat is the first fat to go during exercise exercise • Exercise increases lean body mass Fat soluble vitamins • Vitamins A, D, E and K • Much harder to absorb than water soluble • Bile plays an important role • Gut bacteria can make a variety of vitamins • Can be stored in the body Water soluble vitamins • Minimal storage in the body • Low risk of toxicity • Excreted if not used immediately Water • 60% of the body is water • 2/3 of water is in individual cells • Osmosis – the flow of water across a membrane Functions of water • Transports nutrients and oxygen • Makes up miscellaneous body fluids • Lubrication between cells • Temperature regulation • Waste removal Water deficiencies • Dehydration • Antidiuretic hormone tells the kidneys to retain more water Cancer • The #2 leading cause of death • Altered cells grow uncontrollably • DNA changes and those changes are replicated • The immune system normally attacks these cells, but some go undetected and grow uncontrollably Factors increasing risk of • Low intake of fruits and vegetables cancer • Excessive energy intake • Sedentary life style • High intake of alcohol • Low intake of vitamin D and calcium • Tobacco use Gestation • From conception to birth • About 40 weeks Conception • Fertilization of the egg Zygote • The fertilized egg • Starts from a single cell • 3 layers – endoderm (forms organs), mesoderm (forms skeleton and muscles), and ectoderm (forms skin and nerves) Embryo • The zygote after 2 weeks Fetus • The fertilized egg after 8 weeks Egg development • Nervous system is first to develop • Bone and muscle develops much later on Baby nutrient needs • Mom should increase energy consumption in the third trimester • DHA for brain development • Folate and B-12 to prevent neural tube defects • Calcium and vitamin D for bone/tooth development • Iron needed for mothers • Mothers should gain 25-35 lbs Factors affecting pregnancy • Body weight – over or under can be bad outcome • Age – old mother are at higher risk to have babies with Down syndrome • Maternal eating – avoid allergens • Maternal health – pregnancies should be spaced out, HIV is bad for the baby Colostrum • The first milk produced • High in antibodies Mature milk • Higher in carbs and lipids Factors affecting milk • Obesity can decrease yields • Younger mothers need nutrients themselves • Sociocultural factors (feeding while working) Nutritional needs of • Water breastfeeding • Calories Benefits of breastfeeding for • Decreases risk for breast and ovarian cancer the mother • Bonding • Saving money • Decreased risk of metabolic disease • Weight loss • Quicker recovery Body composition during • Lots of fat is gained in the first year growing years • Fat is lost in adolescent years • Brain is mostly developed by age 2 Nutrient needs during • Vitamin D growing years • Pound per pound, babies need a lot more energy than adults • Lots of energy is lost to maintain body heat • Infants need more protein Feeding babies • Breastfeed for at least 6 months • Mother’s milk (or formula) meets all requirements for infants • Antibodies and enzymes transfer to baby Problems in growing • Colic – digestive issues • Constipation and diarrhea • Ear infections • Cavities • Hyperactivity • Acne – affects 80% of teens • Obesity – childhood obesity significantly increases risk for obesity as an adult Reserve capacity • For most of your life your body can handle stress (go above and beyond for periods of time and be fine) Compression of morbidity • The idea is to optimize healthy years and minimize the sick years Factors affecting aging rate • Genes, gender (women live longer), lifestyle, environment, restricting calories (to slow aging), stress relief, exercise, social, purpose driven life Why do we age • Cumulative DNA damage (free radicals) • Changes in hormones • Weakened immune system • Protein cross linking (connective tissue and muscle binds together) • Cells reach their division potential
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