HDFS 129 Study Guide 3
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camryn McCabe on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 129 at a university taught by Molly Countermine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 219 views.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) Gender Socialization Sex v. Gender (They’re not the same!!) Sex: the biological dimension of being female, male, neither, or both Gender: the sociocultural dimension of feeling female, male, neither, or both For most, these two are aligned Gender Identity: conception a person has of self as being male, female, neither, or both In place by 3 years old Gender Role : cultural expectations about how males/females should feel, think, and act How do we learn gender roles? o Observation and imitation of parents, siblings, peers, teachers, media images… o Children are punished (scolded, shamed) for gender inappropriate behavior and rewarded for gender appropriate behavior o Girls can be tomboys more than boys can be feminine Girls as tomboys is more accepted o Adolescence is particularly important time gender socialization; pressure to behave more stereotypical increases Differential gender socialization Socializing males and females with different expectations about the attitudes and behaviors appropriate to each gender Starts at birth, even prenatally o Once moms find out the sex of their baby, they start talking to it differently Parents tend to restrict adolescent girls more tightly than boys o Where they can go, whom they can go with… Influences Parental influence o Fathers are more active in gender role development than mothers o Parents encourage “male” and “female” chores, toys, and behaviors o Gay/lesbian parents? Their kids usually turn out better (because they did not have a particular gender pushed on them) HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) Peer influence o Children who play in gender appropriate activities are rewarded by peers; those who don’t are criticized o Children demonstrate clear preferences for being with and liking same gender peers o These influences are all strongest in middle/late childhood School/teacher influence o Pressure to achieve is greater for boys than girls o Boys are generally given more negative attention in school Boys are usually sent straight to principal, while girls may get a change to talk out the issue with a teacher o Girls’ learning problems/disabilities aren’t identified as often as boys’ Media influences o Kids under 6 (including 2/3 of all infants and toddlers) spend an average of 2 hours a day in “screentime” o For kids ages 818, it’s about 7.5 hours a day o AAP recommends no screen time for children under age of 2; and no more than 2 hours a day for children ages 318 Cultural Influences on Parenting Why do we parent? Altricial- we are born in a helpless condition, requiring prolonged parental care Precocial- active and able to move freely from birth, requiring little parented care Physical needs Socialization Parenting is a biological and evolutionary process that is shaped by cultural and social forces How do we parent? When to feed the baby What to feed the baby Where to put the baby Where the baby sleeps When the baby sleeps What to do when the baby cries What is the baby’s schedule HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) Who will take care of the baby when mom and dad aren’t around Sleep arrangements 2/3 of the world sleep with babies as normative parenting practice o Industrial countries (Japan, Italy) as well as rural communities in Mexico and China Independence v. interdependence o Which does a culture value? o U.S. values independence Research says… (When baby sleeps with parents) o Shorter night wakings o Lighter sleep for mom and baby Less likely for baby to die from SIDs o Higher levels of independence in preschool o Increased cognitive competence o Higher self-esteem Breastfeeding Breast is best Newborns are hard-wired to nurse Size does not matter Continuous v. scheduled feedings o Continuous is better Great for baby’s immune system Smarter babies When to wean? o Average age worldwide= 2 years o Average age in the U.S.= 3 months Not good Adolescent Identity Development Erikson on identity Identity- a persistent sameness within one’s self and a sharing of one’s essential character with others ID development o Achieving ID involves possessing a sense of who you are, where you are heading, and where you fit into society HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) o It’s a lengthy process that begins in infancy and continues through adulthood o In adolescence it moves to the forefront Now we have the cognitive ability to think more abstractly about who we are o Adolescents become preoccupied with questions about their essential character We ask ourselves… o Who am i? o What’s different about me? o What do I want to do with my life? o What kind of people