Study Guide for Digestive System
Study Guide for Digestive System BIOL 2510 - 001
Popular in Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Popular in Anatomy
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Polinsky on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.
Reviews for Study Guide for Digestive System
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/03/16
Digestive System: • What are the four basic functions of the digestive system? ◦ ingestion ◦ digestion ◦ absorption ◦ defecation (expel indigestible remains) • Who were involved in the gastric experiments? ◦ Alexis St. Martin and William Beaumont (father of gastric physiology) • What was their experiment called that they published? ◦ Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice, and the physiology of digestion • What is the length of the GI tract? ◦ 9 m (30ft), 6m of it is the small intestine • What makes up the alimentary canal of the GI tract? ◦ mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum • What makes up the accessory organs? ◦ teeth, tongue, salivary glands, gall bladder, liver, pancreas • What is ingestion? ◦ taking in solids and liquids via oral cavity • What is propulsion? ◦ movement of food through the Gi tract • What two other processes are in propulsion? ◦ Deglutition (swallowing, oral cavity to esophagus) ◦ Peristalsis (wave like alternation in the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles through the GI tract) • What are the three parts mechanical digestion? ◦ Mastication (chewing, increases surface area) ◦ Churning (mixes food and gastric juices) ◦ Segmentation (contraction of small intestine to mis food and expose all surfaces for absorption) • What is chemical digestion? ◦ enzymes to break down complex food molecules • What is absorption? ◦ passage of digested food from GI tract to blood and lymph • Absorption mainly occurs where? ◦ small intestines • What is defecation? ◦ elimination of indigestible substances via feces • What is the peritoneum? ◦ serous membranes of abdominal cavity • What are the two membranes of the peritoneum? ◦ visceral- membrane on the external surface of digestive organs ◦ parietal- membrane that lines body walls • What is the peritoneal cavity? ◦ ﬂuid ﬁlled space between two peritoneums, lubricates mobile organs • What are intraperitoneal organs? ◦ organs that are located within the peritoneum • What is the mesentery? ◦ double layer of peritoneum extending from body walls to digestive organs • What are three functions of the mesentery? ◦ provides pathway for blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves ◦ holds organs in place ◦ stores fat • What is an example of a mesentery? ◦ Omentum • What peritoneum lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity? ◦ parietal • What peritoneum covers surface of organs in the abdominopelvic cavity? ◦ visceral • Where are retroperitoneal organs located? ◦ on the outside or posterior to the peritoneum ◦ includes pancreas, duodenum, and parts of large intestine • What are four basic layers, or tunic that all digestive organs have? ◦ mucosa ◦ submucosa ◦ muscularis externa ◦ serosa • What are the functions of the Mucosa layer? ◦ tunic layer that lines lumen ◦ secretes mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones ◦ absorbs end products of digestion ◦ protects against infectious disease • What are the three sublayers of the mucosa? ◦ epithelium ◦ lamina propria ◦ muscularis mucosae • What kind of CT makes up epithelium? ◦ simple columnar epithelium ◦ mouth, esophagus, and anus are made up of stratiﬁed squamous epithelium • What is the function of epithelium? ◦ secretes mucus that protects digestive organs from enzymes and eases food passage ◦ may secrete enzymes and hormones in stomach or small intestine • What kind of CT makes up lamina proper? ◦ loose areolar CT • What is located in the lamina propria? ◦ capillaries (nourishment and absorption) ◦ lymphoid follicles- help defend against microorganisms • What are the lymphoid follicles apart of? ◦ MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) • What is the function of muscular muscosae? ◦ smooth muscle that produces local movements of mucosa • What kind of CT does submucosa consist of? ◦ areolar CT • What does