Final Exam Studyguide
Final Exam Studyguide ARCH 3411
U of M
Popular in Architecture History to 1750
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Norden on Thursday December 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARCH 3411 at University of Minnesota taught by Robert Ferguson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 216 views. For similar materials see Architecture History to 1750 in Architecture at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 12/17/15
Cupola of Florence Cathedral Florence 1417 by Filippo Brunelleschi Largest dome since antiquity largest masonry dome in world Used his knowledge on Roman and Gothic construction to figure out how to build dome on octagonal drum Brunelleschi invented Gothic pointedbroken arch cross section that reduced thrust Used double shell of radial and concentric ribs used in Pantheon and medieval work to reduce dead load Devised portable centering to support masonry 289 Church and Old Sacristy Florence 142128 by Brunelleschi Tomb under oor beneath table Not a post and beam construction like Greeks Ritualistically necessary details are reproduced and applied to wall in drawings Straightforward geometry that is body of building simple numerical ratios Pilasters entablature and arches of pietra serena local stone favored for architectural detail are set against white plaster walls giving linear definition to interior Thinness of pilaster strips and undersized brackets supporting architecture possibly show Brunelleschi s uncertainty when it came to manipulating classical language 292 Facade of Santa Maria Novella Florence ca 145670 by Leone Battista Alberti Fagade became a prototype for other renaissance designers Fagade is very superficial very thin layer over medieval church First time Roman temple front was installed on Christian church Framing of windows are drawn onto the surface Straightforward Brunelleschian geometry whole number relationships squares and symbols White and green geometric patterns is an extension of 11th century Florentine traditions Except for rose window and pointed arches on lower level church behind it is concealed 296 San Andrea Mantua 1470 by Alberti Entrance is both triumphal arch and temple frontChurch is both gate of heaven and house of God Church s plan is based on Roman Basilica of Constantine Corinthian pilasters on temple front stand on pedestals this is repeated in the interior which support barrel vault of nave Shorter Corinthian order supports arch of central portal also reappears on the interior in jambs of barrel vaulted chapels Integration of classical elements presents first Renaissance vision rivaling monumentality seen in Roman interior spaces 296 Medici Palace Florence 1444 by Michelozzo Michelozzo was a student of Brunelleschi Begun after an earlier design by Brunelleschi was rejected for being too ostentatiousMedici family didn t want to arouse envy among its other important families Re ects Michelozzo s connection to Renaissance circles through its symmetry classical elements and mathematical proportions In uenced by traditional Florentine domestic buildings Brunelleschi s Foundling Hospital arcade and Florentine courtyard Consists of square plan with central courtyard surrounded by perimeter rooms Exterior has fortified quality 293 Rucellai Palace Florence 145451 by Leone Battista Alberti Superimposed orders like those used at the Colosseum are on facade articulating the 3 different oors First use of classical orders on Renaissance domestic building Order on first oor is raised on diamond shaped masonry units that imitate Roman opus reticulatum masonry 295 Tempietto at San Pietro in Montorio Rome begun 1502 by Donato Bramante Tempietto memorializes what is believed to be actual site where St Peter was martyred Originally was a very ambitious plan but only part constructed was Tempietto Proj ective quality of Doric columns and pilasters Pilasters and columns radiate out from center of circle re ecting purpose of church to carry gospel to others Intended to embody Platonic preference for ideal form and Christian reverence for tradition Bramante based this on Round Temple by the Tiber 1 CE considered the temple of Hercules Is published in Sebastiano Serlio s book on antiquity Libro Terzo Venice 1540 Tempietto San Pietro and new basilica of St Peter now a rotunda yet unbuilt at the time were emphasized as being the most important in publication 304 St Peter s Rome 1506 by Bramante Bramante envisioned building comparable in size to Baths of Diocletian with dome comparable to Pantheon Instead of continuing patterns of antiquity wanted to outdo Roman builder by proposing dome larger than any ancient edifice Audacious design exceed structural understanding if it had been built piers would be insufficient to support dome 304 Villa Madama Rome 1517 by Raphael Built for Cardinal Giulio de Medici Pope Clement VII Only half completed Became characteristic building type for Renaissance architects Country retreat inspired by Roman villa rustica Contains loggia or open elated porch where visitors could enjoy view of landscape New level of sophistication of classical language but also represents change from selfassured countenance of High Renaissance to ambiguity of Mannerism 307 Laurentian Library Florence 1525 by Michelangelo Buonarroti Stairs is always compared to a fountain with the stairs headings Vestibule is half as tall as it is wide Reminds us of Roman triumphal arch configuration with central opening for the lord and side openings for detainments Outer stairs have no railings Mediates against