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Geography: environmental Conservation

by: Yazmyne Adams

Geography: environmental Conservation GEOG 100

Yazmyne Adams

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chapter 10 and beginning of chapter 11 notes
Intro to Environmental Science
Study Guide
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Yazmyne Adams on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 100 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Weinert in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to Environmental Science in Education and Teacher Studies at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.

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Date Created: 04/03/16
Chapter 10 Freshwater Resources and Water Pollution    Hydrologic cycle​ :­ water continuously circulates through the environment. Ocean to atmosphere  to land to ocean.  The result: balance of the water resources in the ocean on the land, and in the  atmosphere.    Surface water:​  precipitation that remains on the surface of the land and does not seep down  through the soil.  ­ Found in streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, and wetlands    Surface runoff:​ The movement of fresh­water from precipitation and snowmelt to rivers, lakes,  wetlands, and oceans.  ­ Precipitation from land Replenishes surface water    Watershed/drainage basin:​  the area of land drained by a single river or stream. Range for a  small stream to a huge portion.    Groundwater​ : the supply of fresh water under Earth’s surface that is stored in underground  aquifers.  ­ Flows through permeable sediments or rocks slowly, covers several mililiters to a few  meters per day.   ­ Groundwater recharge is the process of downward movement and accumulation.    Aquifer:​ groundwater deposit in the world, underground reservoir where groundwater is stored.    Aquifer Depletion​ : occurs from excessive removal of groundwater. It lowers the water table (the  upper surface of the saturated zone of groundwater) and causes subsidence (sinking of the land  above the water reserve)    Flooding​ : occurs when a river’s discharge cannot be contained within its normal channel.  ­ Floodplain­ an area bordering a river channel that has the potential to flood    Arid lands​: deserts..fragile ecosystems in which plant growth is limited by lack of precipitation  Semiarid lands: receive more precipitation than deserts but are subject to frequent and  prolonged droughts.     Sustainable Water Pollution:​  the wise use of water resources,without harming the essential  functioning of the hydrologic cycle or the ecosystems on which present and future human  depend.     Water table​ : the upper surface of the saturated zones of groundwater.    Salinization:​ The gradual accumulation of salt in soil, often as a result of improper irrigation  methods. Salt accumulates in the soil.    Irrigation Effects​: improves the agricultural productivity of arid and semiarid lands, causes salt to  accumulate in the soil (salinization), the irrigation water normally soaks into the soil and does  not run off into rivers,    Dams:​ generate water and ensure a year round supply  of water in areas with seasonal  precipitation.   ­ Altering river ecosystems: heavy sediment deposition can occur in the reservoir behind  the dam.  ­ Water that passes over a dam doesnt have it’s normal sediment load  ­ River floor downstream of the dam is scoured, producing a deep­cut channel that is a  poor habitat for aquatic animals    Columbia River​ :4th largest river in USA, more than 100 dams (19 major power generators),  supplies municipal and industrial water to several major urban areas,  ­ The dams affect fish life...impede salmon migration    Chapter 11 the ocean and the Fisheries  Ocean Life Zones  The Intertidal Zones (between low and high tides)  ­ High levels of light, nutrients, and oxygen make it a biologically productive zone  ­ The stress of the constant wave attacks cause sand dwelling organisms to be active  burrowers  ­ Organisms lack adaptation to being out of water  The Benthic Zone (ocean floor)  ­ Sediments of sand or mud where bottom dwelling animals burrow  ­ Deeper part of benthic divided into 3 zones (shallow to deepest)  ­ The bathyal, the abyssal, and the hadal zones    Coral.   ­ Small soft bodied creatures similar to jellyfish and sea anemones  ­ Live in calcium carbonate, that they produce using minerals dissolved in the water    The Neritic Province (From shore to 200 Meters of Ocean water)  The Oceanic Province (Most of the Ocean water) 


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