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UW / Biology / BIOL 180 / How is human population growth measured?

How is human population growth measured?

How is human population growth measured?

Description

School: University of Washington
Department: Biology
Course: Introductory Biology
Professor: Scott freeman
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Biology, BIOL, Bio, 180, notes, exam, 4, first, study, and guide
Cost: 25
Name: BIOL 180 Exam 4 Notes
Description: All the necessary notes from the textbook for the 4th Exam in Biology 180.
Uploaded: 12/17/2015
17 Pages 232 Views 1 Unlocks
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Population Structure (1112-1117)We also discuss several other topics like What was Edward Hall known for?

Don't forget about the age old question of Who are considered as expatriates?

A. Population dynamics: changes in population through time and space

        How do metapops change through time?

  • Metapopulation should be dynamic due to: extinction and recolonization
  • The overall size of a metapopulation stays relatively stable even if populations go extinct because these populations can be restored by migration or colonization of unoccupied habitats.
  • Metapopulation: consists of small, isolated populations

We also discuss several other topics like Name the practical applications of geology.

B. Human Population Growth

1. Age Structure in Human Populations

        a. Age Pyramids - analyzing an age pyramid can give biologists important

information about a population’s history (fecundity and survival). But studying

age distributions can also help researchers predict a population's future.If you want to learn more check out Why does the distribution of data is skewed left?

b. Population “momentum” - when populations contain so many young

women that the overall number of births will stay high, even though the

average number of children per female is much lower than it was.We also discuss several other topics like anapsids

Disease Ecology (1132-1133)

A. Adaptation and Arms Race

  • When predator and prey or herbivores and plants interact over time, coevolutionary arms race result.
  • Coevolutionary arms races: adaptations due to predator and prey interactions between species

If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between ordinary differential and partial differential?

B. Can parasites manipulate their hosts? A: Yes

  • Fitness advantage of manipulating hosts - increasing likelihood of transmission to a new host

C. Using Consumers as Biocontrol Agents

  • Integrated pest management: strategies to maximize crop and forest productivity while using a min of insecticides

Consumption (1128-1132)

A. Consumption: when one organism eats or absorbs nutrients from another.

  • Interaction increases consumer’s fitness but decreases victims fitness (+/-)

3 Major Types of Consumption:

1)Herbivory: when herbivores consume plant tissues

2) Parasitism: when a parasite consumes relatively small amounts of tissue of nutrients from another individual - the host; not necessarily fatal and often occurs over a long period

        3) Predation: when a predator kills and consumes all or most of another

individual. Can also refer to the consumption of plants.

  1. Constitutive Defense: traits that are present even in the absence of predators and allow individuals to avoid being eaten
  • Includes hiding, fleeing, poisoning, threatening, schooling together to confuse predators, and deploying armor or weapons in defense.
  • Strongly favored by natural selection.
  • Mimicry: pattern of one species resembling another.
  • Types of defenses: cryptic coloration, escape behavior, toxins, schooling/flocking, and defense armor and weapons.
  • Batesian mimics
  • Look dangerous, but are not
  • Mullerian mimics
  • Look dangerous and are.
  • Constitutive Defenses can be extremely effective but expensive due to energy and resources required to produce and maintain them.

  1. Inducible defenses: physical, chemical, or behavioral defensive traits that are induced in the prey in response to the presence of a predator.
  • Are efficient energetically, but slow - it takes time to produce.

  1. Taken together with other abiotic and biotic factors, predators are efficient enough to reduce prey populations below carrying capacity.

  1. Why don't Herbivores Eat Everything - Why is The World Green?
  1. Top-down control hypothesis: herbivore populations are limited by prelation and diseases.
  2. Bottom-up limitation hypothesis: plant tissues offer poor nutrition and are well defended
  3. Both top-down control and bottom-up limitations are important factors in limiting the impact of herbivory.

Competition (1123-1128)

Community: consist of all of the species that interact in certain area.

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