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Crisis Comm Midterm 2 Study Guide

by: Emma Dahlin

Crisis Comm Midterm 2 Study Guide COMM 3333

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Communication Studies > COMM 3333 > Crisis Comm Midterm 2 Study Guide
Emma Dahlin
GPA 3.85

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Contains all topics from review day as well as notes from lectures and readings.
Crisis Communication
Lanier Holt
Study Guide
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This 37 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Dahlin on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 3333 at Ohio State University taught by Lanier Holt in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 348 views. For similar materials see Crisis Communication in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
Social Media: Why Online Reality IS Reality to Your Client 02/11/2016 Current Events:  $500 bill sent to Tamir Rice’s family for ambulance service o CLEVELAND, OH  Australian billionaire says Titanic replica will set sail in 2018 (full- scale replica of Titanic to set sail around the North Atlantic) ▯ By the numbers  Bernie Madoff: $50 BILLION o Got busted in 2008 o Should have been caught in 2003 o Sentenced to 150 years: Nov. 14 , 2134 (release date) o Ponzy scheme (stole from millions of people) o Jewish: he would go to synagogues, barmitzvahs and steal from Jewish community (people he knew) o His son committed suicide after finding out what his father had done o Mets: stole from them o People invested money with the belief that it would be placed somewhere to grow  Al Capone: Chicago mobster o Killed tons of people o But he was arrested on tax evasion o C.R.E.A.M  1929 stock market crash o Now things are different o Social media is instantaneous, cannot control it, everyone has access to it ▯ Media Effects and Theory  Do you ever wonder how media messages become the pictures in your head?  Priming: continually connecting two or more phenomena in media coverage tends to cause audiences to conflate the two to be related or one aspect being inextricably linked with the other o Perception is reality! o People are cognitive misers, don’t rely on everything they have access to… but what do people think of when they think of OSU? Football. b/c media always associates Ohio State University with football o Other Examples: Nixon-Watergate, Tylenol-Scare, Enron- Scandal  Agenda-Setting (Transferal): the more the media coverage an issue has, the more likely the public is to know about it and find it to be important. That is, important in the same proportion and priority in which the media cover it o Most important issue of the day: Climate Change? Global War on Terror? Cyber security?  The Take-Away o Media does not reflect reality. o “it is like a beam of searchlight that moves restlessly about, bringing one episode and then another out of darkness into vision” –Walter Lippmann, 1922 o Media coverage is a distortion. o But does this even matter today? No. True or not, it doesn’t matter b/c people will still believe it o What does this have to do with us? People have little to no first-hand experience with your company.  People & Need for Orientation o The less someone knows about a topic, and the more interested they are in knowing about it, the more influence the media have on what they think about that topic o Potentially never meet face-to-face (online first and only) o Slingshot SEO (Search Engine Optimization) – 90% rule (no one looks at page 2) o Companies pay a lot of money to get on that first page o Information may not even be true o Perception is reality!!!! o Why is this so important?  Pre-Internet Era: 60 Minutes: Mike Wallace (1918-2012)  Today: Cyberspace, Blogosphere, Social Media  Bloggers  Blog (n): a web site on which someone writes about personal opinions, activities, and experiences o A web site that contains online personal reflections, and often hyperlinks provided by the writer o First known use: 1999 o Doesn’t have to be true News Cycle up to mid-1990s o Wire service/company PR Spokesperson phone tip to newsroom/inside or Analyst “leaks” the story  Editor assigns story to reporterstory appears in newspapers, then: Television, Trade Magazines, (if big enough)Mainstream magazines, like Time o Any subsequent developments covered by either TV or newspapers first  News Cycle Today o Wire service/company PR Spokesperson phone tip to newsroom/inside or Analyst “leaks” the storystory covered by TV or newspapers, or to whomever the story is leaked often simultaneously picked up, most likely TV which has Yahoo!, trade magazines, sent the largest audience via text messages to subscribers, patrons, etc.followed up by bloggers, respondents on company message boards and fodder for chat room discussioncontent determines if mainstream (non-online) media does follow-up o The world has changed… Forever  Let’s look at an event then vs. now o 1989: Exxon: Valdez  too remote  “in the middle of nowhere”  no media saw it first-hand  result: coverage trickled in, and then in major newspapers, network news, and a handful of cable news stations o 2010: BP: oil spill  There is no “middle