Nutrition 109 Study Guide Test 3
Nutrition 109 Study Guide Test 3 nutrition 109
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Donnetta Shanklin on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to nutrition 109 at Western Illinois University taught by Mr. Gurzell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Nutrition 109 in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Western Illinois University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Nutrition Study Guide: How Do You Measure Someone’s Diet? 1. How do you measure someone’s diet? 2. What is the downfall to Food Frequency Questionnaires? 3. What is a 24 Hour Food Recall? 4. What is the benefit of a 24 Hour Food Recall? 5. What is a food diary? 6. What does BMI stand for? 7. True or False: Obesity was recently classified as a disease? 8. What is the major health problem in the US? 9. What are the at risks populations for being overweight and obesity? 10. What happened on 1995? 11.What happened in 2000? 12.What happened in 2005? 13.What happened in 2010? 14. What are the BMI considerations? 15.What are the Pros of BMI? 16.What are the Cons of BMI? 17.What are the BMI cutoffs? 18.What are the risks of being underweight? 19.What are the prevalences of being overweight and obesity? 20. What are the risks the risks of being overweight? 21.What are the risks from Central Obesity? 22.What are the basic principals for being healthy? 23.What are the components of Energy Expenditure? Answers 1.Evaluate food, consumption by validated tools: Food Diary 24 H Food Recall Food Frequency Questionnaire 2. Not incredibly detailed… no day to day variation. 3. Sit down with someone and ask them to recall everything they ate in the past 24 hours. 4. Provides great detail for a short period of time 5. A journal that keeps track of everything you consume on a daily basis (often for 3days at a time). 6. Body Mass Index 7. True, Obesity is a disease. 8. Overweight and obesity 9. Low socioeconomic status, Minority (heavily tied to the SES) Women/children 10. In 1995, no state had a prevalence rate less than 10%, all states had prevalence rates between 1019% =, and no state had a prevalence rate greater than or equal to 20% 11. Only Colorado had a prevalence rate less than 15%, the other states had prevalence rates between 1524%, and no state had a prevalence rate greater than or equal to 25% 12. No state had a prevalence rate less than 15%, most states had a prevalence rates between 2029%, and 3 states had a prevalence rate greater than or equal to 30% 13. No state had a prevalence rate less than 20%, most states had a prevalence rates between 2029%, and 12 states had a prevalence rate greater than or equal to 30%. 14. No shoes, stand straight up (against the wall), look forward heels together and legs straight measure with flat board on head. 15. Pros: easy to measure easy to standardize useful for ‘most’ people 16. Cons: no information on body composition weight can easily fluctuate (unique considerations here!) agerestrictive 17. underweight is less than 18.5 healthy weight is 18.525 overweight is 2530 obese is greater than 30 18. People without fat reserves are more susceptible to wasting ( much like cancer patients) Heart disease is more severe (but less common) 19. Being overweight is more common ⅔ of the US has a BMI greater than 25 ⅓ of the US is Overweight ⅓ of the US is Obese 20. Increased risk of Obesityrelated illness, hypertension cardiovascular disease increased inflammation (not just when you’re sick) many other problems 21. Visceral fat is more associated with disease (compared to subcutaneous) we suggest that a person is better off looking like a ‘pear’ than an ‘apple’ 22. to lose weight ( calories in< calories out) to maintain weight ( calories in= calories out) to gain weight (calories in> calories out) calories in: food and drinks calories out: physical activity metabolism can vary from person to person some people have a very efficient fast metabolism, whereas other have a very slow metabolism 23. Basic metabolic rate:(normal energy needs to functions of life; breathing, making blood cells, normal metabolism). Thermic Effect Of Food: energy required to digest food physical activity (most variable) 2550% physical activity 510% thermic effect of food 5056%BMI For a sedentary person,physical activities may account for less than half as much energy as basal metabolism, whereas a very acute person’s activities may equal the energy cost of basal metabolism Nutrition Study Guide: Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight 1. What is body weight composed of? 2. What are the average Body Composition of men and women? 