Midterm 2 Poli Sci 103 Study Guide
Midterm 2 Poli Sci 103 Study Guide Poli Sci 103
Popular in Intoduction to International Relations
Poli Sci 103
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Political Science
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Arndt on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Poli Sci 103 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Mark Copelovitch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Intoduction to International Relations in Political Science at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
Reviews for Midterm 2 Poli Sci 103 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/03/16
Midterm #2 Study Guide International Conflict: a difference in preferred outcomes in a bargaining situation o Conflict doesn’t mean war Leverage: using power capabilities to influence an actor to reach an agreement more favorable to you o War is a means of leverage o Sources: conventional forces, irregular, and weapons of mass destruction Means of leverage: parallel to solution to collective action problems o Dominance (realism), reciprocity (liberalism), identity (constructivism) o On security issues dominance is go to (US defense spending) States allocate spending differently based on a variety of factors o Perceived comparative advantage o Threats in neighborhood o Alliance partners o Material resources o Ideals and beliefs about international security Defense economics o Old analogy: US and great depression o New analogy: USSR and collapse o Tradeoff between long term economic growth and military spending Krepenivich o Moving to asymmetric warfare o Millennium Challenge Simulate fighting in gulf war, Iranian forces won Generations of Warfare o 1: muskets, line and column o 2: WWI, trenches and firepower o 3: WWII, maneuver warfare, rapid mechanization o 4: Guerilla warfare, asymmetric Future: technology, cyber warfare, and drones War: sustained, organized violence between two internationally recognized groups Problems in studying war o Important ones could be the wars that don’t happen o War is a very low-probability event o No easy explanations Wars fight over: territory, economic matters, control of governments, ethnic/religious conflicts, ideological conflicts Territorial conflict o Oldest and most common, land is the basis for the state and therefore basis for sovereignty o Two types: land ownership or intrastate, borders o Water: eez for example o What causes it? Irredentism: regaining territory lost to another state Borders/land disputes: demarcation questions, land grabs Secessionism Economic conflicts: often over territory that is important for trade routes or resource production o Ex. Spratly islands o Sociological or domestic-political o Many countries are tied through trade o Types of interdependence Sensitivity: speed and magnitude with which a change in one country is felt in another Vulnerability: do you have alternate economic partners Material Conflicts o Trade and resources Ideologically conflict o Conflicts revolving around identity o Religious and ethnic groups o May want to form nation-state Diaspara politics o Effects of colonization o Irredentism and cross-border support Parallel cleavages o Same about multiple issues Cross-cutting cleavages o Agree with some and not others Natural resources o Provide funding o Lootability key idea (diamonds vs. oil) o Related to resource curse Ancient hatred school o Ethnic groups have always hated each other o Problems: over predicts conflict, cannot predict timing, usually an excuse to do nothing Terrorism o Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience o Mental state, psychological o More middle east/us attacks o Causes: decline of state-centric ideologies Islamic groups Globalization Communication and technology o Solutions Direct military retaliation Eliminate distinction between military solutions and law enforcement solutions Reward good government and democracy o Terrorism debates Rational Weapons of Mass Destruction o Older concern o Previous vertical proliferation, US vs USSR in arms race o Now horizontal proliferation, new countries/terrorist acquiring o Counter proliferation strategies Prevention, persuasion, pre-emption o Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Non-proliferation Disarmament Peaceful use of energy International Organizations o Facilitate cooperation, lengthen the shadow of the future, gather/share information, reduce fears of cheating, assist in punishing defectors, structure negotiations and bargaining, facilitate side payments International Institutions o International structure that guide relations between states o Broader than formal IOs o Regimes o Varieties International law/treaties Legal codes that set boundaries for state behavior IGOs Formal that have state members and a secretariat IMF, WTO, UN, EU, NATO NGOs Key members are nonstate actors Catholic Church, Oxfam Why do states form/join IOs? o Realism: change power of strong countries over weak Skeptical about states behavior o Liberalism: relative vs. mutual gains Promotes trade and peace Domestic political pressure, helps leaders get reelected o Constructivism: states do this sort of thing It is appropriate, transforms states interest United Nations o Founded in 1945, 51 states o Tradeoff: sovereignty vs. global governance o League of Nations try 2 o UN charter: collective security o UN Secretariat (Security General) Part CEO, part world-moderator, part advocate Can set agenda internationally Focal point during international crises More social than material power o General Assembly Parliament of man or world assembly 193 members one state=one vote resolutions are non-binding three powers accredit national delegations control finances administrative oversight appoints security general on recommendation of security council UN Security Council Most powerful part, its enforcement wing Passes resolutions fro the use of force, sanctions, investigation 5 permanent members: China, US, Russia, UK, France ten other rotating members o UNSC reform Problem: need 2/3 general assembly approval, with no current UNSC vetoes Peacekeeping o Often centers around UN o UN has no permanent military force o Contributors of troops Conflict may be next door Can’t contribute money, but have troops o Functions: observing or peacekeeping o Problems Lack of ability to actually keep peace Mission creep Lack of funding Bad peacekeepers o Challenges Can one truly be neutral What is most effective Regional peacekeeping The European Union o 28 member states o started with coal and steel industry o Treat of Paris 1951 o 6 original countries (Neo)functionalism o Cooperation in technical matters will spill over to politics o Mutual dependence: no one could do well without others o Supra nationalism: decisions could and would be at levels higher than national government o Contra-theory: nationalism Inter-governmentalism o Functionalists are wrong, integration is a series of grand bargains between heads of gov’t of the most