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Final Study guide

by: Jessica_Kline

Final Study guide GEOL 101-01

GPA 3.78

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Includes all of the questions from the online packet Nicholson gave us.
Planet Earth's geological environment
Kirsten N. Nicholson
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 41 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Thursday December 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 101-01 at Ball State University taught by Kirsten N. Nicholson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 240 views. For similar materials see Planet Earth's geological environment in Science at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 12/17/15
1. After we use mineral resources, the rock cycle concentrates the resources, allowing us to mine them again within 10 years. F 2. Plagioclase feldspars can be rich in which two minerals. Sodium or calcium 3. Recent dating methods prove that the age of earth is how old. 4.6 million years old 4. Seismology is the study of earthquakes and the passage of seismic waves through the earth. T 5. Which is not a silicate mineral? Quartz 6. The definition of geology is the study of the planet earth, the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin. T 7. The correct definition of a hypothesis is an explanation answer, or possible solutions to a specific question. F 8. The correct definition of theory is a hypothetical answer or possible solution to a specific question. F 9. The planet earth is entirely solid. F 10. Which is not a common rock-forming mineral? Quartz 11. Which mineral makes fool’s gold? Sulfide 12. What type of mineral is biotite mica? Ferromagnesian 13. Which of the following are used to identify minerals? All of the above 14. The earth’s inner core is made of 90% Fe. T 15. The asthenosphere is generally solid and weak. F 16. Which of the following is NOT a ferromagnesian mineral? Feldspar 17. The San Andreas Fault is an example of which plate boundary? Transform 18. Which statement is false? The big bang occurred between 10 and 20 billion years ago 19. One of the main differences between geology and other sciences is the consideration of geologic time. T 20. The K-T boundary marks the beginning of human evolution. T 21. When 2 lithospheric plates move toward each other they form a transform boundary. F 22. A rift is caused when two plates move apart. T 23. Earthquakes and volcanoes are often found at convergent plate boundaries. T 24. Which is not a field studied by geologists? Environmental policy 25. The two most common gasses in the atmosphere and their percentages are? CO2 (78%) and O2 (21%) 26. A rock is a solid organic compound. F 27. Grains of magnetite become permanent magnets aligned along earth’s magnetic poles is a way to say what? Basalt creates a paleomagnetic record 28. The Himalayas are growing because of what? A continental plate is colliding with another continental plate 29. Hot spots occur under land (Yellowstone) or underwater (Hawaii) T 30. Sea-floor crust is the same age and make-up as continental crust. F 31. Ore minerals are often sulfides and oxides of metallic elements T 32. Which of the following is NOT a mineral? Oil, because it’s liquid, not a solid 33. Silicates All of the above 34. What is earth’s mean diameter? 12,742km 35. The earth’s inner core is what? Solid 36. On average, is continental or oceanic crust denser? Oceanic 37. The name of the professor teaching this course is what? Nicholson 38. What are the compositional layers in the earth? Crust, mantle, core 39. Which layers are made of Fe and Mg silicates? Core 40. The theory that says all the continents used to be one super continent is what? Continental drift 41. The earth’s magnetic field is which type? Dipole 42. What was Pangaea? Supercontinent 43. The current theory used to explain the movement of continents is called what? Continental drift 44. When two lithospheric plates collide, what can happen? All of the above 45. What minerals are good examples of sheet silicates “three dimensional framework”? Quartz and feldspar 46. The term mid ocean ridge refers to what process that is happening in the middle of the oceans? Rifting 47. The thickness of oceanic lithosphere is what? Greatest near MORs and thins out farther away 48. Which of the following statements is false? Solidification from a melt 49. The earth’s atmosphere does what? Thins upward 50. Oceanic crust varies between what thickness? 