Cell Biology Notes for Exam 3
Cell Biology Notes for Exam 3 327
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kali Webster on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 327 at Texas Christian University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Cell Biology in Biology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
SECTION 3 - Central dogma (DNA RNA Protein cell organism) - Glycoconjugates: anything that has a sugar structures around them (on the outside of the cell) - Monosaccharide (CH2O)n - Galactose is an isomer of glucose - Oligiosarrachides are short and aren’t repetitive - Mucus main components are polysaccharides - Two classes of protein Glycoconjugates: o Glycoprotein: you have a short sugar chain attached to a protein (maybe 10) o Proteoglycan: much bigger polysaccharides attached to the protein (you much need a GAG chain repeating disaccharide units and there must me a amine group attached to the sugar (-charged because of sulfate groups attached) o They tend to attract/absorb water and take over a large volume form gel-like consistency In your joints/tissues (part of the electro cellular matrix) Hyaluronan is a GAG chain that isn’t attached to any protein Found in beauty products - Function of glycoproteins: o Help proteins from degradation o Hold the protein to the ER until properly folded o Transport signal for protein transport o For glycocalyx Protection (slimy layer on the surface of cells) - ER: protein folding, and glycosylation o You get a pre-formed sugar precursor that is transferring to proteins entering the ER (transferred to Asn-X(any amino acid except proline)- Ser/Thr) N-linking glycosylation o No variation in the sequence ER membrane has a carrier protein and is where the sugar is initially attached to-> 7 sugars are added protein is flipped in the membrane sugar is in the inside of the cell o In the ER, they think that glycosylation helps with protein folding o Glycosidase removes glucose o Before leaving the ER some sugars come off, and mannose and leaves the ER to go to the Golgi In the ER, the protein is modified, but has the exact same sequence In Golgi there are hundreds of glycosidase (removes glucose) and glycosyl transferases (adds) - Two N-linked Oligosaccharide classes o Complex oligosaccharide: bunch of additional sugars that were added in the Golgi o High-mannose oligosaccharide: lots of mannose - You can also have glycosylation that occurs only in the Golgi (ASN-Glut-Glut will attach sugars) - Why is glycosylation important? o Trafficking of proteins (example: when a phosphate is added to the terminal mannose group the protein will be brought to the lysosome) Nucleases, proteases, etc. I-cell Disease (lysosome storage disease (tag doesn’t get added) Proteins won’t be transferred to lysosome (mutation in glycosyl-transferases) Most liposomal enzymes are secretes and they go into the blood stream Bird Flu H4N1 (“bird flu”) People who were in close contact with birds that were infected Even though it had a high mortality rate, it was hard to get infected, and no human-to-human transmission o Why? o Because in order for the flu virus to infect the cell , it must attach to the cell recognizes glycosylated protein (O-linkedSer o It matters what the linkage between the two sugars is o For humans, we recognize the 2-6 linkage in upper respiratory tract and 2-3 linkages in the very lower respiratory tract, binds recognize the 2-3 linkage o The Bird flu only recognized the 2-3 linkage (it was hard to spread to our lower respiratory tract) Section 3- Week one- lecture 3 - Hypothesis: “Do you have increased inflammation when they are experienced with Neu5Gc when they have the antibodies for Neu5Gc” o Step 1: give CMAH -/- antibodies to Neu5GCc o Step 2: give either pork or soy o Step 3: measure inflammation (production of cytokines) o Results: highest levels of inflammation in mice with antibodies and experienced to Neu5Gc diet Section 3- Week 2- day 1 - Salic acid are found at the terminal sugar sequence, in mammalian cells - The Experimenters looked to see if the mice had an increase in liver cancer (hepatocellular cancer (HCC), as well as adenoma (benign tumor) o There was an increase in cancer in the mice that had Neu5Gc antibodies as well as exposure to Neu5Gc o CMAH gene makes it so Neu5Gc can be made - Chimps don’t get the kind of cancers or cardiovascular diseases as we do o Can the attempt to get away from the risk of getting malaria (loss of CMAH gene) be the cause of human cancer and cardiovascular system disease - Cells have to release energy as small amounts (step wise) so that the energy can be capture along the way by energy carriers (NADH, etc.) - During glycolysis and , oxygen is not needed (anaerobic), but it’s need in the oxidative phosphorylation - During glycolysis, ATP is made through o 2 ATP consumed o 4 ATP produced o 2 NADH produced o Net gain= 2 ATP’s, 2 NADH o Its more energetically favorable to break the phosphate bond and add it to ADP to create ATP o Citric acid cycle glucose is fully oxidized o Our bodies store glycogen for later use Fatty acids can be stored and can be broken down in the o The sole purpose of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle isn’t to just make ATP and NADH, but there are a lot of other branches off the cycles that will use these molecules that are made o Glycolysis + oxidative phosphorylation (consumption of oxygen and phosphorylation of ADP) = 30 ATP Section 3- Week 3- Lecture 1 - G- protein coupled receptors: o Active with GTP is bound o 3 subunits o Gs or Gi (stimulates target protein vs inhibits) o First messenger the original extracellular ligand o Second messenger cAMP o PKA (protein kinase a) it phosphorylates a target protein PKA has many targets - cAMP signaling example o adrenaline in the muscle cell - Huntington disease o Repeats of CAT o The protein that is associated with the Huntington’s protein is most likely transcription factors o The transcription factor is probably bound to DNA o PPARdelta is a nuclear receptor (intracellular receptor) o Control GRP+ PPAR= just GFP(no interaction) o GFPHTT+ PPAR= interaction - Western Blot o Separate proteins on the gel o Transfer proteins to a membrane (on that membrane you have the target protein and others (add in antibody that recognize the target protein; secondary antibody to recognize ) o Why did they use the flag antibody because it recognizes the PPARdelta(you get a band if present)
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