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AU / Nutrition / NTRI 2000 / They are the building blocks of proteins. what are they?

They are the building blocks of proteins. what are they?

They are the building blocks of proteins. what are they?

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School: Auburn University
Department: Nutrition
Course: NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Term: Winter 2016
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Cost: 50
Name: Nutriton Study Guide Exam 3
Description: Chapters 6-7
Uploaded: 04/03/2016
15 Pages 45 Views 4 Unlocks
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CHAPTER SIX

Protein: food and body compounds made up of amino acids. They contain carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sometimes other atoms in specific conformations. Proteins contain the form of nitrogen most easily used by the body. They form the major part of lean body tissue, totaling to 17% of body weight.If you want to learn more check out Acidophiles grow best below at what ph?

Amino acids: the building blocks of proteins are essential to the diet because of the nitrogen they contain. Humans cannot use any other sources of nitrogen. Each has a carboxylic acid group, amino group, a hydrogen and a variable R group. All attached to a central carbon. The R group can be straight or branched. Branched R group classify such amino acids as branched-chain amino acids. These are the primarily used amino acids for our energy needs by muscles.

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Three branched chains include isoleucine, leucine and valine. Humans make proteins from a pool of 20 different amino acids. Eleven (11) are nonessential and thus, 9 are essential. The nonessential ones are also called dispensable amino acids.Don't forget about the age old question of How did the soviets pull it off?

If you do not eat enough essential amino acids, the body tries to conserve them and slows production of new proteins until at some point, you are breaking down proteins faster than you can make them, deteriorating health. Nonessential and essential amino acids in shortest supply in relation to body need becomes the limiting factor or the limiting amino acids because it limits the amount of protein. The body can make children and infants require more protein in the diet than adults because they are growing and developing during times of rapid growth, disease or metabolic stress. Some nonessential amino acids become conditionally essential because the body cannot synthesize them as fast as the body needs them.If you want to learn more check out What is the second step inflow of genetic information?

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Proteins mainly regulate and maintain the body. Body functions such as blood clotting, fluid balance, hormone and enzyme production, visual processes, transportation and cell repair. Proteins can also be broken down to supply the body with energy. Failure to consume enough protein slows the body’s metabolism.Don't forget about the age old question of What are the features of the aggregate production function?

Amino acids are linked together via peptide bonds. The amino group of one is linked to the carboxyl group on another. Through this, dipeptides, tripeptides, oligopeptides (four-nine amino acids) and polypeptides (10+ amino acids) are produced. Most proteins are polypeptides, so 2,000 amino acids in length. Heat, acids, enzymes and other agents can break these bonds during cooking and digestion.

DNA in the nucleus provides the code for protein synthesis (which occurs in the cytoplasm). Thus, enzymes read the genes on DNA and transcribe it on mRNA which leaves the nucleus. Once in the cytoplasm, mRNA travels to ribosomes that read it and translate those codes into instructions to produce a specific protein. tRNA brings amino acids that are called for by mRNA to be ribosomes. Energy is needed to individually join amino acids. Once all amino acids are linked, the protein twists until folds into its correct structure based on interactions between the individual amino acids determining the shape of the protein. Without the proper structure, the protein cannot function.

Sickle cell anemia disease resulting from a malformation of the red blood cell because of an incorrect structure in parts of its hemoglobin protein chains. Hemoglobin carries oxygen in red blood cells. The DNA mutation causes glutamic acid to be replaced by valine, producing a change in hemoglobin structure and  thus, can no longer efficiently carry oxygen.

Denaturation: alteration of a protein’s three-dimensional structure usually due to exposure to heat, enzymes, acid or base solutions or agitation. Denaturing can sometimes be useful however (during digestion or cooking).

The 10% of protein comes from animals with beef, chicken (poultry), milk, white bread and cheese as the top 5 contributors. However, there has been a drop in consumption of all top 5 contributors in the United States) worldwide. However, meat and dairy consumption has doubles especially in developing nations.

Animal protein contains ample amounts of all essential amino acids while plant proteins are low in one or more of the nine essential amino acids. Thus, animal proteins are considered high quality or complete proteins containing sufficient amounts of all nine essentials. Individual plant protein sources are considered lower quality or incomplete-proteins because of their differing amino acid patterns.

To obtain sufficient amounts of all essentials, a variety of plant proteins must be consumed. Compared to complete proteins, a greater amount of incomplete proteins must be consumed to meet the demands of protein synthesis. This is true especially when considering the limiting amino acid principle which further illustrates the all-or-none [principle) either all essentials are available or none can be used.

Complementary proteins: two food protein sources that make up for each other inadequate supply of specific essential amino acids, together. They yield a sufficient amount of all nine and so provide high-quality protein for diet.

   

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