do I like? o What kind of person am I? o What do I need to be happy? o What kind of romantic partner am I? o What kind of romantic partner do I want? o What are my values? o What do I think about the world? Independence becomes paramount o The process of separation and individuation from family is critical in ID development o We want to become our own person while remaining connected to family o Just like protection and exploration in infancy, we want to know our parents are there for us but be given freedom to explore o Family = secure base Identity issues include: o Self in relationships o Sexual ID o Ethnic ID o Intellectual ID o Interests/values o Body image o Spirituality/religiosity o Vocational issues o Political ideology o World views Process of ID formation involves crisis and commitment o Crisis- period of role experimentation and exploration among alternative choices o Commitment- demonstrating a personal commitment to particular values, beliefs, and roles HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) James Marcia Late adolescence (18-22) is a period of consolidation, tearing of the initial ID construction that began in early adolescence By late adolescence, it is possible to categorize the ID status of individuals into one of 4 categories Framework for assessing statuses o ID achievement o ID moratorium o ID foreclosure o ID diffusion ID achievement- commitment made after crisis experienced o Individual has resolved his/her ID issues and made a commitment to particular goals, beliefs, and values ID moratorium- no commitment made and currently experiencing crisis (exploration) o Individual is actively raising questions and seeking answers o Enduring commitments have not yet been made ID foreclosure- commitment made but no crisis experienced o Individual seems to know who he/she is but has latched onto an ID prematurely w/o exploration o Ex. A person who adopts whatever view his parents have without questioning ID diffusion- no commitment made and no crises experienced o Person has not yet thought about or resolved ID issues and has failed to chart directions in life This is NOT a stage theory o However, most adolescents move from foreclosure or diffusion to moratorium and then achieved between their mid-teens and mid-twenties o One can be in different ID states for various ID domains o One MUST go through moratorium to reach ID achievement Achievement and moratorium are associated with… o Higher self-esteem o Feeling of more in control o Favorable view of education o More capability of sustaining intimate relationships Foreclose is associated with… o Being dogmatic, rigid, defensive HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) o Fear of rejection o Being a rule follower Diffusion is associated with… o Less capability of intimacy o Avoidance of decision making o Poor academic performance o Poor time management o More likely to abuse drugs/alcohol Parenting Styles 2 dimensions of parenting o Warmth, responsiveness, support o Control, demandingness, expectations Types of parenting o Authoritarian: high control, low warmth o Authoritative: high control, high warmth o Permissive: low control, high warmth o Uninvolved: low control, low warmth Parenting styles and Identity o Authoritative parenting is correlated with ID achievement o Authoritarian parenting is correlated with ID foreclosure o Permissive parenting is correlated with diffusion Emerging Adulthood (guest lecture) Theory of development in late teens to mid-late 20s o In industrialized societies When an individual doesn’t feel quite like an adolescent, but also not a full-fledged adult o They feel somewhere in between Why this new stage of development? Social and cultural changes o Birth control, widespread availability of contraception o 2 ndwave of feminist movement (60s and 70s) Economic changes o Technology o Globalization Demographic changes o Increase in years dedicated to higher education o Increase in average age of marriage and parenthood HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) Changes in how young people view the meaning and value of becoming an adult Features of emerging adulthood Age of identity explorations o Erikson’s identity v. role confusion crisis = resolved o Marcia’s moratorium ID status = achieved o Looking for identity-based work o Looking for soul mate Age of instability o Changes in relationships, jobs, residence, educational status,… Self-focused age o Autonomy and independence o Few responsibilities o Figuring out who they are Age of feeling in-between o “Don’t tell me what to do, I’m not a kid anymore.” o “Hey Mom, can I borrow some money?” Age of possibilities o Less structured lives o Freedom Love In adolescence o More recreational o No expectation of marriage In emerging adulthood o Searching for soul mate o 60% cohabitate with partner In young adulthood o 75% married by 30 (or in serious relationship) Work and education In