Ecology Test 1 Study Guide
Ecology Test 1 Study Guide BIOSC 0370
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shannon Kiss on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOSC 0370 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Anthony Bledsoe in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 605 views. For similar materials see Ecology in Biology at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 01/31/15
Study Guide Introduction and Environments Populations and Natural Selection 1 Define the technical terms used in lecture Biosphere thin shell of Earth capable of supporting life Natural seletion Ecological environment 2 What is ecology What basic observations lead to the definition of ecology Formal definition ecology is the scientific study of the interactions that determine the distribution abundance and cooccurrence of organisms Started with Haeckel ecology is the study of relationship between animals and their environment 0 Expanded to all organisms not just animals Basic observations 0 Many species on earth approx 19 million named and defined Each has a unique limited geographic distribution Abundance of each species varies in space and time Not all species occur together Species occur in limited sets or communities I Why should the world be organized like this 3 How does ecology relate to natural history To environmental science Natural history the study of nature and natural phenomena 0 Includes topics peripheral to ecology ex Astronomy that has no relationship to ecology Environmental science ecology is the study of organisms whereas environmental science focuses on the environments 4 What are the goals of ecology How do these goals relate to the use of ecological knowledge by humans Description Identification of proximate immediate causes Identification of ultimate evolutionary causes Predictions 0 Use knowledge to predict events I Ex Gloabal warming Application applied ecology 0 Take advantage of predictions and try and change the circumstances to create a change that will prevent extinction towards human ends 5 Define and distinguish proximate cause and ultimate cause Use an ecological example to illustrate the distinctions between proximate and ultimate cause Proximate cause immediate cause 0 California sea otters are not wide spread because they didn t have time for dispersal Ultimate cause longterm cause 0 O O O 6 7 8 9 0 California sea otters are not wide spread because they were hunted by humans Describe the hierarchical structure of ecological systems Biosphere o Ecosystems a set of communities and their abiotic surroundings I Communities a set of population of different species Populations groups of conspecifics 0 Individuals Explain the scientific method using an ecological example to illustrate your points Observation curious natural history observations Question leads to competing hypotheses Hypothesis must be testable be able to make predictions and has a result Predictions what is believed to happen Test the actual experiment testing the hypothesis and predictions Theory construction not a fact because it is not conjecture What are the tree main approaches ecologists use to gain insight into ecological systems In what way are these three approaches related How do they differ Experimental 0 Keep as many variables as possible the same 0 Manipulate one variable chart response 0 Need a control group and a treatment group Modeling simulation 0 Establish qualitative or quantitative image of the basics of complex systems Word math or both based model Run the model or simulation Determine if the result is a pattern seen in nature Example through population growh 1gt2gt4gt8 gt16gtetc I Is this a pattern seen in nature I No so can t be tested Comparative 0 Take advantages of similar natural circumstances that differ in some or a few attributes I All islands are similar except for the size of them I Creates an experiment all variables are the same except one size I Can look at what is on the island What is meant by the term quotenvironmentquot in ecology Both in general terms and in terms of the distinctions between external ecological and selective environments Environment proximate factors that affect the location of an individual External environment surroundings in general OOOO Ecological environment the subset of factors of external environment that in uence the distribution and abundance of individuals in a population usually with respect to a given genotype Selective environment the subset of factors of the ecological environment that act as agents of natural selection 0 Different heritable forms of a trait confer differences in Darwinian fitness among individuals 10 Define the term population Why is the concept so useful in ecology even though population boundaries are rarely discrete in nature Population a group of conspecifics that interbreed at a certain place and certain time that can be observed Defined according to interests of investigator 11 How are distribution and abundance related Density usually drops at the edge of geographic distribution As density approaches zero the limit of distribution is approached As density increases distribution becomes more continuous more filled in Distribution and abundance are ip sides of the same coin 12 Define natural selection What three conditions are necessary for it to occur Different survival and reproduction resulting from the possession or different inherited forms of a trait 1 Trait variation 2 Trait heritability 3 Consistent relationship between trait form and survival reproduction 13 How is variation typically expressed graphically Stabilizing Selection mean stays the same Reduction in variation but no evolution Directional Selection mean shifts over time Disruptive Selection mean hasn t changed Loss of variation Still evolution Disruptive Selection l Stabilizing Selection Directional Selection 2 Before After 14 Why is natural selection so important in ecology Natural selection leads to evolution 15 Review in detail one example of natural selection Peppered moth Biston betularia 0 Initially dark and light forms of moth I Dark was rare 0 After industrial revolution dark became more frequent and light was rare 0 There were initially more light moths because they could blend in better with the trees I Therefore the dark ones would get eaten by predators 0 After revolution the dark ones were