the submucosa sublayer contain? ◦ blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles, submucosal nerve plexus that supply surrounding GI tract • What does the submucosa have an abundance of? ◦ elastic tissues that help organs regain shape after storing large meal • What is the muscular external responsible for? ◦ segmentation and peristalsis • What does the muscular external contain? ◦ inner circular muscle layer and outer longitudinal layers (sphincters) • What does the inner circular layer of muscular external do? ◦ smooth muscle that controls lumen diameter • What does the outer longitudinal layer do? ◦ smooth muscle that controls tract length • What is the Serosa sublayer made of? ◦ visceral peritoneum ◦ formed from areolar CT COVERED WITH MESOTHELIUM • What replaces the serosa in the esophagus? ◦ ﬁbrous adventitia (dense CT that holds esophagus to surrounding structures) • Retroperitoneal organs have? ◦ both an adventitia and serosa • What kind of arteries does the Splanchnic Circulation include? ◦ hepatic, splenic, and left gastric arteries ◦ inferior and superior mesenteric arteries • What are the functions of the Hepatic portal Circulation? ◦ Drains nutrient rich blood from digestive organs ◦ blood to liver for processing • What neurons are in the intrinsic control of the GI tract? ◦ enteric nuerons • What is the function of energetic neurons? ◦ regulate digestive system activity ◦ controlling segmentation and peristalsis • What are two nerve plexuses involved with enteric neurons? ◦ Submucosal nerve plexus= controls glands and mucosal smooth muscles (sensory and motor neurons) ◦ Myenteric nerve plexus= controls GI tract and motility (circular and longitudinal muscle) • Where is the submucosal nerve plexus found? ◦ within the submucosa layer of the GI tract • What nerves are involved with the Extrinsic control of GI tract? ◦ sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve ﬁbers • What are sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve ﬁbers synapse with? ◦ enteric neurons • What does the sympathetic nerve ﬁbbers do? ◦ hyperpolarization= E/NE bind to alpha/beta receptors that open K+ channels • What does the parasympathetic nerve ﬁbers do? ◦ depolarization= Ach bind to M receptors and open Na+ channels • What are the three major classes of food? ◦ carbs, lipids, and proteins • The preﬁx -ase means? ◦ enzyme • The preﬁx -ose means? ◦ sugar • What is an enzyme that breaks down peptides? ◦ peptidase • Enzymes that breaks down fats? ◦ lipase • What is a carb from start to end? ◦ Polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides • What are monosaccharides? ◦ glucose, fructose, galactose • What does salivary amylase do? ◦ in the mouth and it breaks down starch • What does the pancreatic amylase do? ◦ released by the pancreas by the small intestine and breaks down starch that escaped digestion in the mouth • What are brush border enzymes? ◦ break down oligosaccharides and disaccharides • What are proteins from start to end ◦ proteins to amino acids • What breaks down proteins into polypeptides and some amino acids? ◦ pepsin • Where does protein digestion begin? ◦ stomach • Where is the enzyme location of proteins? ◦ stomach, pancreas, and intestine • Where is the location of digestion? ◦ stomach and small intestine • Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase do what in the small intestine? ◦ further break down protein fragments into smaller peptides • Amino peptidase, dipeptidase, and carboxypeptidase do what? ◦ they are brush border enzymes that break down protein fragments into amino acids • What is a lipid from start to end? ◦ unremulsiﬁed fats (triglycerides) into monoglycerides and fatty acids • What is the "pre-treatment" of lipids by? ◦ bile salts to make fat soluble in water • What are lipids digested by? ◦ Lingual (mouth), gastric (stomach), pancreatic lipases that break down lipids • Where are enzymes located in lipids? ◦ mouth, stomach, and pancreas • Location of digestion for lipids? ◦ mouth, stomach, small intestine • What process are involved with the oral cavity? ◦ ingestion, mastication (chewing) , deglutition (swallowing), digestion (mechanical and chemical) • What are the six parts of the oral cavity? ◦ palatine