of nowhere” anymore  Bloggers ad satellite images: doesn’t matter if anyone saw it first-hand  Result: vast amounts of immediate coverage from analysts, insides, on multiple networks and cable networks, reactions (online: blogs, Tweets, etc) newspapers, traditional and cable radio o It’s the same story: Fortune 500 Companies, Oil Company Giant, both crashed and spilled, ecosystems ruined for generations  Vastly different b/c of social media!! o Social media changes everything! o Things to keep in mind:  No media were there when Deepwater Horizon exploded  Yet it was still one of the top stories of 2010 b/c media could get there immediately with technology  More than 200 million gallons of oil poured into the Gulf of Mexico  11 Rig Workers died yet, no one immediately lost their job  until…  BP CEO: Tony Hayward: “I’d like my Life Back.”  NY Times: “that crisis-PR-sound bite from hell.”  He was gone in 4 months  Today, your social media image IS your image ▯ ▯ Current Events  Trump threatens to Sue Cruz Unless his GOP Rival Apologizes  Antonin Scalia – Supreme Court Judge (longest serving judge) passed away  South Carolina – Nevada: having an election Saturday to decide who will be the president of the US  Target – (company based in Minneapolis): Target Security Breach 2013: Public Relations Nightmare o 1. Timing – Black Friday/Mid-December o 2. Didn’t control the story o 3. Hid the scope of the problem- Beyond just credit card holders (anyone who could have done business or had a transaction with Target) o The story unfolded relatively slowly ▯  Social media mistakes occur regardless of: o Industry o Organization o Intelligence level o No one is immune o Examples:  Digiornio: #WhyIStayed You had pizza  Best Buy: We have everything you need. Unless you need a pay phone. #Serial  Geoffrey Miller: Dear obese PhD applicants: if you don’t have the willpower to stop eating carbs, you won’t have the willpower to do a dissertation. #truth  Bill Cosby: someone joked about him raping women on social media o Here’s the kicker:  It can be one disgruntled employee or customer  It can be one misstep; not a policy misstep  It can be the 19-year-old intern  It can be 1 person out of 50,000 employees  Information could have been corrected long ago ST  But it becomes the 1 thing people think of when they hear your company’s name ▯ ▯ Successfully managing social media :  1. All key players, especially marketing and PR leaders, need to know about a Tweet before it goes out.  2. Failure to “expand your horizon” EXPANDS YOUR HORIZON beyond your traditional customers o Competitors (always) follow your tweets o Analysts (always) o Media***  Media: Where your control, influence and ability to manage the message ends….  3. Follow the news! Not just company news.  4. Social media is not ONLY the responsibility of the youngest people in the department…they may not follow news/history.  5. Just because a department manages the technology does not give autonomy to control the message. Management… o Does not happen with advertising o Does not happen with Annual Report o Does not happen with any planned communication o Social media > all others COMBINED  Your social media presence IS your presence  People make assumptions about you based on how you handle or mishandle media (social and otherwise) ▯ ▯ Tiger Woods (Eldric) So, what happened here? o Was #1 player in the world o Now ranked #444 o Had $110 million in endorsements (Nike, Gatorade, Gillette, etc)…now has $54 million o Happily married to Elin Nordegren (now divorced)  Forbes: $100 million for Elin  Serial dating o Was on EA Sports Nov. 26, 2009: Thanksgiving o NATIONAL ENGUIRER: Broke story “Tiger Woods Cheating Scandal” – alleges Tiger had months-long affair with NYC nightclub hostess Rachel Uchitel (Mistress #1) o Photographed checking into same hotel as Tiger at Australian Masters “It’s Tiger Woods! I don’t care about his wife! We’re in love!” th o Tiger told Elin on Nov. 24 about the story (told her not to believe it) o Tiger put Elin on the phone with Uchitel to dispel the rumors  They smoke for 30 minutes  Woods satisfied; Nordegren was not! What happened? Cell phone left unattended o Elin Nordegren - What she did o Scrolled through Tiger’s phone history o Found name of Jaimee Grubbs (Mistress #2) & called her o “You know who this is,” Nordegren said, “because you’re fucking my husband” (voice mail – NY Post, Nov. 24 , 2013) o Nordegren didn’t tell Tiger she did it o Tiger also called Grubbs later What happened: o Tiger Woods- What he did o Called Grubbs and left voice mail asking her to take her name off phone b/c his wife might be calling him o Tiger said nothing to Elin o Elin said nothing to Tiger! National Enquirer Story o Details o Tiger met Uchitel in June, four months after the birth of Tiger and Elin’s son o Uchitel showed “sexts” from Tiger  Pet name for Tiger: “Bear.”  Woods told her he was getting divorced  This was the calm before the storm Thanksgiving Night o Tiger: Took Ambien & fell asleep o Nordegren took his phone and searched for Uchitel’s number  Found it and a text from her husband  “You are the only one I’ve ever loved.”  