New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Gina Castellano

Exam 3 Study Guide Psy 3207

Gina Castellano
GPA 3.4

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes have everything that he said would be on the test as well as everything he has said in class.
Organizational Psychology
Dr. Huelsman
Study Guide
Organizational Psychology
50 ?




Popular in Organizational Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gina Castellano on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 3207 at Appalachian State University taught by Dr. Huelsman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at Appalachian State University.


Reviews for Exam 3 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/03/16
 Counterproductive behavior o Behavior that explicitly runs counter to the goals of the organization (jex & britt, 2014)  Assumes the organization has many goals  Does not assume motives or causes o Many possible CWBs (counterproductive work behaviors)  Ineffective job performance, absenteeism, turnover, accidents, theft, violence, substance use, sexual harassment  Many more than that though o Do not have to mean harm to create harm  Ineffective performance o Possible causes  Selection errors  Inadequate socialization and training  Misguided reward systems  Situational constraints: if teacher has to use projector and that ends up not working then that’ll effect teacher’s performance.  Why are lazy slacking employees not on this list? It’s because somewhere on the list they went wrong or because of misguided reward system  If there’s one group that’ll get the eval or grade then they don’t feel the need to try especially if someone else will do the job/task  Managing poor performance o First, talk (from management section) with and listen to the employee (actually listen then act on what the employee said) o Then  Training interventions: to train a whole group of people  On-the-job coaching: after training with everyone but still need extra help to do the job then it would be one on one  Employee assistance programs (EAPs) – since people do have lives; counseling (separate from HR) – could be as broad as financial counseling  These first three need to do something to help the people of the organization  Reengineering: large scale organizational change  Task analysis: more micro; specific person or part of organization  Above two are geared towards what can be done to help organization o Heinz and Kraft merged into one company and reengineered themselves  Preventing poor performance o Using valid selection procedures o Training and socialization o Systematic performance evaluation and feedback (frequently)  Weekly feedback is more ideal than just saying it when an eval comes around o Respond appropriately to performance differences  Reward employees for good performance (need to have better rewards than those who are not as great in the organization)  Progressive discipline may be useful  Use discipline effectively  Rewards work better than punishments and eventually you don’t have to keep rewarding  Sometimes people are too reliant on rewards, but don’t just discipline when necessary, use progressive discipline  Use of discipline o Use punishment consistently; every time, every employee (counterproductive if you don’t) o Deliver punishment immediately after the undesirable behavior (because of increase in recidivism) o Use moderate levels of punishment (also progressive discipline) o Punish the behavior, not the person (no name calling or harassing a person so punish the behavior why would a person try after since they’ve now been labeled) o Clearly communicate the reasons for the punishment (may also designate appropriate alternatives)  Employee absenteeism o Absenteeism is not showing up for work o Excused versus unexcused absence o Time lost (when it’s not paid time off) and frequency measures (if you take parental leave that’s one frequency. They measure how much you’re off to see if you’re really there o Non-affective (non-attitudinal) predictors of absenteeism  Gender (women absent because of children usually or tend to be absent because of them)  Women earn 78% of what men earn  Without child care responsibilities the absence rates between men and women are similar  Absence control policies (if there is more or significant consequences on absenteeism then there will be less absences)  Absence culture (can act even in the absence of a control policy there’s still an expectation – it’s a subtle pressure)  Violations of absence culture are usually very subtle comments  Above two predictors are under the control of the company  Preventing absenteeism o Rewarding attendance (perfect attendance) o Making absenteeism unattractive through absence control policies (if you’re fired when you don’t show up you tend to show up ) o Helping employees remove barriers to attendance  Especially for women with child care responsibilities if they have on site care at work o Flex-time: there’s specified times when the workers have to be there but other times it’s their choice  Employee turnover (when someone leaves and needs to be replaced o Optimal (you have that person you wish they weren’t there and then they’ve left or you transferred them) versus dysfunctional turnover (when that person who’s great and then decides to leave o Avoidable (perspective of the employee) versus unavoidable turnover  Avoidable: if they could have given more money or promotion then would have stayed  Unavoidable:  The CEO is retiring at a certain age  