tonsils, palate, Uvula, Lingual Frenulum, Labial Frenulum, Defensins • What are palatine tonsils? ◦ lymph nodes • What is the palate? ◦ roof of the mouth • What is the Uvula? ◦ projection oﬀ soft palate • What does the Lingual Frenulum do? ◦ secures the tongue to the ﬂoor of the mouth • What does the labial frenulum do? ◦ attaches lips to gums • What are defensins? ◦ antimicrobial peptides produced by oral mucosa • What is the tongue composed of? ◦ interlacing bundles of skeletal muscle • What are the functions of the tongue? ◦ gripping, repositioning, and mixing food during chewing ◦ formation of bolus= mixture of food and saliva ◦ initiation of swallowing, speech and taste • What do the intrinsic muscles of the tongue do? ◦ change shape of the tongue • What do the extrinsic muscles of the tongue do? ◦ alter tongues position • What does the tongue occupy? ◦ the ﬂoor of the mouth • What does the lingual frenulum do for the tongue? ◦ attachment to ﬂoor of mouth • What does the superior surface of the tongue bear? ◦ papillae, piglike projections of underlying mucosa • What are the four types of papillae on the tongue? ◦ ﬁliform= keratin most numerous, no taste buds ◦ fungiform= scattered, contain taste buds ◦ circumvallate= in a v-shaped row at the back of the tongue, taste buds ◦ foilate= postern-lateral, taste buds but function only in taste in childhood • What does ﬁliform paella do? ◦ makes tongue rough and aids in licking soft foods ◦ ﬁction for manipulating food in mouth • What is the terminal sulcus of the tongue? ◦ a groove located posterior to the vallate papillae ◦ marks division between body and root • Why is terminal sulcus still bumpy even though it does not contain papillae? ◦ lingual tonsil • What three things do most salivary glands include? ◦ Parotid, submandibular, sublingual • Where is the partied located? ◦ anterior to ear and external master muscle • Where does the parotid duct open? ◦ into the oral vestibule next to second upper molar • Where is the submandibular located? ◦ medial to body of mandible • Where does the submandibular open? ◦ at the base of lingual frenulum • Where is sublingual located? ◦ anterior to submandibular glad under tongue • Where does the sublingual duct open? ◦ 10-12 ducts into ﬂoor of mouth • What types of secretory cells are produced in salivary glands? ◦ Serous= produce watery secretion, enzymes, ions ◦ Mucous cells= produce mucus • Which glands contain mostly serous cells? ◦ parotid and submandibular • Which gland consists mostly of mucous cells? ◦ sublingual gland • What is the mumps? ◦ inﬂammation of partied gland due to the mumps virus ◦ children disease ◦ spreads via saliva • What is the composition of salvia? ◦ mostly water, electrolytes, salivary amylase, lingual lipase ◦ Proteins: mucin, lysozyme ◦ metabolic wastes • How much saliva can be produced in a a day? ◦ 1500 ml • What do the minor and major salivary glands do? ◦ minor=keeps mouth moist ◦ major= activated by parasympathetic nervous system • When are the major salivary glands activated by the parasympathetic nervous system? ◦ ingested food stimulates chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in mouth sending signals to Salivatory nuclei in brain stem that stimulate parasympathetic impulses along ﬁbers in cranial nerves VII and IX to glands • What does strong sympathetic stimulation do? ◦ inhibits salivation and results in dry mouth • What can act as a stimuli? ◦ smell/sight of food ◦ upset GI • What are the functions of Saliva? ◦ cleanse mouth ◦ secretes enzymes= salivary amylase and lingual lipase that start chemical digestion ◦ Protect against microorganisms • What is the ph of Saliva? ◦ 6.57-7, largely water ◦ important b/c enzymes in saliva function in slightly acidic environments • What are the three types of microorganisms ◦ defensins= anti-microbial proteins ◦ IgA antibodies= cause phagocytosis by WBCs and prevent pathogens from adhering to mucous membranes • What does a strong stimulation to the sympathetic nervous system do? ◦ release of epic/norepi ◦ vasoconstriction, inhibits salivation • What does a strong stimulation to the parasympathetic NS do? ◦ Smell or taste-->chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors--> medulla pons--> salivary glands--> increase