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Study Guide for Digestive System

by: Brooke Polinsky

Study Guide for Digestive System BIOL 2510 - 001

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Brooke Polinsky

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These are questions and answers for the digestive system.
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Shobnom Ferdous
Study Guide
Anatomy 2, Digestive System
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Polinsky on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 04/03/16
Digestive System: • What are the four basic functions of the digestive system? ◦ ingestion ◦ digestion ◦ absorption ◦ defecation (expel indigestible remains) • Who were involved in the gastric experiments? ◦ Alexis St. Martin and William Beaumont (father of gastric physiology) • What was their experiment called that they published? ◦ Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice, and the physiology of digestion • What is the length of the GI tract? ◦ 9 m (30ft), 6m of it is the small intestine • What makes up the alimentary canal of the GI tract? ◦ mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum • What makes up the accessory organs? ◦ teeth, tongue, salivary glands, gall bladder, liver, pancreas • What is ingestion? ◦ taking in solids and liquids via oral cavity • What is propulsion? ◦ movement of food through the Gi tract • What two other processes are in propulsion? ◦ Deglutition (swallowing, oral cavity to esophagus) ◦ Peristalsis (wave like alternation in the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles through the GI tract) • What are the three parts mechanical digestion? ◦ Mastication (chewing, increases surface area) ◦ Churning (mixes food and gastric juices) ◦ Segmentation (contraction of small intestine to mis food and expose all surfaces for absorption) • What is chemical digestion? ◦ enzymes to break down complex food molecules • What is absorption? ◦ passage of digested food from GI tract to blood and lymph • Absorption mainly occurs where? ◦ small intestines • What is defecation? ◦ elimination of indigestible substances via feces • What is the peritoneum? ◦ serous membranes of abdominal cavity • What are the two membranes of the peritoneum? ◦ visceral- membrane on the external surface of digestive organs ◦ parietal- membrane that lines body walls • What is the peritoneal cavity? ◦ fluid filled space between two peritoneums, lubricates mobile organs • What are intraperitoneal organs? ◦ organs that are located within the peritoneum • What is the mesentery? ◦ double layer of peritoneum extending from body walls to digestive organs • What are three functions of the mesentery? ◦ provides pathway for blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves ◦ holds organs in place ◦ stores fat • What is an example of a mesentery? ◦ Omentum • What peritoneum lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity? ◦ parietal • What peritoneum covers surface of organs in the abdominopelvic cavity? ◦ visceral • Where are retroperitoneal organs located? ◦ on the outside or posterior to the peritoneum ◦ includes pancreas, duodenum, and parts of large intestine • What are four basic layers, or tunic that all digestive organs have? ◦ mucosa ◦ submucosa ◦ muscularis externa ◦ serosa • What are the functions of the Mucosa layer? ◦ tunic layer that lines lumen ◦ secretes mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones ◦ absorbs end products of digestion ◦ protects against infectious disease • What are the three sublayers of the mucosa? ◦ epithelium ◦ lamina propria ◦ muscularis mucosae • What kind of CT makes up epithelium? ◦ simple columnar epithelium ◦ mouth, esophagus, and anus are made up of stratified squamous epithelium • What is the function of epithelium? ◦ secretes mucus that protects digestive organs from enzymes and eases food passage ◦ may secrete enzymes and hormones in stomach or small intestine • What kind of CT makes up lamina proper? ◦ loose areolar CT • What is located in the lamina propria? ◦ capillaries (nourishment and absorption) ◦ lymphoid follicles- help defend against microorganisms • What are the lymphoid follicles apart of? ◦ MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) • What is the function