adolescence o 95% enrolled in school o Most living with parents/legal guardians In emerging adulthood o 70% continue to education/training after high school o Changes in jobs, residence, educational status o Almost 50% move back in with parents at some point In young adulthood o 10% enrolled in higher education at 30 o Fewer living with parents/guardian HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) Romantic and Sexual Relationships in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthoods (guest lecture) Romantic Relationship: mutually acknowledged, ongoing interaction o Affection, current, or anticipated sexual behavior o Distinctive intensity (“limerence”) Intensive, obsessive thoughts Involuntary Need for reciprocation We start dating in adolescence because… o Biological factors (puberty) o Cognitive factors (understanding of romance) o Familial factors (expectations, restrictions) o Societal factors (expectations, restrictions) Typical Timeline for development o 15- first kiss, first date o 17- first “I love you”, first time having sex o 18- first serious relationship o 21- cohabitation, moving in together o 27- marriage o 13-16: initiation phase o 17-18: affiliation phase o 19-22: intimate phase o 23-27: committed phase Typical Timeline for the development of gay/lesbian adolescents o 8- first aware that something is different o 10- first same sex attraction o 14- first self-labeling, disclosure to a friend o 15- disclosure to parent, same sex activity o 18- same sex relationship Why is adolescence dating important? o Sexual identity development HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) o Sexual/romantic competence development o Romantic attachment o Positive effects on development Positive affect, self-esteem, social competence o Negative effects on development Depression, conflict, mood swings Nonromantic Sexual Relationships “Hookups” Based on research, hookups are not taking over college campuses o People tend to think their peers are hooking up more than they actually are o About 50% of college students have hooked up at least once in a year o Only 8% of people, when asked, say their last hookup was with someone they were NOT dating Are hookups bad? o It depends on… The person Attitude toward hookups Motivation for the hookup The relationship Knowing the partner before the hookup Comfort during the hookup Relationship after the hookup The situation Consent Behaviors and safe sex Alcohol use Effects from the first time o If the first time was satisfactory, the person is more likely to have satisfaction with future times o If the person felt guilt or unsatisfied, the person is more likely to not be as satisfied in future times o Girls are more at risk than boys for negative effects More likely to feel guilty Report pain during first time, while boys only report not being satisfied HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) Importance of the first time o Says a lot for consistency If satisfied first time, more likely to be satisfied rest of times (and vice versa) If a condom was used, more likely to continue to use condoms for rest of times Young Adulthood Intimacy v. Isolation Intimacy o The ability to experience an open, supportive, and tender relationship with another person without fear of losing one’s self o The desire to understand the other person o Concern for the other’s well-being o Disclosure of personal feelings o Demonstration of affection o Ability to put aside one’s self at times because the self is secure o Commitment first to own identity, second to other Isolation o Self-absorption o Unwillingness to compromise o Fear of losing one’s self The key issue here is connecting to another without fear of losing one’s self; you can only do that when identity is achieved This applies to both friendships and romantic relationships Friendships o Friendships come BEFORE romantic relationships o Beginning in adolescence, female friendships are “face to face” Male friendships are “side by side” Female friendships o Emphasis on self-disclosure o Emotional revelations o Spend a good deal of time talking together o Feel shut out when friends refuse to self-disclose HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) o Friendships are therapeutic Male friendships o Males derive less enjoyment from “relationship talk” as they get older This is mainly because of socialization o Males emphasize cooperation, leadership, competition o Lower levels of self-disclosure than females Self-disclosure in friendships o Lowest level: male-male o Higher: male-female o Highest: female-female o Females feel lonely if not self-disclosing o Males do not necessarily feel lonely when they’re not o Data from heterosexual males and females Food for thought o Do male friendships lack intimacy? Maybe not necessarily, but they lack expression o Females tend to want the same type of intimacy in romantic relationships as they have in close