7-10 km 51. Which of the following is NOT a mineral? Oil 52. Current theories about late tectonics suggest that the driving force is what? All of the above 53. An element is the smallest piece of an atom to be characterized F 54. One of the most common carbonate rocks is what? Sandstone 55. Calcite and aragonite minerals that constitute clamshells are examples of which method of mineral formation? Biomineralization 56. There are over 4000 known minerals and new ones are being found T 57. Our sun is a first-generation star F 58. The geothermal gradient increases as you go deeper into the earth 59. Olivine, muscovite, and pyroxene are all examples of ferromagnesium minerals T 60. The huge trough down the center of the mid ocean ridge is where what happens? The actual plate boundary is located there 61. The relative widths of magnetic anomalies on the seafloor correspond to what? Intervals between magnetic reversals 62. Major earthquake and volcanic eruptions occur where? On the boundaries of plates and hotspots 63. Olivine contains which of the following elements? Iron, magnesium, silicon, and oxygen 64. Plagioclase and orthoclase both belong to which group of rock forming minerals? Feldspar 65. What is the difference between a pyroxene and feldspar? All of the above 66. What is quartz’s hardness? 7 67. One of the most common uses of feldspar is in ceramics. T 68. Ball Corporation originally came to Muncie because there was easy access to what? All of the above 69. Under the theory of plate tectonics, the plates themselves are what? Discrete pieces of lithosphere at the surface of the earth that move with respect to one another 70. Tectonic plates move at what rate? 1-15cm per year 71. Only one supercontinent has existed and split apart in all of earth’s history F 72. There is convective flow within the asthenosphere T 73. Igneous rocks form when magma cools and solidifies. T 74. The law of crosscutting relationships states that if one rock cuts another, it must be deposited horizontally. F 75. Geologists use the term volcanoclasic debris to describe the way lava flows contract upon cooling. F 76. “Dry” magma contains no volatiles; “wet” magmas contain up to 50% of the volatile water. T 77. Gabbro is a mafic intrusive igneous rock. T 78. Gneiss and schist form when their magnetic minerals cool. T 79. Metamorphic rocks form when they are erupted from volcanoes. F 80. Bowen’s reaction series… All of the above 81. The dramatic scenery of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in Cali… Owes its existence to the erosion of a batholith 82. Sandstones are composed of sand sized particles. T 83. Metamorphic quartzite and quartz both consist of mostly micas. T 84. Mt. St. Helens erupted in 1980, sending out gas and pyroclastics. Geologists have found evidence of many eruptions of St. Helens, dating back 37,000 years. The mountain is huge and is composed of layers of lava and pyroclastics. Which of the following is most likely true? It is a stratovolcano (composite cone) 85. Caldera-forming eruptions are characterized by… All of the above 86. What is tephra? Al types of volcanic debris explosively ejected from a volcano 87. A schist generally contains some type of mica. T 88. A gneiss is a non-foliated metamorphic rock. F 89. The terrestrial sedimentary environment includes rivers, streams, and oceans. F 90. Halite forms as an evaporite. T 91. Fossils are usually preserved in metamorphic rocks. F 92. Which of the following is not part of the rock cycle? Lithification 93. Which of the following is true about extrusive igneous rocks? They are usually fine-grained and have cooled rapidly 94. Sandstone like most clastic sedimentary rocks is made of what? Cemented fragments of preexisting rocks 95. Which of the following is the law of superposition? If strata are overturned, the youngest beds are on top and the oldest are on the bottom 96. Which of the following is not a major type of metamorphism? Cementation metamorphism 97. What type of metamorphic rock has elongated or flat mineral grains with a preferential parallel alignment? Detrital 98. Which of the following is an igneous rock? Rhyolite 99. After throwing papers in a pile, the oldest papers will be on the bottom and the newest on the top. Which principle does this represent? Law of superposition 100. Which of the following is not a clastic sedimentary rock? Conglomerate 101. Which of the following is not a clastic metamorphic rock? Sandstone 102. Which of the following is a type of igneous rock? Shale 103. Which volcanic gas does not smell but can kill plants and people? Hydrogen monoxide 104. What are metamorphic rocks formed by? Heat, pressure, and chemically active fluids 