chapter 14 Study guide
chapter 14 Study guide MCB 244
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Logner on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MCB 244 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Dr, Chester Brown in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Chapter 14: The Brain Cerebrum the largest part of the brain controls higher mental functions the cerebrum is divided into cerebral hemispheres surface layer is gray matter Neural cortex is also called the cerebral cortex gyri elevated ridges of the neural cortex sulci shallow depressions of the neural cortex fissures deep grooves of the neural cortex Cerebellum aka little brain second largest part of the brain coordinates repetitive body movements has 2 hemispheres is covered with cerebellar cortex diencephalon located under the cerebrum and the cerebellum links the cerebrum with the brain stem Thalamus major relay center for sensory information hypothalamus part of emotion center hormone production control center for autonomic function thalamus, hypothalamus divisions of the diencephalon pituitary glad major endocrine gland connected to hypothalamus infundibulum stalk that connects pituitary gland to hypothalamus Midbrain also called mesencephalon processes sight, sound, and associated reflexes maintains consciousness Pons connects cerebellum to brain stem is involved in somatic and visceral motor control medulla oblongata connects brain to spinal cord relays information regulates autonomic functions (heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion) Cerebral hemispheres each cerebral hemisphere contains one large lateral ventricle lateral ventricle is separated by a thin medial partition called the septum pellucidum Third ventricle ventricle of the diencephalon lateral ventricles communicate with it Fourth ventricle extends into medulla oblongata becomes continuous with central canal of the spinal cord connects with third ventricle via narrow canal in midbrain called cerebral aquaduct Cerebellum adjusts postural muscles fine tunes conscious and subconscious movements folia surface of the cerebellum that has highly folded neural the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum are separated by the primary fissure broken up into anterior and posterior the hemispheres are separated at midline by the vermis vermis narrow band of cortex in cerebellum Purkinje large, branched cells found in the cerebellar cortex that receive input from 200,000 synapses arbor vitae (tree of life) the highly branched, internal white matter of the cerebellum peduncles tracts that link cerebellum with brain stem, cerebrum, and spinal cord Thalamus filters ascending sensory information for primary sensory cortex relays information between basal nuclei and cerebral cortex there are 5 groups of thalamic nuclei that relay sensory information to basal nuclei and cerebral cortex Anterior group of thalamic nuclei: part of limbic system that responds to emotions Medial group of thalamic nuclei: awareness and emotional states Ventral group of thalamic nuclei: relay sensory info Posterior group of thalamic nuclei: sensory: visual/auditory info Lateral group of thalamic nuclei: affects emotional states and integrates sensory info Hypothalamus: mamillary bodies process olfactory and other sensory information control reflex eating movements In Hypothalamus:pituitary gland a narrow stalk that connects hypothalamus to pituitary gland infundibulum Function of Hypothalamus: provides subconscious control of skeletal muscle controls autonomic function coordinates activities of nervous and endocrine systems secretes hormones ADH is secreted by supraoptic nucleus Oxytocin is secreted by paraventricular nucleus produce emotions and behavioral drives (Hunger and Thirst) coordinates voluntary functions regulates body temperature (preoptic area) control circadian rythms (suprachiasmatic nucleus) limbic system functional grouping that establishes emotional states links conscious functions of cerebral cortex with autonomic functions of brain stem facilitates memory storage and retrieval longitudinal fissure separates left and right cerebral hemispheres lobes are divisions of cerebral hemispheres (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital) Sulci deep fissures which separate lobes central sulcus divides frontal from parietal lobe (divides moto from sensory areas) lateral sulcus divides frontal from temporal lobe Parietooccipital sulcus divides parietal from occipital lobe Fibers association fibers: connections within one hemisphere commissural fibers: bands of fibers connecting two hemispheres projection fibers: connect cerebrum with lower areas projection Postcentral gyrus receives somatic sensory information (touch, pressure, pain, vibration, taste, and temperature) aka "sensory homunculus" Precentral gyrus directs voluntary movements and contains the primary motor cortex Lobes visual cortex = occipital lobe auditory/olfactory cortex = temporal lobe gustatory cortex = frontal lobe Left hemisphere reading, writing, math decision making speech and language Right hemisphere senses (touch, smell, sight, taste, feel) recognition (faces, voice inflections) EEG assesses brain activity alpha waves found in healthy, awake adults at rest with eyes closed Beta waves higher frequencies, found in adults concentrating or mentally stressed Theta waves found in children; intensely frustrated adults; can be indicator for brain disorders Delta waves present during certain phases of sleep Gamma waves often seen during intensive states Nerves Sensory nerves: carry somatic sensory information (touch, pressure, vibration, temperature, pain) Specialized sensory nerves: carry sensation of smell, sight, hearing, and balance Motor nerves: axons of somatic motor neurons Mixed nerves: mixture of motor and sensory fibers Cranial Nerves Cranial Nerve 1: olfactory, sensory Cranial Nerve 2: optic, sensory Cranial Nerve 3: oculomotor, motor Cranial Nerve 4: trochlear, motor Cranial Nerve 5: trigeminal, both Cranial Nerve 6: abducens, motor Cranial Nerve 7: facial, both Cranial Nerve 8: vestibulocochlear, sensory Cranial Nerve 9: glossopharyngeal, both Cranial Nerve 10: vagus, both Cranial Nerve 11: accessory, motor Cranial Nerve 12: hypoglossal, motor
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