Friends describe Nordegren as typically, an “exceptionally controlled person”  Wanted to make sure Tiger was cheating o Nordegren began texting Uchitel as Tiger o Elin: “I miss you. When are we seeing each other again?” o Uchitel responds immediately; surprised Tiger is up. o Elin: “I knew it was you. I know everything.” o Uchitel: “Oh fuck!” (hangs up) o Nordegren’s screaming wakes up Tiger o Tiger grabs his cellphone, runs & locks himself in the bathroom o Tiger texts Uchitel: “She knows. I’m going to be packing” o Elin (demands Tiger comes out of the bathroom)  Tiger comes out. Elin swipes phone. See’s one word “divorce” and EXPLODES!  Tiger tears out of the house barefoot. Elin is in hot pursuit.  Elin throws phone at Tiger. Hits him in the face; chips his tooth!  Elin reaches for the nearest weapon & finds a golf club & goes after Tiger  Tiger hops in his 2009 Escalade; Elin hops in a golf cart to go get him!  Woods pulls out of driveway going 30 mph It’s 2:25 a.m.  Crashes into some hedges  Careens into a curb  Hits a fire hydrant then a tree  Woods falls into the street, bloody, unconscious, and snoring  Disturbance wakes up neighboring couple who comes over to the accident scene  Elin busts window of the Escalade still going after Tiger!  Police arrive at the scene  Elin tells authorities, “Help us” and that Tiger was in a car accident  Police were skeptical: Stayed between Elin & Tiger on ambulance ride  The aftermath o Lessons:  1. Catastrophes can be averted at times, but they still do happen  2. The mishandling of the event is often worse than the event itself  3. You can never lie and hide your way out of a problem  Whitney Houston got Bobby Brown addicted to drugs  Enron lied about how much money they were making for years  Little Kim claimed she wasn’t there  Tiger Woods o A slew of women came forward claiming to have had sex with Woods  NY Post reports that Woods confessed to having affairs with 120 women  Mindy Lawton, diner waitress (Family’s home in Florida, his Escalade, church parking lot, tossing her tampon out the window)  Porn stars, exotic dancers  Joslyn James: alleged to have gotten pregnant more than once by Tiger  Two weeks after Thanksgiving, as many as 14 women claimed to have slept with Tiger  Mistresses now include Raychel Coudriet, daughter of couple next door whom Woods met when she was 14 years old o End of 2009: tiger checks into rehab for sex addiction  Disappears from public eye  Issues public apology on his Web page o Yet Still…people continue to talk about it o Questions: What went wrong? Just his wife and family issue? Why was he still in hot water? o Look at slides that are posted! (don’t have all)  What were the mistakes here? o 1. Took too long to admit to his wrongdoing o 2. He tried to dictate to the media how to do (and not do) their jobs. o 3. He tried to hide from the media o 4. He didn’t take any questions from the media.  Major takeaway: o Openness > Secrecy EVERY TIME! ▯ Current Events  Planned Parenthood-Scott Walker trying to take away all state funding for Planned Parenthood  18 year old in Florida posed as medical doctor and gave medical treatment to undercover cop and got caught  Tim Cook-CEO of Apple : San Bernandino – gov.t wants to seize information on the cell phones of people involved but Apple says they won’t do it  Manny Pacquiao: (boxer) got cut by Nike… said that gay people are worse than animals  A step back: o Mike Brown (shot by officer) shot within 42 seconds, Ferguson, Missouri – shot multiple times o Eric Gardner- selling Blu cigarettes, police put him into illegal chokehold he eventually died of complications, police said he was resisting arrest o TreVon Martin – chased down by neighborhood watch officer, shot, officer thought he was a criminal, Florida o Emmett Till – beaten half to death, gunshot through head, found in the water o Black people hate the police o White people don’t listen to Black people o Black people DO NOT trust White people o These things have been said for decades o White people trust the Cops… Black people DO NOT trust the Cops o Why? o Report: Black male teens are 21 times more likely to be killed by cops than white ones (even when committing same crime) o Cops bought burger king for Dylann Roof following his arrest: South Carolina: killed people in church o People killed by Police by September 2015: 722 people shot dead by police (26 of them were black and unarmed) o Most of these incidents are happening in the North: Ohio, California, Massachusetts  Contemporary Crises o Solid south was always Democrat until one event: 1964 Voting Rights Act o Now all Republican… Blacks said they would support if they let act pass o Unique state: Missouri o Michael Brown & Ferguson, MO: body left out for 4 ½ hours, predatory money system of tickets and fines, jaywalking/sagging/bogus tickets  Poorest counties are the target of ordinances  ▯ Current Events:  Bail denied for Michigan Uber driver charged with killing six (Kalamazoo)  Pope Calls on Christians to Abolish Death Penalty  Reminder: Mike Brown ▯ Ferguson…  Video puts first proposition that Ferguson was a Powder keg: what you use to blow up mountains in early 1900s o If you get enough pressure in, its going to blow o White flight & racial segregation  Middle- to upper-income Whites  Poor blacks o Justice system operates at a profit:  On backs of disproportionate minority (black)  Created multiple municipalities (different white neighborhoods…if you drive through it you get a ticket)  440,000 arrest warrants in St. Louis County for minor offenses (9 TIMES more than Cook County which houses all of Chicago)  Certain people “don’t belong” in certain neighborhoods o What was Mike Brown stopped for?  