105. Fossils are often found in which type of rock? Sedimentary 106. Cross bedding is a feature found in what type of rock? Sedimentary 107. Which of the following is not a foliation texture in metamorphic rocks? Andesite 108. How are sedimentary rocks classified? Grain size 109. Breccias form only as… All of the above 110. A tsunami is a tidal wave caused by the proper lineup of the moon and the sun. F 111. The major mineral found in arkose sandstone is… Feldspar 112. The name for matrix mineral in a porphyritic igneous rock is… Groundmass 113. Deltas and estuaries are examples of what type of sedimentary depositional environment? Transitional 114. Limestones form over long periods of time as the result of… Accumulation of sand 115. The dominant rock type found in Indiana is… Limestone 116. The term Aa is used to describe lava which is highly fractured, glassy, and will hurt your feet if walked upon. T 117. A large pyroclastic eruption can lower global temperatures for several years. T 118. Lahars result when a large volume of loose volcanic material becomes water-saturated and unstable. F 119. Forecasting volcanic activity usually involves monitoring topography, gas emissions, and studying geologic history. T 120. Stratovolcano is another word for shield volcano. F 121. Most active volcanoes are located near plate boundaries. T 122. The more silica magma has the less viscous it is. F 123. What type of volcano is common in the Hawaiian Islands? Stratovolcanoes 124. Which best describes Mount St. Helens and other Cascade volcanoes? Composite volcanoes build on a continental margin above a sinking slab of oceanic lithosphere. 125. What is formed when molten lava enters the relatively cold ocean water and shatters into sand- sized particles? Black sand beaches 126. Which of the following is not a hazard of ash fall? Liquefaction 127. The primary effect of a volcanic eruption is… A direct result of the eruption 128. Aa lava flows commonly travel of velocities close to… 25m/day 129. The difference between a mudflow and a debris flow is… Particle size 130. 80% of all the volcanoes in the world are situated on… The Pacific Ring of Fire 131. Magma is defined as… All molten rock 132. What type of lava is commonly found in shield volcanoes? Basalt 133. The angle of repose for a composite volcano is typically… 30-35 degrees 134. Caldera forming eruptions are characterized by… All of the above 135. What is the term for an unconsolidated accumulation of any size of pyroclastic grains? Tephra 136. Foliated metamorphic rocks are the result of… Pressure 137. Alluvial fans form what type of rock? Sedimentary 138. Biological organisms can only form calcium bearing sedimentary rocks, such as limestone. T 139. The transitional environment for the formation of sedimentary rocks commonly forms what type of rock? Sandstone 140. Metamorphic rocks are commonly studied because they are useful indicators of… All of the above 141. Physical weathering of rocks can include which of the following processes? All of the above 142. Dissolution, hydrolysis, oxidation, and hydration all involve which chemical? Water 143. The soil profile almost always contains which layers? None of the above 144. During metamorphism a mineral is sometimes able to change phases which means… The structures of the mineral changes but the composition is unchanged 145. In class I used this example to help explain pressure solution.Dropping a sledge hammer on my foot 146. A protolith is a form of igneous intrusion. F 147. Basaltic lavas usually erupt at temperatures ranging from 1100-1200 degrees C. T 148. Scoria is usually basalt and pumice is usually andesite. T 149. Volatile-rich magma develops gas bubbles as it rises and this creates even more buoyant force to move the magma upward more aggressively. T 150. What word can best describe a porphyritic rock? Pyroclastic 151. Which of the following statements is false about felsic magma? It is less viscous than mafic magma 152. Devil’s Tower, WY has landforms that exist because softer volcano exteriors erode faster than solidified lava fissures and vents. T 153. The yellow stone of Yellowstone national park is sulfur and iron oxide stained consolidated volcanic ash. T 154. Short-term prediction of imminent volcanic eruption has had no proven success. F 155. Renewed eruption in a caldera can produce a resurgent dome. T 156. The dark areas of the moon’s surface, called mare, are 3 billion year old flood basalts that cover 17% of the lunar surface. T 157. A lahar is… A volcanic mud and debris flow that fluid concentrate 158. Graywacke and conglomerate are