Disability  Death  When spouse has to move somewhere else because of job so other spouse has to quit o Voluntary (retirement) versus involuntary turnover (reached maximum age then retire) o Regardless, turnover is a costly problem  What are the costs of turnover? (turnovers drop when there was an economic crisis starting in 2009) o % annual pay estimates (take annual pay – estimate it in % of what turnover would cost  Frontline or entry level employee  20% annual pay – could be $4,000  Midlevel manager  100-150% annual pay – could cost 100,000-150,000  Executive level (committee of people have to get together to find the right person to hire. They have to be paid for that time. There are people who have firms to pick the right person that can cost 100’s of thousands of $  200-250% annual pay  More sophisticated approaches  Society of human resource management (soft and hard costs calculated)  Center for economic and policy research (sheet)  Predictors of turnover (not job attitudes) o Performance (at the lowest levels of performance – there’s high turnovers)  People who perform really well also have higher turnovers since they are good enough to get another job  Curvilinear relationship  Reward contingencies o External labor market o Job tenure – longer you’re at a job the less likely you’ll leave your job o Salary compression is when people who have been there for a while finally get to a good point in money then they company brings in a new person and they start making the same amount as the person who’s been there longer. o Salary inversion – someone gets brought in and makes more than someone who’s been there a long time  Determinants of accidents o No profile for accident-proneness o Individual differences  Gender?  Age, tenure/experience  General social maladjustment  Distractibility o Safety climate  Accident prevention o Design of equipment/ergonomics o Behavior modification o Selection o Improving the safety climate  Workplace violence o About 2% of all “accidents” were caused by “assaults and violent acts by person” (potentially hazardous work environment characteristics)  Non-fatal acts = 16,500 annually (45 per day) – small number  In 2009, 529 workplace homicides (really low base rate)  Hard to predict low base rate since there are so many people that fit that profile so it’s hard to prevent and come up with low base rate event  Workplace violence has gone down since 1992  Number one is highway incidents  1. Working in direct contact with public  2. Exchanging $ with customers  3. Having mobile work place or delivering good/services  Retail trade – 24%  Leisure + hospitality – 17%  Government – 14%  50% (all establishments) experienced some sort of workplace violence  Domestic violence incidents: typically female victims that leave the home, but still have yet to change jobs so that’s where domestic violence occurs in the workplace o Three major research areas:  Physical environment  Noxious environments o Pace of work is fast o Anything that is kind of unpleasant (ex: noisy, hot)  Individual characteristics  Little data  Background checks o Looking for any history of violence o Can get in legal trouble if not done right  Organizational environment – if it’s unfair o Fairness of policies  Employee theft (a lot of the cameras in stores are to discourage shoplifters, but mainly for employees) o Related to characteristics of individuals  People who have high integrity do not tend to steal even if the opportunity is there  For integrity test: come up with two scenarios where a moral choice has to be made o May be form of retaliation against unfair or unjust organizational conditions o Avoid theft via  Selection processes  Organizational policies – enacting policies fairly  Amazon does not treat their employees well at all  Substance use o Prediction  Personal history  1. Lower self esteem  2. Arrest history  3. Family with substance use problems  4. Friends that use substances  Environmental conditions  If there are social norms such as the boss engaging in the behavior then you’ll more than likely see violations in the policy o Prevention  Preemployment screening, background checks, drug screening programs o Organization’s response  Punishment (at some point probably fired)  Treatment o Even in Colorado a workplace can fire a person for being high because of their substance use policy  Sexual harassment o Prohibited by Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act (didn’t get into this act until the ‘70s)  Unwelcome sexual advances, request for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical contact o Quid pro quo (this for that) versus (in the Act)  Submission to conduct is either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of the individual’s employment  Submission to or rejection of such conduct by individual is used as basis for employment decisions affecting that individual o Hostile work environment (in the Act)  Such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment o Research has focused on prevalence and organizational responses o The worst response is TO DO NOTHING  1. Have a good policy  A. clear definition of sexual harassment with examples  B. have what to do if it happens  C. have what happens next (i.e. consequences)  2. Make sure the policy is known and train people  Most organizations want to keep it in house rather than someone filing an EEOC. So trying to research it is also difficult  3. Follow the policy o Prevalence:  1. It happens  2. Even though it’s usually male harasser and female victim, however vice versa is also growing  What is motivation? (needs drive behavior and vice versa) o undefinable but internal and external o Am I satisfied?  