Jaywalking  Not theft  Not vandalism  Not breaking and entering  Not assault  Not battery o Here’s the big questions:  Was this incident bound to happen?  Was Officer Wilson wrong?  Was Mike Brown wrong?  Could you represent the Ferguson Police Department? o o Current Events  Chicago: Day after blizzard, motorists still stranded, highways closed, trains halted  Lawsuit: Tennessee coach Butch Jones called player a ‘traitor’: University of Tennessee football coach told one of his players he “betrayed the team” after the wide receiver helped a woman who said she was raped by two other football players  Takata Air Bag Recalls: up to half of all cars on the road today!  South Carolina: Dylann Roof Confederate Flag  REDNECK  Confederate Flag has never been considered that until the 1940s  Where did this all start? o Re-enact the Civil War o Many people don’t want to believe that southern states were willing to fight and die to protect slavery o Slavery was single most important cause of war for both sides o Southern Secession: they were leaving the Union to protect slavery  The Confederate Flag: Who to believe? o United States Military Academy, West Point  How people might see the flag o Fuck your ancestors o You don’t belong here! o I support your Death o I support those who support your death o 1920s: lynchings so common that they were averaging 3 times a week o Recent Events  Free the Jena “6” : September 20, 2007 o The White Tree: only white kids could sit under it o Louisiana o 6 black kids charged with attempted murder for beating up white kid (murder weapon: tennis shoes)  James Byrd o Texas, 1998 o Dragged behind pickup truck with chains until his body parts fell off  N.C. teen’s hanging death ruled a suicide; mother says it was a lynching o North Carolina o 2014 o “The past is never dead” – William Faulkner  South Carolina first to cede from the Union  How we got here today o The Succession Calendar:  1. South Carolina: Dec. 20, 1860  2. Mississippi: Jan. 9, 1861  3. Florida: Jan 10, 1861  4. Alabama: Jan. 11, 1861 o South Carolina ceded from the Union about a full year BEFORE the Civil War even started  The Confederate Flag o Few symbols engender more conflicting interpretations of the past o Range from street names to state songs o Most conflicted argument: What does the flag mean?  Southerners: o Two separate realities  African Americans and Southern Blacks especially, only recently had the legal rights and opportunities traditionally enjoyed by Southerners (Webster & Lieb, 2001)  MOST Blacks have this reality  57% of Blacks live in the South  60% of Blacks live in only 10 states…  Black Population by state o 1. New York – 3.3 million o 2. Florida- 3.2 million o 3. Texas- 3.2 million o 4. Georgia – 3.1 million o 5. California – 2.7 million o 6. North Carolina – 2.2 million o 7. Illinois – 2 million o 8. Maryland – 1.8 million o 9. Virginia – 1.7 million o 10. Ohio – 1.4 million o 6 out of the top 10 states that have highest Black Population are considered south!  Confederate Flag History o Between 1861-1865: Confederate States of America had THREE flags  Stars and Bars  Stainless Banner  A “revision” of the Stainless Banner o The more familiar “Rebel Flag” proposed as the national flag of the CSA in March 1861 o The Confederate Flag NEVER adopted for role to represent confederate states of America o BUT… o It’s design, based on the Saint Andrews Cross was central to a wide array of “battle flags” employed by various Confederate states and their armies  How’d it get here today? o Reconstruction (immediate post-Civil War) o Southern residents flew it from their homes as a symbol of opposition to occupying Union army (McElroy, 1995) o Used at meetings and celebrations by United Confederate Veterans organization(s) o Also flown at parades o All but disappeared around the turn of the 20 Century (late 1800s-early 1900s) o Gone with the Wind – 1930s o Greatest Rejuvenation: 1940s***  Used by southern regiments in WW2  BIGGEST: Democratic Party’s National Convention  Civil Rights proposals were adopted at the convention  Several southern delegates walked out while waving the BATTLE FLAG o 1950s: to oppose Brown v. Board of Education decision  Used by White Councils opposed to integration o Used by the KKK to promote segregation o States:  1960s: South Carolina flies at Capitol dome  1963: George Wallace: Alabama o That’s how and why the Confederate Flag became synonymous with HATE…  About the “Confederate Flag” o Not JUST a symbol of Southern pride o Connected with history of racism and racists o NOT even flag of CSA  Confederate Flag connections: o Southerners opposed to Union occupation o Anti-Civil Rights Congressman o Segregationists o Knights of the KKK  How the Flag and Civil