examples of well-sorted rocks; shales and fine-grained sandstone are examples of poorly sorted rocks. F 159. Diagenesis and metamorphism both alter the texture and mineral composition of rock; metamorphism is the more extreme process. T 160. A rock with large, angular fragments and lots of feldspar is classified as immature; a rock with smaller rounded grains and not much feldspar is considered mature. T 161. The words weathering and erosion are synonyms; they can be used interchangeably. F 162. The formation of dolostone, due to the introduction of magnesium into limestone, is an example of diagenesis. T 163. What is the most logical past environment to have produced a deposit consisting of layers of well- sorted sandstone with cross beds several meters high? Sand dunes 164. Which of the following statements about metamorphic rocks and their characteristics is true? Slate, phylite, schist, and gneiss are found along convergent plate boundaries where magma is rising 165. Which statement is true? All of the above 166. Which term has nothing to do with the mineral calcite? Chert 167. Foliated metamorphic rocks often contain bands of light and dark colored minerals that are parallel to bedding. T 168. Blue schist is a common metamorphic rock of continental shields. F 169. Dynamothermal metamorphism (regional) produces nonfoliated metamorphic rocks in the depths of mountain ranges which erosion eventually exposes as “mountain roots” hundreds of km wide and thousands of km long. F 170. A protolith is a parent rock, or original rock before it is metamorphosed. T 171. Which statement about metamorphic facies if false? They are identical to metamorphic mineral assemblages 172. Which is not a common process by which metamorphic rocks are formed? Solar collapse 173. Foliated gneiss might contain which minerals in the dark band? Biotite and hornblende 174. Which rock is nonfoliated? Hornfels 175. All earthquakes occur at plate boundaries. F 176. The 1995 Kobe earthquake caused over $147 billion in damage because it was the biggest earthquake ever recorded. F 177. Liquefaction of sediments often occurs as a result of earthquakes. T 178. Which of the following can be used to compare earthquakes with one another in relation of the damage they inflict? Intensity only 179. What is a fracture system along which rocks have been displaced? Fault 180. In which type of fault are the sides displaced horizontally? Strike-slip 181. Which of the following statements about anticlines and synclines is true? Anticlines are arch shaped folds (A) 182. What is the name for the point or area within the earth where an earthquake rupture starts? Focus 183. Which of the following is a possible response to earthquake hazards? All of the above 184. Which earthquake would cause the most damage , given that all other factors are the same? Magnitude 7.5 185. Which of the following in not an effect of earthquakes? Soil formation 186. Which kind of waves can pass through earth’s outer core? P-waves only 187. A dinosaur only becomes a fossil if it is exposed to oxygen for long periods of time. F 188. Casts and molds are examples of fossil preservation where… None of the original animal remains 189. Counting tree rings allows paleontologists to determine the age of most fossils. T 190. A paleontologist is someone who studies… Fossils 191. Mass extinction events are often the result of… All of the above 192. A mass extinction event causes the diversity of life on earth to increase. F 193. A surface along which rock on opposite sides is offset by earthquake-induced slip is called a… Fault 194. Earthquake waves that pass through the interior of he earth are called… Body waves 195. Which type of earthquake wave generally travels fastest? Body waves 196. Surface waves… Cause the most damage to buildings during earthquakes 197. Which type of earthquake wave travels fastest? P-wave 198. Which earthquake intensity scale assesses the effects of an earthquake on humans and human- made structures? Mercalli scale 199. A tsunami is… An earthquake generated wave that can sometimes destroy coastal cities 200. An episode of mountain building is called… Orogeny 201. Mountain ranges are associated with modern and ancient convergent plate boundaries, but do not form in association with either divergent or transform plate boundaries. F 202. A body of rock affected by compressive stress will likely undergo… Shortening 203. The distinction between joints and faults is… Faults are fractures along which displacement has occurred; displacement does not occur along joints 204. A fold shaped like an elongate arch (A) is an… Anticline 205. The central portion of high curvature on a fold is termed the fold… Hinge 206. Continental crust is typically 35km thick, but may be up to… 100% 207. The balance between the weight of a mountain range and the buoyancy provided by the underlying mantle is… Isostatic equilibrium 208. The sides of a fold where curvature is at a minimum are… Limbs 209. James Hutton, the “father of geology” gave the principle… Uniformitarianism 210. Period names on the geologic tie scale provide examples of… Relative age 211. If the lithology and fossil content of two bodies of rock on opposite sides of a canyon are identical, then these remaining outcrops were likely physically connected at some point in time; this is the principle of… Original continuity 212. Relative ages expressed on the geologic time scale primarily resulted from the study of… Fossil content and spatial relationships among sedimentary rocks 213. The surface below sedimentary rocks that overlie igneous or metamorphic rocks is termed a… Nonconformity 214. Buried erosional surfaces between parallel sedimentary strata are called… Disconformities 215. Uniformitarianism is succinctly summarized by which phrase? The present is the key to the past 216. Which statement best summarizes the development of the geologic time scale? Relative ages for sedimentary strata were known well before accurate numerical dates for these rocks could be determined 217. If horizontal sedimentary strata overlie tilted strata (and no fault is present) the surface between the horizontal and tilted strata must be an… Angular unconformity 218. The tsunami event of Dec. 2004 could have resulted in even greater death toll but for the timely warnings issued immediately after the earthquake. F 219. Long-term earthquake predictions are based on the identification of seismic zones and the study of historic recurrence intervals. T 220. S-waves are compressional body waves; P- waves are shear body waves. F 221. An area of slightly dipping sedimentary rock layers has large inclusions and is intruded by an igneous dike. Identify the false statement. The igneous intrusion baked the sedimentary rock it touched 222. The locations of major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions… Are usually along the boundaries of crustal plates 223. Which of the following earthquake phenomena is least likely to actually injure or kill humans? Ground shaking 224. Which of the following is not a good technique for building earthquake-resistant structures? Use concrete-block rather than wood-frame construction 225. Typical continental crust is 35-40km thick; under mountains it is thinner. F 226. When the buoyancy force pushing up on lithosphere equals the gravitational force pulling it down, the situation is said to show isostatic equilibrium. T 227. Stress is the change in shape produced by strain. F 228. If the hanging wall goes up, the fault is reverse; if it goes down, it is normal. F 229. A shield… Can be associated with a cratonic platform 230. Deformation… All of the above 231. Faulting in the Basin and Range Province of Nevada, Utah, and Arizona… Is causing the crust to stretch 232. Geologists who specifically study earthquakes are called… Seismologists 233. An unconformity is a break in the rock that indicates the area was under water for million of years. T 234. Correlation matches up rock layers across distances on the basis of similar sequences of rock layers ad similar fossils in the layers. T 235. Numerical dating is just a comparison of age; relative dating assigns numbers. F 236. A disconformity is a type of unconformity in which sedimentary rocks overlie either igneous or metamorphic rocks. T 237. A rock is given a radiometric date of 300,000,000 years, with an uncertainty of measurement of 1%; this means that the rock’s age is… Anything between 297,000,000 and 303,000,000 years old 238. Choose the proper listing of names to fit the following three descriptions: age of mammals, age of dinosaurs, and longest geologic time period. Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Precambrian 239. Downstream floods occur in the upper parts of drainage areas, generally produced by intense rainfall of short duration over a relatively small area. F 240. The stability of a slope expresses the relationship between driving forces which tend to move earth materials down a slope and resisting forces, which tend to oppose such movement. T 241. Beaches usually consist of sand grains because waves winnow out finer sediment and carry it to deeper water, and break larger pieces down to sand- grain size. T 242. Spring tides are extra high tides that occur when the sun, moon, and earth are aligned; this happens at new- and full-moon times. T 243. Long Shore tides are responsible for moving beach material along the coast. T 244. A groin field is a group of linear structures placed perpendicular to the shore. T 245. It wasn’t until the Mesozoic that vascular plants with woody tissues, seeds, and veins shared the land with spiders, scorpions, insects, and crustaceans, while jawed fish cruised the oceans and the first amphibians left water to visit land. F 246. Rodinia, Pannotia, and Pangaea are all names of supercontinents. T 247. The continents that comprised Pangaea came together in the early Paleozoic, but began to split apart soon afterward, during the late Paleozoic. F 248. Volcanic out gassing during the Hadean Eon created a deadly atmosphere containing N2, NH3, CH4, H2O, CO, CO2, and SO42. T 249. Oxygen was a common component of earth’s Hadean atmosphere. F 250. The first oceans on earth formed around 2.7Ga. F 251. Urbanization decreases the magnitude and frequency of flooding. F 252. From the environmental standpoint, the best method for maximal development of floodplains with minimal damage by flooding is proper regulation of development. T 253. The total load that a stream can carry is called its competence. F 254. A resource is a concentration of naturally occurring material in a form that it may be extracted at a profit. T 255. Ore deposits can be generated by igneous, metamorphic, and industrial means. T 256. At least 86% of all modern continental crust formed during the Achaean. T 257. The USA currently consumes over 25% of all energy produced on earth. F 258. The youngest oil is 20Ma. T 259. He term gangue refers to waste rick in mining. T 260. A slope of damp sand is more likely to slide than a comparable slope of dry sand. T 261. Landscape is the character and shape of the land surface in a region. T 262. Less than 1% of US energy comes from solar power. T The average American uses the equivalent of 3 gallons of oil a day. T 263. Indiana produces more oil than coal. F 264. It is impossible to produce an ore deposit in a sedimentary environment. F 265. Uplift and subsidence are key to developing landforms. T 266. Wind is the primary sculpting agent for landscape formation. F 267. What is the natural process of overbank flow> Flooding 268. What is the name for an area of land covered by roofs, pavement, and cement? Impervious cover 269. The disruption of malfunction of services resulting from flooding is a… Secondary effect 270. What is the correct term for linear mound embankments of compacted earth along the banks of rivers? Levees 271. The most important causes of river floods include… Amounts and rates of precipitation and runoff 272. The comprehensive term for any type of downslope movement of earth materials is… Landslide 273. What recess most logically explains the different tilts of gravestones in a hillside cemetery? Creep 274. Which type of bedrock is least likely to contribute to creep, earthflows, slumps, and soil slips? Sandstone 275. Vegetation is a significant factor in slope stability; which of the following statements concerning vegetation and slope stability is incorrect? Vegetation adds weight to the slope and may decrease slope stability 276. The discharge of a stream is… All of the above 277. Where would subsidence be least likely to occur? In a region underlain by granite 278. Which of the following variables affect slope stability? All of the above 279. Water is involved in nearly all landslides; which of the following is not a way by which water increases the likelihood of a slide? Decreases the weight of a slope 280. Slumps are also known as… Rotational slides 281. Tropical cyclones are also known as… Typhoons 282. The distance that the wind blows across the surface of the water is known as… The fetch 283. Wave groups generated by storms far at sea are called… Swells 284. Identify the false statement; there Is very little rock record for earth’s first 600million years because… The surface then was one huge ocean basin filled with hot water and nothing else 285. What is the name for a landform consisting of loose material, such as sand or gravel that has accumulated by wave action at the shoreline? Beach 286. The slope portion of the beach below the berm is called… Beach face 287. Beaches can be considered “rivers of sand”; why? Sand on beaches is always in motion 288. What happens when waves enter shallow water? The wave period remains constant, the wavelength and velocity decrease, and the wave height decreases 