Study Guide for Exam 3 on 4/7
Study Guide for Exam 3 on 4/7 PSY 100-005
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 100-005 at Colorado State University taught by Hillary Wehe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide Learning and Memory What is learning? When we experience new things, we are learning The growth of synaptic connections sensory and motor neurons Associations: relationships between two things Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Classical Conditioning: Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) “Events become associated not merely because they occur together, but because the meaning of one event has changed the meaning of another.” Ex: Salivation in dogs based on their anticipation of food= a trained response psychic reflex 1) Unconditioned stimulusunconditioned response (reflex) 2) Bell + unconditioned stimulusunconditioned response (neutral stimulus) 3) Conditioned stimulus (bell)conditioned response (*Learning has taken place*) Conditioned Emotions: John B. Watson Experiment: Baby Albert Conditioned the emotion fear Unconditioned stimulus: loud noise Conditioned stimulus: furry animals Conditioned response: fear of all furry animals Baby Albert showed generalizationoriginally just feared rats, eventually learned to fear all furry things Conditioning Factors: Extinction= association is suppressed Spontaneous recovery= association is recovered Ex: could be recovered through a taste or smell Stimulus generalization=conditioned stimulus evokes similar responses Stimulus discrimination=respond only to original stimulus and not similar stimuli Order= order of association matters! Biological Predispositions Classical conditioning Ex: coyotes can be biologically predisposed to avoid sheep Timing and Order Things we logically link and associate together Purpose: for learning and survival Operant and Conditioning Social Learning: Learning= acquiring new, enduring information about behaviors Associative Learning= learning certain events occur together Operant Behavior=strengthening behavior through reinforcement or weakened through punishment, guided by consequence Environmental Learning: Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) Law of Effect= "responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation." Thorndike put a cat in a box with levers and buttons, and the cat tried to get outthe animal learned to get out based on rewards Operant Conditioning: B.F. Skinner Extended the law of effect Experiment: Skinner boxes with rats How do we change behavior? Positive Additions: things are added as a result of our behavior Negative Subtractions: things are taken away as a result of our behavior Reinforcement: Positive: adding something pleasant (ex: rewarding with candy) Negative: taking away something annoying (ex: taking away chores) Punishment: Positive: adding something unpleasant (ex: more chores) Negative: taking away something good (ex: taking away TV) *Reinforcement is more effective than punishment* How do we get more complex behaviors through positive reinforcement? Shaping: how we are building up to get complex behaviors through reinforcement Gaining a reward: Ex-rat basketball, rats play basketball and gain food as a reward Outcomes of Punishment: Outcomes in learning are what matter Discrimination is being discouraged (ex: swearing—discriminate when to stop the behavior, but the behavior doesn’t completely stop—so a child might only stop swearing when they are around their parents) Generalization is learned (such as fear) (increased aggression: ex-spanking helps children learn other behaviors such as fear) Cognition and Learning: Tolman’s Rats experiment: Two groups Group 1: always given a reward Group 2: only given a reward after 10 trials Number of errors recorded Experiment indicated that you can learn without reinforcements and rewards Latent Learning= Doesn’t need rewards Social Cognitive Theory: Bandura’s Study: What happens when children model aggressive behavior? Children show aggressive behavior to doll after observing aggressive behavior—they even think of new ways to “torture” the doll How do we use social learning? 1) Observing 2) Imagining 3) Recreating Ex of this: trying to learn the cup song (you need to watch videos, imagine yourself doing the cup song, and you need to practice doing it and recreate the cup song) Observational Learning: Mirror neurons—involves observation and action, works by firing both when we act and when we observe the same action performed by someone else Ex: observing how people act after watching a violent movie vs. a family friendly moviethe violent movie might make us less sensitive “The Buffy Effect”= strong vs. weak portrayals of women, shows gender portrayals and emotions Men rated females less positively after watching a violent movie Women rated to feel more anxious after violent roles Memory Terminology: Encoding= putting info in---rehearsal Retrieval= getting info out---recall, recognition Storage=memory types Modal Memory Model: Sensory Memory: Brief, small registers A “buffer” for sensory info, so we can focus on certain things Creates fluidness in perception (connects actions together) Iconic vs. echoic Iconic Sensory Memory: Visual sensory memory Creates a persistence of vision, makes what we see a fluid movement *The “fast-decaying” store of visual information Ex: rain—we don’t see the individual drops, it instead is consistent and looks like a waterfall How much can it hold? The “whole report”—Sperling (1960) Accessfadingcue “Partial report”=we have access to a lot of info in our sensory perceptionbut it fades quickly Echoic Memory: Specific to retaining auditory information Iconic vs. Echoic Capacity Differences Echoic= has less capacity, but lasts longer Iconic= has more capacity, but lasts a very short amount of time Sensory Memory: Function and Duration Selection and connection Visually aids in motion detection Is constantly refreshed, is fluid “Working Memory” or Short-Term Memory: Short-term, with limited processing and moving Holds: Verbal information and visual information Ex: Retention Interval: counting backwards from 3 and recalling the original # (hard to remember the numbers, and it gets harder with more numbers) Information decays in our memory, but this is not an indication of how good our short-term memory is Short Time and Short Amount: Miller’s Magic Number= 7 (give or take 2) This is the average amount of info we can retain We can extend this retention by chunking = adding meaning to something Working Memory: Working memory= the cognitive function responsible for keeping info online, manipulating it, and using it in your thinking Purpose?? Using new incoming information + memory Visual Working memory= helps us “rotate information Visuospatial Sketchpad= WM Model Mental scanning = mentally tracking from one point to another Purpose?? *To help us visualize information* Long-Term Memory: Is theoretically infinite Functioncapacityduration Encoding and retrieval Explicit: Episodic = things that happen to you (ex: remembering your own birthday party) autobiographical events Sematic = broad aspects, ideas and concepts are not drawn from personal experiences (knowing that birthday parties = cake) Implicit: Outside our conscious awareness Procedural = implicit tasks, automatic Conditioning = happens despite you being conscious about it
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