of muscular muscosae? ◦ smooth muscle that produces local movements of mucosa • What kind of CT does submucosa consist of? ◦ areolar CT • What does the submucosa sublayer contain? ◦ blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles, submucosal nerve plexus that supply surrounding GI tract • What does the submucosa have an abundance of? ◦ elastic tissues that help organs regain shape after storing large meal • What is the muscular external responsible for? ◦ segmentation and peristalsis • What does the muscular external contain? ◦ inner circular muscle layer and outer longitudinal layers (sphincters) • What does the inner circular layer of muscular external do? ◦ smooth muscle that controls lumen diameter • What does the outer longitudinal layer do? ◦ smooth muscle that controls tract length • What is the Serosa sublayer made of? ◦ visceral peritoneum ◦ formed from areolar CT COVERED WITH MESOTHELIUM • What replaces the serosa in the esophagus? ◦ fibrous adventitia (dense CT that holds esophagus to surrounding structures) • Retroperitoneal organs have? ◦ both an adventitia and serosa • What kind of arteries does the Splanchnic Circulation include? ◦ hepatic, splenic, and left gastric arteries ◦ inferior and superior mesenteric arteries • What are the functions of the Hepatic portal Circulation? ◦ Drains nutrient rich blood from digestive organs ◦ blood to liver for processing • What neurons are in the intrinsic control of the GI tract? ◦ enteric nuerons • What is the function of energetic neurons? ◦ regulate digestive system activity ◦ controlling segmentation and peristalsis • What are two nerve plexuses involved with enteric neurons? ◦ Submucosal nerve plexus= controls glands and mucosal smooth muscles (sensory and motor neurons) ◦ Myenteric nerve plexus= controls GI tract and motility (circular and longitudinal muscle) • Where is the submucosal nerve plexus found? ◦ within the submucosa layer of the GI tract • What nerves are involved with the Extrinsic control of GI tract? ◦ sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers • What are sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers synapse with? ◦ enteric neurons • What does the sympathetic nerve fibbers do? ◦ hyperpolarization= E/NE bind to alpha/beta receptors that open K+ channels • What does the parasympathetic nerve fibers do? ◦ depolarization= Ach bind to M receptors and open Na+ channels • What are the three major classes of food? ◦ carbs, lipids, and proteins • The prefix -ase means? ◦ enzyme • The prefix -ose means? ◦ sugar • What is an enzyme that breaks down peptides? ◦ peptidase • Enzymes that breaks down fats? ◦ lipase • What is a carb from start to end? ◦ Polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides • What are monosaccharides? ◦ glucose, fructose, galactose • What does salivary amylase do? ◦ in the mouth and it breaks down starch • What does the pancreatic amylase do? ◦ released by the pancreas by the small intestine and breaks down starch that escaped digestion in the mouth • What are brush border enzymes? ◦ break down oligosaccharides and disaccharides • What are proteins from start to end ◦ proteins to amino acids • What breaks down proteins into polypeptides and some amino acids? ◦ pepsin • Where does protein digestion begin? ◦ stomach • Where is the enzyme location of proteins? ◦ stomach, pancreas, and intestine • Where is the location of digestion? ◦ stomach and small intestine • Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase do what in the small intestine? ◦ further break down protein fragments into smaller peptides • Amino peptidase, dipeptidase, and carboxypeptidase do what? ◦ they are brush border enzymes that break down protein fragments into amino acids • What is a lipid from start to end? ◦ unremulsified fats (triglycerides) into monoglycerides and fatty acids • What is the "pre-treatment" of lipids by? ◦ bile salts to make fat soluble in water • What are lipids digested by? ◦ Lingual (mouth), gastric (stomach), pancreatic lipases that break down lipids • Where are enzymes located in lipids? ◦ mouth, stomach, and pancreas • Location of digestion for lipids? ◦ mouth, stomach, small intestine • What process are involved with the oral cavity? ◦ ingestion, mastication (chewing) , deglutition (swallowing), digestion (mechanical and chemical) • What are the six parts of the oral cavity? ◦ palatine tonsils, palate, Uvula, Lingual Frenulum, Labial Frenulum, Defensins • What are palatine tonsils? ◦ lymph nodes • What is the palate? ◦ roof of the mouth • What is the Uvula? ◦ projection off soft palate • What does the Lingual Frenulum do? ◦ secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth • What does the labial frenulum do? ◦ attaches lips to gums • What are defensins? ◦ antimicrobial peptides produced by oral mucosa • What is the tongue composed of? ◦ interlacing bundles of skeletal muscle • What are the functions of the tongue? ◦ gripping, repositioning, and mixing food during chewing ◦ formation of bolus= mixture of food and saliva ◦ initiation of swallowing, speech and taste • What do the intrinsic muscles of the tongue do? ◦ change shape of the tongue • What do the extrinsic muscles of the tongue do? ◦ alter tongues position • What does the tongue occupy? ◦ the floor of the mouth • What does the lingual frenulum do for the tongue? ◦ attachment to floor of mouth • What does the superior surface of the tongue bear? ◦ papillae, piglike projections of underlying mucosa • What are the four types of papillae on the tongue? ◦ filiform= keratin most numerous, no taste buds ◦ fungiform= scattered, contain taste buds ◦ circumvallate= in a v-shaped row at the back of the tongue, taste buds ◦ foilate= postern-lateral, taste buds but function only in taste in childhood • What does filiform paella do? ◦ makes tongue rough and aids in licking soft foods ◦ fiction for manipulating food in mouth • What is the terminal sulcus of the tongue? ◦ a groove located posterior to the vallate papillae ◦ marks division between body and root • Why is terminal sulcus still bumpy even though it does not contain papillae? ◦ lingual tonsil • What three things do most salivary glands include? ◦ Parotid, submandibular, sublingual • Where is the partied located? ◦ anterior to ear and external master muscle • Where does the parotid duct open? ◦ into the oral vestibule next to second upper molar • Where is the submandibular located? ◦ medial to body of mandible • Where does the submandibular open? ◦ at the base of lingual frenulum • Where is sublingual located? ◦ anterior to submandibular glad under tongue • Where does the sublingual duct open? ◦ 10-12 ducts into floor of mouth • What types of secretory cells are produced in salivary glands? ◦ Serous= produce watery secretion, enzymes, ions ◦ Mucous cells= produce mucus • Which glands contain mostly serous cells? ◦ parotid and submandibular • Which gland consists mostly of mucous cells? ◦ sublingual gland • What is the mumps? ◦ inflammation of partied gland due to the mumps virus ◦ children disease ◦ spreads via saliva • What is the composition of salvia? ◦ mostly water, electrolytes, salivary amylase, lingual lipase ◦ Proteins: mucin, lysozyme ◦ metabolic wastes • How much saliva can be produced in a a day? ◦ 1500 ml • What do the minor and major salivary glands do? ◦ minor=keeps mouth moist ◦ major= activated by parasympathetic nervous system • When are the major salivary glands activated by the parasympathetic nervous system? ◦ ingested food stimulates chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in mouth sending signals to Salivatory nuclei in brain stem that stimulate parasympathetic impulses along fibers in cranial nerves VII and IX to glands • What does strong sympathetic stimulation do? ◦ inhibits salivation and results in dry mouth • What can act as a stimuli? ◦ smell/sight of food ◦ upset GI • What are the functions of Saliva? ◦ cleanse mouth ◦ secretes enzymes= salivary amylase and lingual lipase that start chemical digestion ◦ Protect against microorganisms • What is the ph of Saliva? ◦ 6.57-7, largely water ◦ important b/c enzymes in saliva function in slightly acidic environments • What are the three types of microorganisms ◦ defensins= anti-microbial proteins ◦ IgA antibodies= cause phagocytosis by WBCs and prevent pathogens from adhering to mucous membranes • What does a strong stimulation to the sympathetic nervous system do? ◦ release of epic/norepi ◦ vasoconstriction, inhibits salivation • What does a strong stimulation to the parasympathetic NS do? ◦ Smell or