Rights Changed U.S Politics o South is all Democrat (former slave states)  Republicans turned Democrats o Opposed Civil Rights in 1948  Walked out with “Stars and bars”  Made it their symbol of rebellion o Opposed integration in 1954 o Opposed Civil Rights Act in 1964 o “Solid South” turned from Blue to Red seemingly overnight o Has been solidly Republican since 1964  Remained Red for more than 50 years  State Capitol Buildings still try to fly this flag  Votes o Heated debates on if flag should fly atop state capitol buildings as late as 1993  Alabama  Georgia  NOT South Carolina o South Carolina maintained their allegiance to the Confederate Flag well into the New Millennium  State flags o Mississippi o Alabama o Florida o All of them resemble Confederate Flag  South Carolina o In 1993 lost bid for house Mercedes-Benz plant to Alabama  Possibly because of Confederate Flag o Proposed compromises:  Replaced Rebel (DIDN’T FINISH)  Move flag to nearby Confederate Memorial  Place Black Liberation Flag near it on the capitol dome  ALL WERE REJECTED!  Why so much about race? o Crises:  Often unexpected  Cause disturbance in how your organization is viewed and might view itself  Intense; can be prolonged o Effects on you (my experience)  Make you uncomfortable  Make you mad  Might fight for what you don’t believe  You never know what your client will face o Remember  You almost NEVER leave a crisis unscathed Current Events  David Duke-former grand whistler of the KKK just endorsed Donald Trump  (California) San Jose State Spartans – students tried to put bike lock around black students neck, racially harassed him for weeks, university didn’t charge them with any hate crime  (Connecticut) Fairfield University Students Hold a “Ghetto-Themed” Party  University of California, Davis Student Assaulted in Alleged Hate Crime Incident  Black High School Students Touring Texas A&M Campus Accosted With Racial Slurs  Three Black Women Attacked on a Bus at the University at Albany What To Do  Read about the incident  Understand the arguments  Practice, practice, practice  Strengthen your weakest link Presentation Specifics  1. Give a 5 minute group presentation.  2. Holt and Tiffany will be firing questions at you  3. Every member of the group should be prepared to speak/answer a direct question  4. EVERYONE gets the same grade  5. Tiffany and I are final arbiters on grades  6. Sit in the first couple of rows if you are presenting  7. Dress professionally as if you are going to be speaking to the media on national TV  8. Your weakest link will likely determine your grade. Make sure each member is prepared.  9. Study your topic and anticipate the flaws in your own argument. We will try to exploit your argument.  10. You can rescue a teammate, but one person should NOT dominate the interaction. All the Topics  Alabama (Whites-only sorority)  UNC (Silent Sam statue) o When it was built o Who built it o Thursday  NYPD (Eric Garner killing)  Alabama State Flag  IU KKK Mural  Mississippi State Flag  Baltimore (Freddie Gray killing)  Hollister – South Korea  Minneapolis PD (Jamar Clark)  Cleveland PD defending Officer Michael Brelo  Florida State Flag  Cincinnati PD (Samuel Dubose)  U. Texas (Jefferson Davis statue)  Charlotte PD (Jonathon Ferrell)  San Jose State U. (“Bike Lock”)  Chicago PD (Cedric Chapman)  Salt Lake City PD (Dillon Taylor)  Sanford, Fla. (Trayvon Martin)  Cleveland PD (Tamir Rice)  Chicago PD (LaQuan McDonald)  Oklahoma – Sigma Alpha Epsilon  U. Alabama –Whites Only Sororities  Ferguson PD (Mike Brown)  LAPD (Homeless man shooting)  N. Charleston, S.C. PD (Walter Scott)  Beavercreek, Ohio PD (John Crawford lll)  Montgomery, AL. PD (Greg Gunn)  South Carolina State Flag  Texas PD (Sandra Bland)  Current Events  Hoosier Nation in Sweet 16 (basketball)-play UNC in next round  Cleveland EMS captain fired for posting on Facebook that he wished he’d killed Tamir Rice, ‘the little criminal’ o “Tamir Rice should have been killed and I am glad he is dead”  More than 30 dead, scores hurt in Brussels terror strike o Closed nuclear power plant in Brussels  Social Media and YOU  Fired over Facebook o Prison official fired over Facebook post o Waitress fired after complaining about bad tips on Facebook o Bartender fired after racist Facebook rant goes viral CRISIS! Angry people Last Semester’s Threat o “If you live in the Ohio State University, I warn you. Tomorrow at the 15 hour of the 27 of October 2015…” Last Week’s Information o “Buckeye Alert: Report of a man with a gun at Buckeye Village. Police responding. Secure in place. Run/Hide/Fight if necessary. More info soon” Thoughts? o What did you do? o Did you feel comforted by OSU’s handling of the crisis? o Did you feel informed? o What did OSU do right? o Were you at all angry? o What did they do wrong?  