289. Beach nourishment and shoreline stabilization are types of… None of the above 290. Geologists believe that the impact of a 10km wide meteorite 65 million years ago… All of the above 291. The first recognizable fossils on earth are approximately 3.2Ga; what are they called? Cyanobacteria 292. Where can 97.2% of the world’s water supply be found? Oceans 293. The massive extinction at the end of the Cretaceous resulted in… All of the above 294. What forces drive the formation of landscapes? All of the above 295. The global water cycle involves which of the following processes? All of the above 296. Which of the following are useful in studying the earth’s history? All of the above 297. Which of the following are commercially mined? Metals, fuel, building materials 298. What is the correct definition of an ore? A concentration of naturally occurring material in a form that can be extracted at a profit 299. A mineral resource is defined as… A resource is a concentration of naturally occurring material in a form that it may be mined 300. Which of the following can affect water runoff and sediment yield in streams? All of the above 301. Subsidence can occur as a result of… All of the above 302. Northern and central Indiana is flat because… Of the last glaciation event 303. Which of the following would be classified as an economic mineral? Gold 304. Coal is composed of… Organic materials 305. One of the problems associated with mining is… Cyanide runoff 306. Renewable energy resources include… All of the above 307. Geothermal power is energy that comes from… Natural heat from the earth’s interior 308. US energy consumption relies on what percentage of non-renewable fuels? 85% 309. The main environmental problem associated with burning coal is… All of the above 310. Primary recovery of oil usually removes only… 25% 311. The availability of minerals is controlled by… All of the above 312. We use economic minerals for… All of the above 313. Fortunately for mankind, metallic and nonmetal mineral resources, unlike fossil fuels, should last civilization for many centuries. F 314. A quarry supplies slabs and blocks of rock, like granite or marble, called dimension stone; a mine supplies minerals that contain metal in high concentration, called ore minerals. T 315. Avalanches never happen in the same place twice, therefore the pathway on avalanche creates is a safe place to build. F 316. To stabilize steep hillsides, it is wise practice to weigh them down with buildings. F 317. Pick out the correct pair of terms to match this statement: surfers love these, but swimmers hate these. Breakers; rip currents 318. Which of the following would increase the rick of having a landslide? Allowing water to infiltrate the slope 319. The terms fluvial deposit and alluvium both refer to sediment deposited by a stream. T 320. A typical longitudinal profile of a stream illustrates that a stream’s gradient is steeper near its headwaters than near its mouth. T 321. Plate tectonics events can produce mountains whose uplift can cause drainage reversals in existing river systems. T 322. Property owners may try beach nourishment if their land is on an accretionary coast. F 323. At any particular location, high tide arrives fifty minutes later each day because it takes earth 24 hours and 50 minutes to catch up with the moon in its orbit and be back in high tide position. T 324. Desertification occurs when usable land is turned into dry non-usable land. T 325. Which of the following is an example of non- point source pollution? Agricultural runoff 326. The most important greenhouse gasses are… All of the above 327. Common causes of water pollution are… All of the above Which is not an example of point source pollution? None of the above 328. How do cap rocks act as a trapping mechanism for groundwater? All of the above 329. As a result of global change, the average global temperature has… Increased .5 degrees C over the past 100 years 330. What can marine sediments in the geologic record tell us about the past? All of the above 331. Air bubbles in glacier ice are analyzed to determine the changes in atmospheric SiO2. T 332. The west coasts of all continents have a mild climate, with cold dry winters and dry summers. T 333. Several factors affect the earth’s climate including… All of the above 334. At the end of the last ice age, about 12,000 years ago, glaciers covered much of Europe and North America. T 335. Which of the following is a problem that can result in pathogenic organisms getting into drinking water? All of the above


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