in salivation • How many baby teeth fall out? ◦ 20 y the age of 13 • How many adult teeth are there? ◦ 32 permanent • What is a crown? ◦ exposed part of tooth ◦ outer surface= enamel (protect teeth against abrasion and acid) ◦ interdire surface= dentin, bulk of tooth calciﬁed, protein-rich, acts as shock absorber during biting/chewing • What is a root? ◦ portion of tooth embedded in jaw bone ◦ outer surface= cement, calciﬁed CT ◦ interior=mostly dentin • What is the periodontal ligament? ◦ attaches tooth to jaw • Where is the esophagus? ◦ extends from your pharynx to your stomach • Esophagus enters abdominal cavity through what? ◦ esophageal hiatus (hole in diaphragm) • Where does the esophagus join the stomach? ◦ gastroesophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter)- allows food to pass to stomach but prevents stomach acid from entering esophagus • What is the function of the esophagus? ◦ moves food to stomach via peristalsis • How long is the stomach? ◦ 6-10 inches long • What are the four regions of the stomach? ◦ cardiac- food enters esophagus ◦ fundus- dome-shaped part of stomach ◦ Body- middle portion of stomach ◦ Pyloric-inferior funnel shaped part of stomach • What are the two sphincters of the stomach? ◦ Gastroesophageal sphincter ◦ Pyloric sphincter= controls stomach emptying into intestine • What is a rugae? ◦ mucosal folds • What kind of epithelium does the stomach have? ◦ surface epithelium- columnar epithelium of mucosa lining stomach ◦ protects stomach lining from acidity ◦ secretes viscous and alkaline mucus • Stomach mucosa has what two parts? ◦ Gastric Glands- secretes gastric juices ◦ gastric pits- openings for gastric glands • What are the two types of glandular secretory cells? ◦ Mucous neck cells- secretes thin, acidic mucus ◦ Chief Cells- secretes pepsinogen and small amount of lipase • What does the inactive form of pepsin do? ◦ enzyme breaks down proteins in stomach • What is the function of parietal cells in the stomach? ◦ secretes HCL and Intrinsic factor (glycoprotein needed for vitamin b12 absorption in the small intestine) • What are the 4 glandular secretory cells called? ◦ Enteroendocrine cells- produce chemical messengers (5) (hormones) • What ﬁve chemical signals do the enteroendocrine cells produce? ◦ Gastrin- stimulates HCl secretion and stomach motility ◦ Histamine- activates parietal cells secrete HCl ◦ Endophrins- suppress appetite ◦ Serotonin- causes contraction of stomach muscles ◦ Somatostatin- inhibits stomach secretion and motility • What is the largest gland in the body? ◦ liver • What does the liver do for the digestive system? ◦ ﬁltration system- processes venous blood delivered to it from digestive system • What is the blood supply of in the liver? ◦ 1. Hepatic artery (carries O2 rich blood from heart to liver) ◦ 2. Hepatic portal vein- receives nutrient rich venous blood from digestive organs; BLOOD MAY CONTAIN TOXINS AND MICROORGANISMS ◦ 3. DIGESTIVE ORGANS--> LIVERMORE FILTERING BEFORE GOING TO MAJOR SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION ◦ 4. Sinusoids- liver capillaries; receive blood FROM HEPATIC ARTERY AND HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN ◦ 5. Hepatic vein- receive cleaned blood from sinusoids and empty into inferior vena cava • What are livers major functions? ◦ produce bile for fat digestion • What does bile consist of? ◦ bile salts, phospholipids also some pigment and cholesterol • What is the function of the gall bladder? ◦ stores and concentrates bile • Where does the bile empty from in the gall bladder? ◦ gallbladder-->cystic duct--> common bile duct--> duodenum • What is the function of the pancreas? ◦ produces digestive enzymes for fats, carbs and proteins ◦ pancreatic juice empties into duodenum via main pancreatic duct • What are the two cells types in the pancreas? ◦ Islets of Langerhans- endocrine cells, produce and relate hormones ◦ Acinar Cells- exocrine cells, produce enzymes and produce/store inactive enzymes (zymogens) • What are the two types of Islets of Langerhans cells? ◦ Alpha cells- glucagon ‣ increases plasma glucose levels ◦ Beta cells- insulin ‣ decreases plasma glucose levels • What are the three types of acing cells? ◦ Inactive