Your task: Answer their questions  Not in any textbook lessons o Press conferences (Dealing with angry people)  The goal is to RESPOND NOT to react  Reactionary people create media headlines  The media being annoyed with you should be expected o Go into every press conference with a PLAN  Five to six bullet points that you want to communicate  Worst case scenario  Apologize immediately and continually if you’re wrong o How to prepare:  (1) Find out what your client wants to communicate  (2) let your client know that lying is NOT an option. If the client knows, let the public know (rare exception: GOVERNMENT)  government lies to “protect us”  you lie- you lose credibility-you’re done  (3) Limit the topic to the issue being discussed as best you can  We are Animals; Anger spreads o Spreading Activation: Thoughts send out messages along cognitive pathways that trigger related thoughts  Not only trigger thoughts, but emotional reactions and behaviors  The strength and ability for these angry thoughts to be activated increases with repetition: the more frequently ticked off, the easier it is to get ticked off in the future. In fact, it takes less to do it!  Related to Priming! o Cognitive trickle down effect  Words linked with other related words  Spreading Activation o Anger and Priming (Benkowitz, Bushman)  People who are PRIMED with violent images and activities are more likely to have aggressive thoughts and behaviors  Watching violence tends to prime negative cognitive associations for viewers (Benkowitz, 1984)  MEN tend to have more violent responses than women regardless of if they are primed with violent or non- violent images (Bushman, 1998) o Priming Violence  Berkowitz reading(s)  Media provide conditioned responses to semantically related stimuli (1974)  Translation: Media provide direction to people on how they should act when placed in a similar situation to characters on TV.  “Aggressive ideas suggested by a violent movie can prime other semantically related thoughts, heightening the chances that viewers will have other aggressive ideas…” o Media do not tell people what to think, but what to think about –Cohen (1963)  HOWEVER,  Continually watching violent media, rehearsing violent media scenes in your head, influences how you think about the world and the people therein (Iyengar & Kinder, 1987)  This is especially true for HEAVY media consumers  Hypodermic needle theory o Belief that the media have grand affects on your perception of reality o The media inject messages into their audiences o The audience is seen as passive and unable to resist these media messages o Theory associated with Marxist academics- Marxists are traditionally hostile to the media – seeing it as vehicle to enable ruling class to maintain their dominance over society  Media tends to reinforce rather than change people’s existing beliefs  The success of media messages depends largely on a person’s ability to ACCESS a particular stereotype or counter-stereotype (Power, Murphy, & Coover, 1996)  People interpret events in a way that is consistent with their existing beliefs (Iyengar & Kinder, 1987)  What good does arguing with them do? None, fighting fire WITH fire  What should you do? o (1) Have your prepared talking points (5 to 6 bullet points) established with your client o (2) Respond do NOT react o (3) Tell the truth o (4) Apologize if necessary o (5) MINIMIZE the problem. NO ONE leaves a crisis unharmed  Remember: It’s Supposed to SUCK! o It’s a damned CRISIS! ▯ Current Events 16 killed in Terrorist Attack on Resort Hotels in Ivory Coast (ISIS) Research boat-Sir Ernest Shackleton Police: Woman ran over boyfriend outside topless bar, Florida  Hottest math teacher ever scores modeling deal with Armani  The Kardashians’ being sued for Fave Waist-Training Program ▯ ▯ Crisis Decision Theory-Sweeny, 2008  Definition: o Crisis decision theory predicts the actions people take (or choose not to take) in response to negative life events o The theory addresses responses to negative events that have already occurred and not proactive attempts to prevent the occurrence of negative events  Layman’s o Crisis comm is like a complicated relationship b/t company and hundreds/million/thousands of stakeholders o Difference between problem and crisis  Crisis decision theory describes the processes involved in responding to negative events and the processes involved in making choices by: o (1) Assessing the severity of the problem o (2) Determining your options o (3) Evaluating response options established in #2  might not happen in sequence outlined! o Woman awakens in the night to the smell of smoke; quickly assess the situation and considers her options:  (1) ignore smell and go back to sleep (most companies do this)  (2) call 911  (3) gathers a few belongings and exits the house before calling for help  Stage 1: Assessing Severity of Negative Event o People seek information in an attempt to understand the threat they face o People consider past experiences, causes, and consequences to develop an understanding of how to address the negative event  Benchmarking  See what others have done in similar situation  South Carolina flag – University of Mississippi  Alabama sororities – Oklahoma racist frat  New Orleans Katrina – New Jersey super storm Sandy  Issues need NOT be identical, just related  Do NOT re-create the wheel all the time  Nothing is new on the face of the Earth o Information about Causes (internal cause or external cause of events)  People are most likely to respond to a negative event when they feel responsible for both the problem and the