friendships o Males do achieve deeper levels of intimacy in romantic relationships than they are used to in their friendships with males o Potential for trouble here… (Girls being good at intimacy and want it in romance) + (boys not so good at intimacy and not used to it) = ???? Trouble Girl needs to bring down her expectations and guy needs to up his intimacy Identity precedes intimacy o Males are more likely to enter into a committed relationship AFTER career plans are made To them, this is AFTER their identity is established (career = identity) o The interpersonal (between 2 people) component of identity is more central for women than men o Clarification of interpersonal relationships often precedes career plans for females o Women are figuring out who they are in the context of relationships (especially romantic) o Woman marry younger (27 v. 29) HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) Friendships and marriage o In heterosexual marriage, males often name their wives as their best friend o Women most often name another female as their best friend o Men tend to be more satisfied than women with the amount of empathy and companionship in the relationship o Divorce can be more devastating for males because they lose their best friend and their primary source of intimacy o Woman initiate divorce/break-ups more often than men Identity status and intimacy o Foreclosed: avoid conflict o Diffused: difficulty with commitment, adopt partner’s identity; lack depth o Moratorium: lack of fidelity (more likely to cheat); or a series of monogamous relationships o Achieved: most successful; higher levels of fidelity Attachment and intimacy o A positive correlation exists between our ability to be intimate as adults and our attachment status in infancy (longitudinal and retrospective data) o Securely attached (55%): feel close to partner; can depend on them; expect partner to be available and attuned o Insecure anxious (20%): (equivalent to ambivalent) not trusting, clingy, experience jealousy, are overly dependent o Insecure avoidant (25%): uncomfortable being emotionally close; feel uncomfortable with emotional expression; find intimacy unpleasant o Those who are insecure can modify/revise expectations when paired with a secure partner How do we foster intimacy in relationships o Mutual empathy: being attuned to each other’s feelings and thoughts; being open, vulnerable, connected o Mutual authenticity: to feel and know I am being real, genuine, and honest in relationship, and so is my partner Authenticity requires being in a relationship; you have to be it, express it, communicate it Sexual Socialization (Pornography) (guest lecture) HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) Making sense of what we see and do Some people have strong viewpoints on porn Love to love Love to hate Hate to love Hate to hate Is porn good or bad? Affects… o Industry o Content o Distribution o Physiology o Psychology o Behaviorism o Etc. How did we get here? (How did porn become the huge industry that it is today?) The Internet!!! Triple-A Engine: available, affordable, anonymous Porn sites o 2000- 16,000 o 2005- 170,000 o 2012- 5,000,000+ It’s all for a profit How to increase profit o Include latest new ways to have sex o Drug use for extreme sex When does it become violent? Popular content Verbal aggression (48.7% of scenes) o Insulting o Threats o Coercive language Physical aggression (88.2% of scenes) o Slapping o Forced gagging o Choking HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) Brain on porn Love-social neuroscience o Oxytocin, vasopressin, dopamine, serotonin Porn causes the brain to release neurotransmitters combination NOT the same as in sex/masturbation o Serotonin o Adrenaline o Testosterone o Dopamine o Endorphin Porn causes more of a stimulant effect Is porn addictive? Dopamine transmission in Nucleus Accumbens Shows tolerance Porn arousal stimulant arousal o Like cocaine, similar dopamine In the brain, masturbation without porn looks more like real sex Porn induced erectile dysfunction Men reported “impotence” to get Viagra Erections were re-established after 30-60 days of no porn o For young people- more like 90 days Sexuality Female sexuality- constructed to be inauthentic o Fake breasts, Botox, unnatural waist size Male sexuality- dominant, strong, sex is emotionless Self-sexulation and self-objectification o Lowers self-esteem o Associated with depression, body monitoring, and eating disorders o Increases body dissatisfaction o Associated with less sexual health behaviors (condom use, assertiveness) o Impairs mental function Sexualization of girls- when young girls dress as old; when older girls dress as young Sexual Scripting Theory- Simon and Gagnon; 1984, 2005 HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) Marriage, Diversity of Adult Lifestyles, and the Decision to Have Children Marriage Importance of marriage Why get married? 