taste-->chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors--> medulla pons--> salivary glands--> increase in salivation • How many baby teeth fall out? ◦ 20 y the age of 13 • How many adult teeth are there? ◦ 32 permanent • What is a crown? ◦ exposed part of tooth ◦ outer surface= enamel (protect teeth against abrasion and acid) ◦ interdire surface= dentin, bulk of tooth calcified, protein-rich, acts as shock absorber during biting/chewing • What is a root? ◦ portion of tooth embedded in jaw bone ◦ outer surface= cement, calcified CT ◦ interior=mostly dentin • What is the periodontal ligament? ◦ attaches tooth to jaw • Where is the esophagus? ◦ extends from your pharynx to your stomach • Esophagus enters abdominal cavity through what? ◦ esophageal hiatus (hole in diaphragm) • Where does the esophagus join the stomach? ◦ gastroesophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter)- allows food to pass to stomach but prevents stomach acid from entering esophagus • What is the function of the esophagus? ◦ moves food to stomach via peristalsis • How long is the stomach? ◦ 6-10 inches long • What are the four regions of the stomach? ◦ cardiac- food enters esophagus ◦ fundus- dome-shaped part of stomach ◦ Body- middle portion of stomach ◦ Pyloric-inferior funnel shaped part of stomach • What are the two sphincters of the stomach? ◦ Gastroesophageal sphincter ◦ Pyloric sphincter= controls stomach emptying into intestine • What is a rugae? ◦ mucosal folds • What kind of epithelium does the stomach have? ◦ surface epithelium- columnar epithelium of mucosa lining stomach ◦ protects stomach lining from acidity ◦ secretes viscous and alkaline mucus • Stomach mucosa has what two parts? ◦ Gastric Glands- secretes gastric juices ◦ gastric pits- openings for gastric glands • What are the two types of glandular secretory cells? ◦ Mucous neck cells- secretes thin, acidic mucus ◦ Chief Cells- secretes pepsinogen and small amount of lipase • What does the inactive form of pepsin do? ◦ enzyme breaks down proteins in stomach • What is the function of parietal cells in the stomach? ◦ secretes HCL and Intrinsic factor (glycoprotein needed for vitamin b12 absorption in the small intestine) • What are the 4 glandular secretory cells called? ◦ Enteroendocrine cells- produce chemical messengers (5) (hormones) • What five chemical signals do the enteroendocrine cells produce? ◦ Gastrin- stimulates HCl secretion and stomach motility ◦ Histamine- activates parietal cells secrete HCl ◦ Endophrins- suppress appetite ◦ Serotonin- causes contraction of stomach muscles ◦ Somatostatin- inhibits stomach secretion and motility • What is the largest gland in the body? ◦ liver • What does the liver do for the digestive system? ◦ filtration system- processes venous blood delivered to it from digestive system • What is the blood supply of in the liver? ◦ 1. Hepatic artery (carries O2 rich blood from heart to liver) ◦ 2. Hepatic portal vein- receives nutrient rich venous blood from digestive organs; BLOOD MAY CONTAIN TOXINS AND MICROORGANISMS ◦ 3. DIGESTIVE ORGANS--> LIVERMORE FILTERING BEFORE GOING TO MAJOR SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION ◦ 4. Sinusoids- liver capillaries; receive blood FROM HEPATIC ARTERY AND HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN ◦ 5. Hepatic vein- receive cleaned blood from sinusoids and empty into inferior vena cava • What are livers major functions? ◦ produce bile for fat digestion • What does bile consist of? ◦ bile salts, phospholipids also some pigment and cholesterol • What is the function of the gall bladder? ◦ stores and concentrates bile • Where does the bile empty from in the gall bladder? ◦ gallbladder-->cystic duct--> common bile duct--> duodenum • What is the function of the pancreas? ◦ produces digestive enzymes for fats, carbs and proteins ◦ pancreatic juice empties into duodenum via main pancreatic duct • What are the two cells types in the pancreas? ◦ Islets of Langerhans- endocrine cells, produce and relate hormones ◦ Acinar Cells- exocrine cells, produce enzymes and produce/store inactive enzymes (zymogens) • What are the two types of Islets of Langerhans cells? ◦ Alpha cells- glucagon ‣ increases plasma glucose levels ◦ Beta cells- insulin ‣ decreases plasma glucose levels • What are the three