A hypothetical construct (Kanfer, 1990)  Motivation determines the form, direction, intensity, and duration of work-related behavior (Pinder, 1988) (just effects of motivation  Form: how you do things ex – changing the grip on tennis racquet to get better even though it’ll be worse before it gets better  Direction: will you go towards helping the organization of towards something that’ll help yourself?  Job performance = declarative/procedural knowledge X motivation X work context  Without motivation though we won’t get any productivity if this is gone  Theories of motivation o Need-based theories  What are the things that motivate workers? o Job-based theories  Can the job motivate the worker? o Cognitive theories  What is the process of worker motivation? o The behavioral approach  How can principles of learning be applied to motivation?  What rewards; what punishments?  Need-based theories o Maslow’s need hierarchy  Dirty little secret, it doesn’t work  1. Needs are never satisfied; endless  2. People behave to satisfy their needs  3. Familiar pyramid so lower level needs must be satisfied before higher level needs are relevant  Maslow suggests that your behavior will be aimed at satisfying the need such as leaving a job to satisfy need; however, most people don’t leave Maslow’s needs Work applications Self-actualization: “in the zone” it clicks Challenge, innovation, creativity but doesn’t stay long Esteem: I have qualities and Important projects, recognition, characteristics that are appreciated awards Belongingness: social needs; that I fit Good coworkers, supervisors, subordinates, work relationships Safety: free from fear of harm; death Security, benefits, safety & health regulations Physiological: food, water, air Pay, cafeteria, work conditions  Alderfer’s ERG theory (existence relatedness growth) o Boundaries seem to work (more so than Maslow’s) o Works better than Maslow’s o Not lock stepped like Maslow’s  Satisfaction-progression principle (work from the bottom up) – have to satisfy from lower level to the next level  existence needs at the bottom  relatedness needs are next o in between the top and second is the frustration- regression principle  If you become frustrated by not moving higher then get more of what you can get on lower levels  growth needs at the top o he allows for needs to be simultaneous  McClelland’s Need for Achievement Theory (some sort of needs born with but most needs are required) o Can acquire needs based on life experiences such as each person has different histories, background, personalities, etc. o Part of the broader Acquired Needs Theory o Needs are acquired based on life experiences o nAch – the need to accomplish difficult tasks and achieve excellence (need to achieve)  2/3 college students score high on this o nAff – the need to have positive relationships with others (need for affiliation)  + : adaptive (affiliative interest)  - : mal-adaptive (affiliative assurance)  Tell people what they want to hear  Great worker bees, terrible managers o nPow – the need to have control over the environment, including others (need for power)  power isn’t a bad thing – power itself is neutral  + : institutional power means to the end; manipulate to better the organization  - : personalized power means using it as the end; just used to show force  A person who is high in need for power wants to manipulate/control  Job-based theories o Fredrick Taylor probably 1 person to put this into effect  “job simplification”  Break down entire job to have a person assigned to one thing  Have to break boredom though – job rotation  Job enlargement: do a chunk of each now (still nope)  Job enrichment: when assembled, pieces have meaning, have team do a job together o Herzberg’s two factor theory (wants to make the job meaningful)  Very simple; works better than need theories  Dissatisfaction – hygiene factors  Basic things workers expect  Give them what they want  Work conditions  Pay  Organization policies  Interpersonal relations  Neutral  Want to get them to be neutral  Never satisfied on this side  Satisfaction – motivators  To get satisfied  To give people opportunities  Achievement  Recognition  Responsibility  Growth opportunities  If this doesn’t work – KITA (Harvard influence review)  Kick In The Ass (but put pants in the review) o Hackman & Oldman’s JCT (Job Characteristics Theory)  Core Job Characteristics -> Critical Psychological States -> Affective and work outcomes  Skill Variety/task identity/task significance -> experienced meaningfulness ->  Skill variety: how many skills does your job require to have  Task identity: to what extent does the job express meaningful work  Task significance: how closely does this job align with the goals of the organization (ex: Chancellor is not aligned that much with the organization they are trying to get money into App State to fund it, not to really help education – her job is very significantly important but not task significance)  Autonomy(real input, you get to make the call) -> experienced responsibility ->  Feedback -> knowledge of results ->  All of the above lead to  General satisfaction  Growth satisfaction  Internal work motivation o Above three are soft outcomes; psychological  Productivity  Absenteeism & Turnover o The two directly above are hard outcomes


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.