50’s & 60’s: marriage was about providing security and having children; roles were defined o “Having children and creating stability” Today: marriage is about personal fulfillment; finding your soul mate; marrying your best friend o “Personal happiness and fulfillment” Why the change? o Women working, birth control, views on premarital sex and cohabitation Marriage today Average duration of marriage is 9 years By 5 years, 22% of marriages have ended Divorce rate has been pretty stable at 50% since mid 80’s Why has the divorce rate remained so high? o Rash decisions (internet could have some effect on this), changing religious views, wider acceptance of divorce Age at first marriage 50’s & 60’s: 21 for women, 23 for men Now- 27 for women, 29 for men Andrew Cherlin His book- “The Marriage-go-round” We evaluate marriage in a very self-centered way o “Am I getting what I want?” Americans get married more, divorced more, and have more live- in partners than people in other countries What concerns Cherlin is the cumulative effect of all this partnering on children Does “all this partnering” matter? YES HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) Children who have experienced multiple transitions at home tend to have more behavior problems at school More likely to have sex at an earlier age Less likely to graduate from high school More likely to have a first child outside of marriage Cherlin says “slow down” Common myths about marriage Conflict will ruin your marriage Affairs are the main cause of divorce Men are biologically not made for marriage The best marriages are found in couples who share the same interests What makes a marriage work Solving solvable conflicts: perpetual v. solvable problems o Focus on problems you CAN solve Letting your partner influence you Create a shared meaning for your marriage Respect and forgiveness Unhappy marriages Increases an individual’s risk of getting sick by 30% Can shorten a person’s life by 4 years What makes successful marriages? (in order) 1. Being faithful 2. Fulfilling sexual relationship 3. Sharing household chores 4. Adequate income 5. Good housing 6. Shared religious beliefs 7. Shared interests 8. Having children 9. Agreement on politics Diversity of adult lifestyles Living Single 1950: 22% of adults live alone 2012: 50% of adults live along o Women: 55% HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) o Men: 45% Most living singles are between ages of 35 and 64, but young adults (21-34) are the fastest growing population of those living alone Reasons living single is on the rise Sexual freedom Technology (you can feel connected w/o living with someone) People are living longer (partner dies, person decides to stay on their own) Less desire to have kids Pursue one’s own schedule Make decisions independently Privacy and solitude Cohabitation 70-90% of couples will live together before marriage Used to think that cohabitation meant a greater likelihood of divorce o Now we know there are group differences Working class: combined income of about $40K per year Middle class: combined income of about $68K per year Serial cohabiter: continuously cohabitates with different partners Working class couples Moved in together more rapidly More likely to divorce Cited finances as a reason to move in together This is referred to as “sliding”, not deciding o “It just seems easier,” instead of “What does this mean for our relationship?” Middle class couples Decision to move in together was more deliberate and thought out Became engaged and formed marriage plans more often and more rapidly See cohabitation as step to marriage Serial cohabiters View cohabitation as test of relationship Less of a commitment to long-term relationship More likely to divorce HDFS 129 Study Guide 3 (for exam 3 on 4/7) Gender differences in straight couples Males more likely than females to express lower levels of commitment to partner Males more likely to state that they aren’t ready for marriage, even though they know their partner is Females more likely to do more housework Females more likely to gain weight Reasons to cohabitate Utilitarian (working class): financial reasons o Correlated with divorce Intimate involvement: strong commitment; no plan to marry; wait and see; “test the waters” o Correlated with divorce Prelude to marriage: have set a date; no reason to wait Alternative to marriage: don’t want to get married but are committed Gay and lesbian couples (and marriage) Similar to straight couples on day-to-day basis Place same value on trust, commitment, and monogamy Face same struggles More flexible in gender roles (bc they share the same gender) Better at communicating Children of gay and lesbian couples are not more likely to be gay/lesbian o No difference in mental health or developmental outcomes (“The decision to have kids” notes will be on notes from upcoming Tuesday)
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