better able to blend in with the sut on trees 0 Consistent relationship between color and survival 0 Industrial melanism Study Guide Conditions and Resources in relation to distribution and abundance and analysis of distributions 1 Define the technical terms used in lecture a Resource a consumable environmental quantity presented in limited quantity b Shelfords law of the minimum distribution controlled by environmental factor for which the organism has the narrowest range of physiological adaptability 2 Define the terms biotic and abiotic a Biotic pertains to living portions of environments b Abiotic pertains to nonliving aspects of environment 3 Define the terms condition and resource Give two examples of each to illustrate that whether a factor operates as a condition or resource depends on the context of the factor and in particular the species under consideration a Condition a nonconsumable environmental factor i Temperature ii Vegetative structure for predatory birds 1 Accipiters are hawks that eat other birds use tress to disguise themselves before they swoop down to eat them 2 If there wasn t enough trees the hawks wouldn t be sheltered and therefore could not get food b Resource a consumable environmental quantity MUST be consumed i Nest site consumed in the sense that they take the site away from other birds 4 9 Food Give an example of each of the following a Abiotic condition temperature b Biotic condition vegetative structure for predatory birds c Abiotic resource for plants soil or light d Biotic resource voles captured and eaten by the predatory birds What are the essential attributes of the concept of resource How do these attributes relate to the notion of limited resource quantity a Potential effect on survival and reproduction i Factor must have an impact b Must be consumed c Consumption should reduce resource s availability i Leaves less for yourself conspecifics and members of other species Explain the concept of a limiting resource a Factors operating at the edge of range to limit spatial distribution What is habitat selection Dispersal How do they relate to distributional limitation a Habitat selection the process or behavior by which an animal uses to select or chose a habitat to live in b Dispersal movement from places of birth to place of reproduction c Conditions and resources can interact to restrict distributions What is a transplant experiment How can such experiments be used to infer in general terms what limits distributions What are the four categories of explanations for distributional limitation a To find out why a species doesn t occur everywhere b Establish a control and treatment group i Handle individuals identically to treatment group but 1 Place them back to their native site and but treatment group to a new location ii Done with jewelweed c Assess results i Did the treatment group survive and reproduce as well as the control group 1 If yes the conditions in the nonnative site are suitable for life of the plant a Why isn t it here i Dispersal limitation ii Limitation by habitat selection 2 If no the nonnative location is not suitable for life a Limitation by biotic factors b Limitations by physical or chemical factors In the sequential analysis of the reasons for species absence why are dispersal abilities the first thing to consider Why is habitat selection the next category of explanation to address in sequence d Dispersal abilities are the first thing to consider because an organism may be able to survive in a location but does not have the means to get there Habitat selection is the next category because if dispersal abilities are not the issue then it must be habitat selection 9 What is Shelford s law What complicates its application as it was defined in lecture a Shelford s Law states that distribution is controlled by the environmental factor for which the organism has the narrowest range of physiological adaptability i Complicated by 1 More than one environmental factor could be a combination of a couple 2 Physiological acclimation critical minimum and maximum may change 10 What serves as a control in a transplant experiment a The group that are placed back to their native site 11 Despite the appeal of transplant experiments why must great caution be taken in performing them How does your answer relate to the concept of introductions and invasive species a The transplanted species has the potential to disturb the ecosystem i Ex A moth eats all the tree leaves which exposes birds nests to predators Study Guide Dispersal Behavior and Biotic Interactions 1 Define the technical terms used in lecture a Dispersal the transport of organisms b Habitat selection the process or behavior that an animal uses to select a habitat 2 Explain why the introduction of gypsy moths in eastern North America represents an accidental transplant experiment Why was this unfortunate a Gypsy moth was brought here from another place b Thrived upon getting here c The reason the moth wasn t here because it couldn t make the distance between western Europe and the US Unfortunate because it ate all the leaves of trees and exposed birds nests to predators 3 Dispersal limitation can involve both the inability to disperse across a barrier such as the North Atlantic Ocean or it can involve simply not enough time for a population to expand via dispersal to suitable areas Contrast these two explanations of dispersal limitation using two examples from lecture a The California sea otter inhabits the cold shore waters in the mid 1600s b Americans made clothes and hats from them c Otters were thought to be extinct until a group of 50 were found in 1980 d Otters were found only at one place because it didn t have enough time Limited time for dispersal proximate cause 4 How is dispersal related to colonization Give an example to illustrate your points a When a species spreads to new areas successful immigration when a population becomes integrated into a community 5 Explain the concept of a taxon cycle Taxon cycles on island forms 0 Stage 1 expansion 0 Stage 2 local adaptation and local extinction I Ex House wren Occurs on all islands in Archipelago except 2 Each island has a distinctive house wren population subspecies 0 Stage 3 widespread extinction I Adelaide s Warbler Occurs on only 2 islands several hundred miles apart from each other
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