enzymes- trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase ◦ Pancreatic amylase- carbs; starch; ogliosaccharides to disaccharides ◦ Pancreatic Lipase- lipids; triglycerides to monoglycerides and fatty acids • How does the pancreas regulate bile and pancreatic secretion? ◦ by secretin and CCK • When is secretin secreted? ◦ secreted when chyme enters duodenum • What does secretin stimulate? ◦ Contraction of gall bladder- secretes bile into bile duct ◦ Secretion of pancreatic juice from pancreatic acinar cells ◦ Relaxation of hepatopancreatic sphincter so pancreatic juice and bile can enter duodenum • What is the function of small intestine? ◦ complete digestion and absorption of nutrients • What are the 3 division the 20ft. long small intestine? ◦ Duodenum- receives chyme from stomach, pancreatic juice and bile ‣ 10 inches and most absorption ◦ Jejunum- middle portion ‣ 8 feet long ◦ ileum- last region of small intestine and joins large intestine at ileocecal valve (sphincter) ‣ 12 feet long • What are three adaptions the small intestine has to increase surface area for nutrient absorption? ◦ Circular Folds- deep folds of mucosa and submucosa that slow movement of chyme ◦ Villi- ﬁnger like projections of mucosa, its epithelial cells are absorptive cells ◦ Microvilli- tiny bristle-like projections of absorptive cells ‣ brush border • What is the crypt of Lieberkuhn or intestinal crypts in the Villi? ◦ tubular glands between villi ◦ epithelial cells are secretory cells- secrete intestinal juices ◦ enteroendocrine cells secrete CCK and secretin • What do the apical and basolateral side of the small intestine do? ◦ apical-cotransport of Na+ ◦ basolateral- facilitated diﬀusion • What are the steps to fat emulsiﬁcation and absorption? ◦ 1. Bile Salts and lecithin in duodenum break up fat globules into small droplets ◦ 2. Lipase breaks fats into monoglycerides and fatty acids ◦ 3. Bile salts and lecithin surround monoglycerides and fatty acids creating micelles ◦ 4. At apical surface of epithelial cells lipid substances move into cells by diﬀusion ◦ 5. In epithelial cells converted back into fat and combined with cholesterol , phospholipids creating chylomicrons ◦ 6. Chylomicrons transported to lymphatic capillaries via exocytosis • Where is the large intestine located? ◦ from ileocecal valve to anus • What is the function of the large intestine? ◦ water absorption by osmosis ◦ feces production • What are the subdivisions of the large intestine? ◦ Cecum- saclike ﬁrst portion below ileocecal valve ◦ Appendix- mass of lymphoid tissue that extends from cecum ◦ Colon- 4 regions ◦ Rectum ◦ Anal Canal- 2 spchinters with skeletal and smooth muscle • What are the four regions of the colon? ◦ Ascending- up right side ◦ Transverse- across abdomen ◦ Descending- down left side ◦ Sigmoid- S-shaped where enter pelvic and joins rectum • What is the gut microbiome in the large intestine? ◦ commensal bacteria in large intestines ◦ aﬀected by diet ◦ Probiotics- the good bacteria ◦ Prebiotics- food for good bacteria • What are the functions of the gut micro biome? ◦ synthesizes B and K vitamins ◦ ferment undigested carbs ◦ keeps pathogenic microbes in check ◦ interacts with immune system • What is Hepatitis? ◦ inﬂammation of liver ◦ Types A-F- most cases are either A or B ◦ caused mostly by viruses and toxins (alcohol and medications) ◦ Fibrosis and Cirrhosis ◦ Treatment- antiviral drugs and liver transplant • What are gastric ulcers? ◦ erosion of stomach wall ◦ Cause: Helicobacter pylori ◦ Treatment: antibiotics • What is Heartburn? ◦ Gastroseophageal reﬂux disease ◦ cause: acidic gastric juice to go up esophagus due to excess eating and drinking, pregnancy, and distal hernia • What are two gallbladder conditions? ◦ Gallstones- low bile results in cholesterol crystallizing in gallbladder ‣ crystals can block cryptic duct ◦ Jaundice- accumulation of yellow bile pigment in blood ‣ can be due to bile duct blockage • What are nutrients? ◦ substances in food that the body needs to grow • What is the energy of food measured in? ◦ kilocalories- amount of heat energy needs to raise the temp of 1kg of water at 1C • What are the two types metabolism? ◦ Anabolism- smaller molecules accumulate into larger cells ◦ Catabolism- break down larger molecules