solution  Research has suggested that events perceived to be caused by one’s own actions may be more likely than externally caused events to prompt active attempts to find a solution to the situation (e.g BP Oil Spill, Firestone, Dow Corning & Breast Implants)  People responsible for events see them as more severe and, unless the responsibility is overwhelming, are more likely to take action to address the situation o Comparative Information  Crisis decision theory suggests that people can compare negative events to existing event schemas when assessing the severity of an event (e.g cancer schema – death sentence or treatable)  The event will seem more severe to the extent that:  Event is similar to other severe events (e.g Exxon Valdez & BP Oil spill; Katrina vs. Sandy)  Extent to which there is no prior experience with the negative event (e.g Hurricane Katrina)  Extent that people can imagine a better alternative (or scenario)  Events perceived as controllable lead to more upward comparisons (comparisons with better possible alternatives); uncontrollable lead to more downward comparisons (comparisons with worse possible outcomes)  #1 Rule: The difference between a Problem becoming a Crisis is often how Crisis Communication professionals handle the issue  Growing pay gap between journalism and public relations (PR=#1 job in communications) o Comparative Information-Alternative Outcomes  Expectations  People compare their outcomes to a negative event to scenarios they expected or desired prior to the negative event  People experience a range of negative emotions in response to a negative event (e.g sadness, anger, grief)  Expectations influence perceptions of the outcome  If it could’ve been avoided and wasn’t-worst case  If they thought it was FUBAR (Fucked up beyond all recognition) and it turned out not to be – Best case  Most incidents happen somewhere in between  Not in article/textbooks: ESTABLISH EXPECTATIONS PRIOR with client/employer o Information About Consequences  (1) All crises are likely to result in negative consequences will seem more severe  (2) Events that have the potential to bring relatively serious consequences – especially in the court of public opinion - will seem most severe  (3) People perceive events that are highly self- relevant as having more severe consequences (death of close family member more significant vs. distant relative)  (4) The more people potentially effected, the greater the impact  Stage 2: Determining Response Options: “Controllability of Outcomes vs. Feasibility” o After people assess the severity of a negative event, they next consider how they could respond to the event: “What can I do about this problem?” o People’s perception of control over negative outcomes determines the availability of certain response options  If negative outcomes are avoidable, people are likely to consider active response options  If negative outcomes are unavoidable, people are likely to consider relatively passive response options o Limited resources restrict response options by rendering them unfeasible o People may be unable to consider the most effective response because they do not have the time, money, social support, strength, or ability required to take the necessary actions (e.g small business)  Stage 3: Evaluating Response Options o Weigh the pros and cons of each response option they generated in the previous stage o Crisis decision theory suggests that people take three broad considerations into account when evaluating their response options  (1) Required Resources to engage in response options: organizations want to use as few resources as possible (e.g Firestone, Dow Corning)  (2) Direct Consequences of the response in changing the event (e.g cancer patients surgery)  (3) Indirect Consequences of the response o One criticism of the crisis decision theory is that little attention is given to how people might act in “irrational” ways o Why is this so important? Your response determines everything! o Target  Sued a teenager after he caught a homeless man who stabbed a girl in their store  Sued for dumping Toxic Waste in California  Selling sexist products  Discriminating against blind  Racist employee training  Haven’t heard about any of this b/c of way Target handles things  ▯ Current Events Tennessee man charged with assault at Capitol – fired shots at Capitol EgyptAir Hijacking: Hostage Taker Arrested in Cyprus After Plane Diverted U.S Says is Has Unlocked iPhone without Apple ▯ Wal-Mart vs. Target Future of Wal-Mart … & Humanity?  