types of acing cells? ◦ Inactive enzymes- trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase ◦ Pancreatic amylase- carbs; starch; ogliosaccharides to disaccharides ◦ Pancreatic Lipase- lipids; triglycerides to monoglycerides and fatty acids • How does the pancreas regulate bile and pancreatic secretion? ◦ by secretin and CCK • When is secretin secreted? ◦ secreted when chyme enters duodenum • What does secretin stimulate? ◦ Contraction of gall bladder- secretes bile into bile duct ◦ Secretion of pancreatic juice from pancreatic acinar cells ◦ Relaxation of hepatopancreatic sphincter so pancreatic juice and bile can enter duodenum • What is the function of small intestine? ◦ complete digestion and absorption of nutrients • What are the 3 division the 20ft. long small intestine? ◦ Duodenum- receives chyme from stomach, pancreatic juice and bile ‣ 10 inches and most absorption ◦ Jejunum- middle portion ‣ 8 feet long ◦ ileum- last region of small intestine and joins large intestine at ileocecal valve (sphincter) ‣ 12 feet long • What are three adaptions the small intestine has to increase surface area for nutrient absorption? ◦ Circular Folds- deep folds of mucosa and submucosa that slow movement of chyme ◦ Villi- finger like projections of mucosa, its epithelial cells are absorptive cells ◦ Microvilli- tiny bristle-like projections of absorptive cells ‣ brush border • What is the crypt of Lieberkuhn or intestinal crypts in the Villi? ◦ tubular glands between villi ◦ epithelial cells are secretory cells- secrete intestinal juices ◦ enteroendocrine cells secrete CCK and secretin • What do the apical and basolateral side of the small intestine do? ◦ apical-cotransport of Na+ ◦ basolateral- facilitated diffusion • What are the steps to fat emulsification and absorption? ◦ 1. Bile Salts and lecithin in duodenum break up fat globules into small droplets ◦ 2. Lipase breaks fats into monoglycerides and fatty acids ◦ 3. Bile salts and lecithin surround monoglycerides and fatty acids creating micelles ◦ 4. At apical surface of epithelial cells lipid substances move into cells by diffusion ◦ 5. In epithelial cells converted back into fat and combined with cholesterol , phospholipids creating chylomicrons ◦ 6. Chylomicrons transported to lymphatic capillaries via exocytosis • Where is the large intestine located? ◦ from ileocecal valve to anus • What is the function of the large intestine? ◦ water absorption by osmosis ◦ feces production • What are the subdivisions of the large intestine? ◦ Cecum- saclike first portion below ileocecal valve ◦ Appendix- mass of lymphoid tissue that extends from cecum ◦ Colon- 4 regions ◦ Rectum ◦ Anal Canal- 2 spchinters with skeletal and smooth muscle • What are the four regions of the colon? ◦ Ascending- up right side ◦ Transverse- across abdomen ◦ Descending- down left side ◦ Sigmoid- S-shaped where enter pelvic and joins rectum • What is the gut microbiome in the large intestine? ◦ commensal bacteria in large intestines ◦ affected by diet ◦ Probiotics- the good bacteria ◦ Prebiotics- food for good bacteria • What are the functions of the gut micro biome? ◦ synthesizes B and K vitamins ◦ ferment undigested carbs ◦ keeps pathogenic microbes in check ◦ interacts with immune system • What is Hepatitis? ◦ inflammation of liver ◦ Types A-F- most cases are either A or B ◦ caused mostly by viruses and toxins (alcohol and medications) ◦ Fibrosis and Cirrhosis ◦ Treatment- antiviral drugs and liver transplant • What are gastric ulcers? ◦ erosion of stomach wall ◦ Cause: Helicobacter pylori ◦ Treatment: antibiotics • What is Heartburn? ◦ Gastroseophageal reflux disease ◦ cause: acidic gastric juice to go up esophagus due to excess eating and drinking, pregnancy, and distal hernia • What are two gallbladder conditions? ◦ Gallstones- low bile results in cholesterol crystallizing in gallbladder ‣ crystals can block cryptic duct ◦ Jaundice- accumulation of yellow bile pigment in blood ‣ can be due to bile duct blockage • What are nutrients? ◦ substances in food that the body needs to grow • What is the energy of food measured in? ◦ kilocalories- amount of heat energy needs to raise the temp of 1kg of water at 1C • What are the two types metabolism? ◦ Anabolism- smaller molecules accumulate into larger cells ◦ Catabolism- break down larger molecules into smaller cells • What does carb metabolism do? ◦ Poly-Olio-disaccharides--> monosaccharides (all converted to glucose in liver) ◦ glucose enters cells by facilitated diffusion • Fate in fed state for carb. metabolism? ◦ 1. ATP production ◦ 2. Glycogenesis- glucose combined to form glycogen ‣ most glycogen stored and produced in liver and skeletal muscle ◦ 3. Lipogenesis- formation of triglycerides ‣ glucose used to form triglycerides and stored in adipose tissue • What are the steps in ATP synthesis? ◦ 1. Glycolysis ◦ 2. Krebs Cycle ◦ 3. Oxidative Phosphorylation ◦ 32 ATP, aerobic pathway • What are pros and cons for ATP synthesis? ◦ Pros- yields lots of ATP for each glucose ‣ provides energy for hours of activity ◦ Cons- slow process, needs oxygen • Where does glycolysis occur? ◦ cytosol, anaerobic process • What are the steps in Glycolysis? ◦ 1. Glucose phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate the converted to fructose-1, 6- biphosphate (ATP required) ◦ 2. Fructose-1, biphosphate-6 cleaved into two 3-carbon fragments ◦ 3. 3-carbon fragments oxidized (give up h+) ◦ 4. NAD+ is reduced and becomes NADH+- coenzyme that activates enzymes and serves as hydrogen acceptors ◦ 5. ATP formed by substrate-level phosphorylation-P from 3-carbon fragments added to ADP • What are the end products of glycolysis? ◦ 4 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyretic acid • Where does the Krebs Cycle Occur? ◦ mitochondria ◦ Pyretic acid 1st converted to acetyl Coenzyme A ◦ Acetyl CoA enters Krebs Cycle • What are the steps of Krebs Cycle? ◦ Carbons removed from acetyl CoA ◦ Acetyl CoA oxidized ◦ NAD+ and FAD reduced forming NADH+ and FADH2 ◦ 1 molecule of ATP formed by substrate level phosphorylation for each turn of cycle • How many glucose are produced for each glucose molecule? ◦ 2 ATP • What are the end products of Krebs Cycle per pyruvic acid? ◦ 3 CO2, 1 FADH2, 4NADH, 1ATP • How does oxidative phosphorylation occur? ◦ through electron transport chain at the inner mitochondrial membrane • What are the steps of oxidative phosphorylation? ◦ 1. FADH2 and NADH give up H atoms to enzyme complexes within membrane ◦ 2. H atoms split into proton and electron ‣ electrons get passed down successive complexes, combine with O- to form H2O ‣ Protons pumped into inter membrane space ◦ 3. H+travel through ATP synthase providing enter for P to be attached to ADP • What are the end products of Oxidative Phosphorylation? ◦ 28 ATP and H2O • What does lipid metabolism do? ◦ triglycerides--> monoglycerides and fatty acids ◦ cells take up glycerol and fatty acids • Fate in fed state for lipid metabolism? ◦ ATP production ◦ stored in adipose tissue ◦ synthesis of lipoproteins, cholesterol, phospholipids • What does protein metabolism do? ◦ proteins--> amino acids ◦ cells take up amino acids by active transport • Fate in fed state protein metabolism? ◦ Amino acids used for protein synthesis in cells ◦ ATP production ‣ amino acids converted to Krebs cycle intermediates in liver ◦ Lipogenesis ‣ excess amino acids converted to triglycerides and stored adipose tissue • What are the metabolic processes of a fasted state? ◦ glycogenolysis- glycogen broken down to provide glucose ◦ gluconeogenesis- glycerol and amino acids converted to glucose ◦ Lipolysis- triglycerides catabolized into glycerol and fatty acids ◦ during prolonged fasting- tissue proteins catabolized • What are examples of Synthetic Sugar substitutes? ◦ Splenda, Sweet n' Low, Equal, NutraSweet • Are artificial sweeteners bad for you? ◦ FDA approved but have been linked to cancer ◦ some have side effects • What is high fructose corn syrup? ◦ a synthetic sweetener; corn starch processed into corn syrup and treated with various enzymes to convert some glucose to fructose • What are the three types of fats? ◦ Unsaturated fats- fatty acids contain 1 or more double bonds between carbon atoms ‣ nuts, avocado, fish ◦ Saturated Fats- fatty acids lack double bonds between carbon atoms ‣ cheese, butter, fatty meats ◦ Trans Fat- mostly man-made, unsaturated fats undergo hydrogenation ‣ in lots processed foods • Why are trans fats so bad? ◦ Increase LDL- bad cholesterol ◦ Decreases HDL- good cholesterol


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