powerful states in the EU Core argument o Domestic politics shape national preferences o Relative power shapes choice of policies and institutions Institutions of the EU o Council of ministers: ministers of each state Weighed voting system, traditionally where the power lies European Commission o 28 member cabinet o staff of 30,000 eurocrats o 5 year term European Parliament: only directly elected part of the EU o Organized by political parties o Powers Adopts EU budget Co-legislative body Supervises Commission European Court of Justice o Active jurisdiction over all EU members o 1 judge from each o key: supremacy European Central Bank o Eurozone: 19 have adopted euro as currency EU challenges o Enlargement o Euro Crisis o The Refugee Crisis o A looming “Brexit” International law o Sources: treaties, customs, general principles of law, legal scholarship o Enforcement: power, reciprocity, and identity o Two visions Realist: international law is weak, rules reflect state behavior rather than influence state behavior Liberal: has limits, but it matters World Court o States can sue others o Panel of 15 judges to a 9 year term Human Rights o Conceptions follow western ideas Focus on political rights and civil liberties Primary unit is the individual o Nonwestern value stability and order over personal identity o Rights broadly accepted as normal o ICCPR: western o ICESCR: broader, employment, living wage, education o Why states violate Incapacity, national security, to suppress domestic political dissent, leaders may view granting HR as a threat to their survival Against individuals or groups feared to be allied with foreign power Gov’t violate rights to secure their own rule o Enforcement Gains from cooperation are small, costs of enforcement are high Violations aren’t a collective good Naming and shaming International Criminal Court o Holds individuals directly responsible Major infringement of sovereignty o Does not deal with state vs. state cases o Permanent o Prosecutes Genocide, crimes against humanity, crimes of aggression, war crimes Trigger Mechanisms o A state can refer one of its own Ex. Civil war o Independent prosecutor of the ICC can begin a case if the crime occurred on the territory of a signatory o The UNSC can refer any individual to the prosecutor ICC can’t hear case if... o State is already prosecuting the state domestically o The accused has been found innocent in domestic court, except if the prosecutor or UNSC determines the domestic process was insufficient Complications o Clinton signed ICC but senate hasn’t ratified it o Why? Erosion of sovereignty and domestic law US troops and war crimes Former US officials o Genocide Convention The Straus Critique o Not about language more about political will o Definition of genocide is vague o Genocide needs a more precise definition/threshold International Political Economy o Study of two key issues Political determinants of economic outcomes Economic determinants of political outcomes Classical (economic) liberalism o Individually rational behavior in a free market will produce the most efficient social outcomes o Efficiency=max. output, minimizing waste o Emphasizes pareto optimality and absolute gains Pareto Optimality o Allocation of resources are where it is impossible to make any individual better off without making another worse off Focus on Problems and limits of market o Competition is rarely perfect o Producers and consumers rarely have perfect information o Markets “fail” often for political reasons o Governments act in the economy Tradeoffs o Between efficiency and distributional consequences o Between “good” economics and “good” politics o Between domestic goods and international commitments Liberalism predominant theory in IPE o Topics: trade, exchange rates, finance, development, MNC’s Mercantilism o Emphasis on state power Economic growth and efficiency are subordinate in state power concerns money is fungible (wealth=military power) o emphasis on relative gains: trade as zero sum game o triangular trade max efficiency is free trade contra mercantilisim: focus on mutual gains Comparative advantage o Society best off if everyone does what they are good at o Each country gains if it exports the goods it produces most efficiently o Trade leads to specialization of production and higher aggregate welfare Heckscher-Olin Theory o Explains why countries have comparative advantages in certain goods o A country will export goods that make intensive us of the factors of production that it has in relative abundance o Factor endowments Labor/capital/land Abundance is relative Specialization o Win for consumers o Battle between winners and losers Protectionism o Tariffs: tax at the border of goods Across the border Specific o Quotas: quantity protection measure o “non-tariff barriers” loopholes around illegal tariffs and quotas France movie industry o Export subsidies: help cover the cost of production when a country doesn’t have the comparative advantage o Sanctions: security implications for political reasons Free trade o Costs: concentrated in particular sectors, firms, and industries, losers lobby hard for protection and get it o Benefits: spread widely among consumers o Everything is cheaper Interest groups o Not plausible that economic policies we observe can be preferred by the average voter o Gov’t spends a lot of money on policies that have a negative affect o Common Agricultural Policy To address food shortages after ww2 Now surplus Mutual trade is a prisoner’s dilemma GATT o Trade liberalization through institutionalized cooperation o Most favored nation and reciprocity o Set of bargaining rules o Periodic trade rounds o Key exceptions: agriculture, non-tariff barriers, regional trade agreements o Results: from 1943-1973 trade and GDP doubles, rapid growth and development WTO o Rounds are tougher o Harder enforcement o Can now sue other countries o Beyond tariffs and manufactured goods, services, some agriculture and textiles, intellectual property Controversies with WTO o Trade and Jobs Free trade=job losses There are tradeoffs o Race to the Bottom WTO forces states to lower labor standards and environmental regulations Safety and health organizations suffer Not much evidence o Sovereignty The WTO disregards states sovereignty to pass rules on trade Pretty much true o Development WTO biased against poor countries, deny them the ability to protect domestic sectors No evidence Evidence that trade openness is correlated with development Without WTO more biased because tariffs would be set by developed states Agricultural subsidies: major source of tension between North/South Developing states want them cut Developed are nervous of letting them go o The DSM The WTOs dispute settlement mechanism (court) is biased against poor developing countries No: bias is towards plaintiffs Yes: developing states file very few cases because they can’t afford to Mostly rich sue Problems Retaliation Expertise Cost
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'