Wal-Mart: #1 Retail store in America Number of stores: o Target: 1,700 o Walmart: 10,700 (4,500 in U.S. alone) Percentage of retail market: o Target: 2.4% o Walmart: 11.4% Total Assets: o Target: $41.4 BILLION o Walmart: $203.7 BILLION So why the hate for Wal-Mart? o Isn’t size everything in business? o Employee/worker satisfaction??? o Public perception … TARGET o Size ISN’T everything o Reputation The High Cost of Low Cost o Cheated workers of overtime costs o Faces lawsuits for wage abuse in 31 states o Illegal immigrants used to clean stores overnights for nearly no pay o Females discriminated against ▯ ▯ Wal-Mart Lawsuits: o Violating ADA (July 2012) – Huffington Post o Discriminating against Women (April 2012) Bloomberg o Bribery/Pension Plan fraud (May 2012) – New York Times Previously…Hispanics, forcing employees to work off the clock, African-Americans, etc. Headquarters o Arkansas ▯ ▯ Target Lawsuits: o National Federation of the Blind sues Target claiming big box retailer violated ADA by not making services for the blind o Target illegally dumped hazardous waste at hundreds of stores across California; ordered to pay $22.5 million o Target sued for violating Americans with Disabilities Act for not providing ‘reasonable accommodations’ for worker with Cerebral Palsy; pays $160,000 o Target ordered by Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to pay employee with multiple sclerosis $95,000 for not providing ‘reasonable accommodations’ Where is Target’s headquarters o Minneapolis, Minnesota Why is MN relevant to Target? o Very liberal (Blue) 2010: Tom Emmer o Company donated $15,000 to political group that supports Emmer o MN Forward  Opposes Gay rights  Opposes Gay marriage  Outspoken conservative group o After threats of boycotts, consumer outrage, Target’s then- CEO offers apology…etc Target misdeeds o They let people steal your money o Told you that it likely didn’t affect most of their customers, including you… o Claimed they didn’t know what was happening to your money Judge calls Target claim ‘absurd’, grants lawsuit class action status over data breach Unforgivable sin: Tried to COVER IT UP! Greg Steinhafel, Chairman and CEO of Target o Fired/Resigned After o Not apologizing fast enough for Emmer o Doing the same thing with financial breach (told half the truth) ▯ ▯ Wal-Mart vs. Target difference Many, but mainly people in this room o CRISIS & PR spokespeople Wal-Mart largely does NOT handle crises well, if at all Target prides itself on being a good corporate citizen o Helps: Benefit of the doubt when in trouble o Hurts: So wed to their own beliefs they can’t readily admit to wrongdoing ▯ ▯ How NOT to be Target or Wal-Mart BEFORE YOU GET STARTED Do NOT let the CEO speak to the media early if you can help it o CEO’s  Trained business people, not spokespeople  Have a hard time being told no and believing the media will not do what they want as everyone else does  CEO is face of the company. Greater harm when the leader messes up  HAS TO BE FIRED afterward (BP, Target, VW) Get management on board with ONE consistent message o Message should be in layman’s terms (i.e., so even the “person on the street” can understand what it means o No more than 10 bullet points-single sentenced items  Admit to whatever you can that’s wrong  Discuss what is being done to fix the problem right now  If possible, provide a timetable or course for the future of what will be done (test question!!!) Most importantly, o Show you care o Hiding facts shows you care about profits o That will get you killed o ▯ Current Events Library of Congress drops term “illegal alien” after Dartmouth students protest Jamar Clark: No charges against Minneapolis cops involved in shooting ▯ ▯ About the test Look for central themes in readings Specific aspects in the movie Look over colored portion, especially the three bullet point portions of the slides (all of the above EXCEPT) questions THEORIES, THEORIES, THEORIES o And know how to apply/example of, not just what they state Everything since the last exam, on Feb. 9, 2016 Current Events Topics o Social media o Ferguson o South Carolina and confederate flag o Dealing with an angry public o Tiger woods o Handling crises when your organization has done wrong o Target vs. Wal-mart Issues about which you should be well-versed o Roughly how many bullet points should have prepared for a press conference? (6-10) o What is Spreading Activation? (related to priming, creation of thought in your mind that leads to other beliefs)  Men v. Women and who is affected by it?  It’s similar to which theory (a way to remember it)  What tends to stoke the fires of violent thoughts? o Hypodermic Needle Theory o The media and your beliefs Issues o Know the five steps you should do when dealing with the media (Slide 36; “What you should do?” in the Angry Public lecture) o Agenda Setting (definition of it) o Need for orientation o Why did Target’s CEO get fired? o What’s the take-away message form the influence of social media and people’s perception of your company? Topics o What was the main means by which the government and police in Ferguson (and the surrounding communities) o How long was it between the time Officer Wilson arrived and shot Mike Brown, according to lecture? o What was Mike Brown initially stopped for doing? o What was Target’s “Unforgivable Sin?” o What happens to Crisis Communication/PR people when they lie (or tell half truths) to the media? o Who FIRST broke the story about Tiger’s affairs? o What were the four mistakes Tiger made in handling the controversy he created? o What was the MAJOR take-away from the Tiger Woods fiasco? Current Events o Big Picture items since the last test o SOME were mentioned in class (and the actual NEWS events) o School that got kickbacks for selling books? Detroit, Michigan ▯ ▯ ▯


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