3. How do you measure Body Composition? 4. What are the basic principles? 5. What is the Basal Metabolic Rate? 6. What is the Thermic Effect of Food? 7. What are the effects Physical Activity? 8. What is Hunger and Satiety? 9. How does Overweight/Obesity occur? 10. What are the InsideTheBody Theories of Overweight? 11.What are the OutsideTheBody Theories of Overweight? 1. Bone( dense collagen and minerals) Lean body mass ( lean muscle) Fat mass Water 2. Men: 45% muscle, 25% organs, 15% fat, 15% bone Women: 36% muscle, 24% organs , 27% fat, 13% bone 3. Skinfold test: quick and easy, but OT THE MOST ACCURATE Bioelectrical Impedance: noninvasive and easy, less accurate than DEXA Dual Energy Xray Absorptiometry (DEXA): noninvasive, but expensive Underwater Weighing/BOD Pod: often considered the gold standard, most intensive 4. To lose weight: calories in< calories USED To Maintain Weight: calories in= calories USED To Gain Weight: calories in> calories USED 5. 5065% of energy, the energy you need for your body to function (not including exercise or digestion) all the stuff that happens while you are still asleep making new cells breathing heart pumps 6. 510% of energy digestion takes a lot of energy to work! produce digestive enzymes make stomach acid make mucus produce bile absorb nutrients 7. 2530% of energy it can vary even more though… 10% for being incredible sedentary 60% for an elite performing athletes this is ALL of your movement: Picking up a pencil, jittery leg or scratching your head, walking,jogging,running, exercise in general 8.Hunger: 1. the physiological need to eat 2. 2. Often experienced over a sustained period of time without food 3. Completely normal, physiological response: GhrelinAppetite stimulating hormone Satiety: 1. the feeling of fullness (without hunger), hormones are produced from theGut and Brain 2. Experienced after food consumption, leptinsatietyinducing hormone 3. Body is incredibly adaptive to hunger/satiety cues 9. Caused by excess intake of calories relative to calories to used could be caused by hunger signals being overactive Ghrelin production is increased when sleepdeprived feeling more hungry than usual, so you eat! caused by excess intake of calories relative to calories to used could be caused by satiety signals being impaired (1000 kcal meal...still feeling hungry!) Leptin Resistance… leptin can’t do its job 10. Set Point Theory: your body tries to maintain a certain weight (easier to readjust your ‘set point’ to a higher level than it is to lower it Thermogenesis: Some people are able to maintain a defined body temperature easier than others Genetics: We know some genes are related to fast and slow metabolisms 11. Feast of famine: evolutionarily...if there is food, eat it! You don’t know when you're getting your next meal Food availability: we have access to food ALL the time, Time of day, Time of year, Even when food production is limited… preserved food Type of available food: Inexpensive, caloriedense, foods with less fiber/water. Doesn’t fill you up as much Physical Activity: people are increasingly sedentary things that used to be more physically demanding… transportation, farming, jobs, production lines Nutrition Study Guide: Energy Metabolism 1. What is Cellular metabolism? 2. What are chemical reactions in the body? 3. What are products of energy metabolism? 4. What does ATP stand for? Where is it found? 5. What are the chemical reactions in the body? 6. What is the Kreb’s Cycle? 7. True or False” From aenergy standpoint, all macronutrients end up in the same place? 8. What is Breaking Down Glycolysis? 9. What is the Fate of Pyruvate 10. What happens in the Mitochondria 11.What happens in the Pyruvate and Acetyl CoA? 12. What are products from the Kreb’s Cycle? 13. What happens/what is the Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthesis 14. What is the fate of Pyruvate? 15. What is Anaerobic Metabolism? 16.What is the Cori Cycle? 