into smaller cells • What does carb metabolism do? ◦ Poly-Olio-disaccharides--> monosaccharides (all converted to glucose in liver) ◦ glucose enters cells by facilitated diﬀusion • Fate in fed state for carb. metabolism? ◦ 1. ATP production ◦ 2. Glycogenesis- glucose combined to form glycogen ‣ most glycogen stored and produced in liver and skeletal muscle ◦ 3. Lipogenesis- formation of triglycerides ‣ glucose used to form triglycerides and stored in adipose tissue • What are the steps in ATP synthesis? ◦ 1. Glycolysis ◦ 2. Krebs Cycle ◦ 3. Oxidative Phosphorylation ◦ 32 ATP, aerobic pathway • What are pros and cons for ATP synthesis? ◦ Pros- yields lots of ATP for each glucose ‣ provides energy for hours of activity ◦ Cons- slow process, needs oxygen • Where does glycolysis occur? ◦ cytosol, anaerobic process • What are the steps in Glycolysis? ◦ 1. Glucose phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate the converted to fructose-1, 6- biphosphate (ATP required) ◦ 2. Fructose-1, biphosphate-6 cleaved into two 3-carbon fragments ◦ 3. 3-carbon fragments oxidized (give up h+) ◦ 4. NAD+ is reduced and becomes NADH+- coenzyme that activates enzymes and serves as hydrogen acceptors ◦ 5. ATP formed by substrate-level phosphorylation-P from 3-carbon fragments added to ADP • What are the end products of glycolysis? ◦ 4 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyretic acid • Where does the Krebs Cycle Occur? ◦ mitochondria ◦ Pyretic acid 1st converted to acetyl Coenzyme A ◦ Acetyl CoA enters Krebs Cycle • What are the steps of Krebs Cycle? ◦ Carbons removed from acetyl CoA ◦ Acetyl CoA oxidized ◦ NAD+ and FAD reduced forming NADH+ and FADH2 ◦ 1 molecule of ATP formed by substrate level phosphorylation for each turn of cycle • How many glucose are produced for each glucose molecule? ◦ 2 ATP • What are the end products of Krebs Cycle per pyruvic acid? ◦ 3 CO2, 1 FADH2, 4NADH, 1ATP • How does oxidative phosphorylation occur? ◦ through electron transport chain at the inner mitochondrial membrane • What are the steps of oxidative phosphorylation? ◦ 1. FADH2 and NADH give up H atoms to enzyme complexes within membrane ◦ 2. H atoms split into proton and electron ‣ electrons get passed down successive complexes, combine with O- to form H2O ‣ Protons pumped into inter membrane space ◦ 3. H+travel through ATP synthase providing enter for P to be attached to ADP • What are the end products of Oxidative Phosphorylation? ◦ 28 ATP and H2O • What does lipid metabolism do? ◦ triglycerides--> monoglycerides and fatty acids ◦ cells take up glycerol and fatty acids • Fate in fed state for lipid metabolism? ◦ ATP production ◦ stored in adipose tissue ◦ synthesis of lipoproteins, cholesterol, phospholipids • What does protein metabolism do? ◦ proteins--> amino acids ◦ cells take up amino acids by active transport • Fate in fed state protein metabolism? ◦ Amino acids used for protein synthesis in cells ◦ ATP production ‣ amino acids converted to Krebs cycle intermediates in liver ◦ Lipogenesis ‣ excess amino acids converted to triglycerides and stored adipose tissue • What are the metabolic processes of a fasted state? ◦ glycogenolysis- glycogen broken down to provide glucose ◦ gluconeogenesis- glycerol and amino acids converted to glucose ◦ Lipolysis- triglycerides catabolized into glycerol and fatty acids ◦ during prolonged fasting- tissue proteins catabolized • What are examples of Synthetic Sugar substitutes? ◦ Splenda, Sweet n' Low, Equal, NutraSweet • Are artiﬁcial sweeteners bad for you? ◦ FDA approved but have been linked to cancer ◦ some have side eﬀects • What is high fructose corn syrup? ◦ a synthetic sweetener; corn starch processed into corn syrup and treated with various enzymes to convert some glucose to fructose • What are the three types of fats? ◦ Unsaturated fats- fatty acids contain 1 or more double bonds between carbon atoms ‣ nuts, avocado, ﬁsh ◦ Saturated Fats- fatty acids lack double bonds between carbon atoms ‣ cheese, butter, fatty meats ◦ Trans Fat- mostly man-made, unsaturated fats undergo hydrogenation ‣ in lots processed foods • Why are trans fats so bad? ◦ Increase LDL- bad cholesterol ◦ Decreases HDL- good cholesterol
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'