stability and comfort Ambiguity is increased by unorthodox forms of tabernacle windows and all architectural elements have been compressed together creating tension and constrained energy 31 1 Campidoglio Rome 1536 by Michelangelo Tangible public outdoor room Room was built in perspective two palazzi recede towards each other making room look smaller and more inhabitable asymmetrical and nonorthogonal configuration Campidoglio was ancient seat of government on Capitoline Hill One of Michelangelo s rst architectural commissions Had to bring order to irregular site to accommodate equestrian bronze statue of Marcus Aurelius as centerpiece Created trapezoidal piazza to regularize difficult geometry created by the 2 buildings Colossal order establishes framework within smaller order Difference between brick and stone establishes stability of entire composition 3 12 St Peter s Rome 1546 by Michelangelo Restored Bramante s original idea of Greek cross plan but in a reduced simplified version Dome establishes internal and external unity Hemispherical form for dome increased stone ribs from 8 to 16 in order to get rid of octagonal massing seen at Florence Cathedral State capitol dome modeled after Michelangelo s dome completely different meaning for the same architecture Compared to Bramante s plan Michelangelo s got rid of column screens it enlarged central piers and included entry portico if plan had been followed would have represented culmination of centrally planned church explorations during Renaissance 314 Villa Rotonda Vicenza 156670 by Andrea Palladio Private villa for retired priest Same in all directions Palladio speaks of site as if it s a great theater Square in plan with 2 story central rotunda Central dome space radiated out to four porticoes and to rooms in the comers plan was very in uential All about being able to see out from it and see the landscape Most famous building of Palladio Whole number proportions used for rooms 320 Chataeu Chambord 1519 by Domenico da Cortona Built in style of fortified castle within bailey or outer wall Combines Renaissance symmetry with medieval building style Steep roofs dormers and chimneys show accommodation of classical language to northern climate Simple cylindrical towers Contains double staircase in uenced by one of Leonardo s sketches people ascending one set of rises could not see people on descending the other Contrast between orderliness of walls and wildness of rooftops re ects partial assimilation of Renaissance architectural ideas into medieval building 330 I Gesu Rome 1568 by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola Facade by Ggiacomo della Porta 1572 Ceiling by Giovanni Battista Gaulli challenges building between painting sculpture and architecture Fagade by Giacomo della Porta is replicated in Gesu churches around the world becomes almost a logo for Gesu order and imperial expansion of Christendom In uenced by facade of S Maria Novella in Florence but uses classical orders instead of traditional Florentine subdivision based on geometric shapes Many church designs were based on this In plan is similar to Alberti s S Andrea at Mantua with transverse barrel vaulted chapels however reasons for this were very different Vignola produced clear sightlines and acoustics so preaching could be heard clearly Original interior design was very plain Piers and lateral chapels replaced column and side aisle plan inherited by Brunelleschi 3 dimensionality and detail of central bay on facade introduces new kind of facade composition 342 Cornaro Chapel Santa Maria della Vittoria Rome 1647 5 1 by Gianlorenzo Bemini Bernini acted as sculptor and architect Cornaro Chapel was inserted into existing church of Santa Maria della Vittoria Manipulated color and light that were at odds with Renaissance architecture Sculpture of Santa Teresa shows correlation of spiritual and sensual experience Impossible to photograph or even view in person the tall narrow space in entirety from just one perspective Chakraborty 131 S Carlo alle Quattro Fontane Rome 163 839 by Francesco Borromini Facade begun 1665 Giant order provides frame for a smaller and perspectival order in doorway Movement expressed in architecture is characteristic of Baroque Plan of church is an oval with curved side looks like a stretched Greek cross plan Church was based on geometrical proportions showing Borromini s immersion in Gothic architecture Restatement of dome of pantheon but expressed in vertical configuration rather than horizontal Dome is of incredible height as if you are looking right into heaven taller than it is wide concept of infinity Light is controlled the higher it gets the lighter it is Dome also consists of octagons hexagons and Trinitarian crosses that get smaller with height creating exaggerated perspective 349 Piazza San Pietro St Peter s Square 1656 by Bernini One of the most public spaces in world at the time was the largest plaza in any European city except for courtyards of royal palaces in Paris and Versailles Form and utilitarian function are balanced Theatricality of baroque architecture as well as trapezoidal and oval forms Great portico defines space without blocking it off piazza is open in all directions Portico is for meditative walking Open to everyone not just members of court Occasionally can see out of forest of columns unless you stand in right place where the columns become transparent Demonstrates that if you have the right point of view this entire world becomes transparent Based on Obelisk Chakraborty 137
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