17. What is the overview to generate Energy? Answers 1. Breaks down macronutrients into: Co2, H2O,energy 2. Stuff we use for energy metabolism: Carbs, Protein,Fat 3. NADPH : Niacin FADH2 : RiboflavinATP: this is cellular energy!!!,These are used to make ATP 4. Adenosine Triphosphate ; Phosphate bond are very high energy bonds! ATP is the major output of metabolism 5. Provides energy for all cell activities: examples include: Enzymatic reactions, transporters, DNA and Protein synthesis, Cellular signaling 6. The Kreb’s Cycle (TCA Cycle) coupled to the Electron Transport Chain, is the major energy producing process 7. True: From an energy standpoint, all macronutrients end up in the same place. 8. First major stepGlycolysis “glucose cutting”Glucose gets cut into 2 Pyruvate. 9. Fine with slower, more efficient energy. use some oxygen for aerobic metabolism pyruvate to acetyl CoA 10. A typical cell a mitochondrion Outer compartment outer membrane (site of fatty acid activation) Cytosol (site of Glycolysis) inner membrane (site of electron transport chain) inner compartment (site of pyruvatetoAcetyl CoA, fattyacid oxidation, and TCA Cycle) 11. The Kreb’s Cycle: ‘High energy’ molecules are produced NADH, FADH2 Carbon Dioxide is released 12. Next step: Electron Transport Chain –NADH and FADH transfer electrons to proteins 2 –Electrons move between proteins –Electrons are received by Oxygen –Many Hydrogens shift to one side This process generates high amounts of ATP 13. 14. Fine with slower, more efficient energy? –Use some oxygen for aerobic metabolism –Pyruvate to acetyl CoA Need energy quick? Not a lot of oxygen? –Anaerobic –Pyruvate to lactate… Lactic acid build up! 15. Pyruvatetolactate –Produces ATP quickly –Accumulation of lactate in muscles –Cori cycle Regenerates glucose from lactate 16. 17. Nutrition Study Guide:Weight Loss and Eating Disorders 1. What is energy In vs Energy out? 2. What is the balance? 3. What are weight loss consumptions? 4. What is a healthy diet/weight loss? What are some diets? 5. What are the three major eating disorders? Who’s at risk? 6. How does one understand such eating disorders? 7. What is Anorexia Nervosa? 8. What is Bulimia Nervosa? 9. What is Binge Eating Disorder? 10.What is the Female Athlete Triad? 11.What are other dangerous practices in athletes? 12.How does society place in Eating Disorders? Answers 1. Potential for oversimplification! Consider all the nuance: –What is Energy In? 2. 3. Set realistic targets Be patient! It will only stay off with small steps –Changes will largely be behavioral –Increase Fruit and Veg… Increase Physical Activity Avoid weight loss ‘wonder drugs’ 4. Healthy Weight los12 pounds per week Fad diets focus on shortterm weight loss –Atkin’s diet –Keto diet –Volumerics –Skakeology –hCG diet –Might lose a lot quickly, but most gets put back on! Avoid trying to achieve ideal body shape –Focus on fitness g;ore rewarding Don’tobsess over f… risk of having an eating disorder 5. Three disorders –Anorexia nervosa –Bulimia nervosa –Binge eating disorder Atrisk populations –Athletes –Teenagers and young adults –Women 6. Eating Disorders Mental Disorders Combating the underlying mental health key to treatment Multidisciplinary approach is necessary: –Psychiatric / Psychological –Social support –Nutrition /Medical 7. Severely limited food intake –Observed with distorted body image –Fear of weight gain •Behavior reflects sense of control over food •Level of denial is high among anorexics –Makes treatment even more difficult 8. Bingepurge cycle –Perceived lack of control Bing is often initiated by severe hunger Often in secret Purgefollows often due to –Shame / Guilt associated with Binge behavior 9. Periodic bin–Typically no purging Often initiated by emotions / need for comfort More likely to respond to treatment 10. Primarily observed in athletes that encourage a lean body (low adiposity) Three interrelated conditions: –Disordered eating –Amenorrhea –Osteoporosis 11. Muscle dysmorphia –Distorted body image > need for muscular physique Food deprivation and dehydration practices –Impair physical performance 12. Society plays central role in eating disorders Known only in developed nations –More prevalent as wealth increases –Food is plentiful –Body dissatisfaction more likely
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