Study Guide P1 Exam 3
Study Guide P1 Exam 3 BIOL 243 001
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Johnson on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lewis Bowman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Study Guide for Exam 3 I. Chapter 9 Mechanism of Contraction 1. What occurs in the absence of Ca+? 2. What occurs in the presence of Ca+? 3. What is TNC? 4. What happens during the formation of the crossbridge? 5. What is the crossbridge also known as? 6. What does ADP + Pi create? 7. What happens during the “powerstroke” stage? 8. Where does the actual contraction of the muscle take place? 9. What occurs during the phase of “crossbridge” detachment? 10. What happens in the stage named “cocking of myosin head”? 11. What is needed to restart the cycle? 12. Define rigor mortis 13. What are the 2 causes of rigor mortis? Regulation of Contraction 1. Which type of muscle is stimulated by nerves? 2. What does regulation of contraction also regulate? 3. Define neuromuscular junction. 4. What are the steps of neuromuscular junction? 5. Define axon terminal. 6. Explain synaptic vesicles found in axon terminal. 7. Where is the synaptic cleft? 8. What is the synapse? 9. List the 5 steps of Action potential Reset 1. What are the steps to reset the contraction? 2. How does enzymes affect the reset? 3. What does the ATP pump do? 4. What is endocytosis? Twitch Contraction 1. What are the steps to reset the contraction? 2. What occurs during the latent period? 3. Muscles differ in periods of _____. 4. Provide a picture of a single twitch. Smooth Contractions 1. Steps of smooth contraction? 2. Define tetanus. 3. What stimulates muscles very fast and has no relaxation at all between stimuli? 4. What does the motor unit consist of? 5. Around how many muscle fibers are within a motor unit? 6. How many motor units per muscle? 7. Are fibers of a motor unit clustered together? 8. What alternates to create constant tension? 9. What is the difference between isometric and isotonic contraction? 10. Most contractions are ____. 11. Name the factors that affect force (tension) of a contraction. 12. When is max force of a muscle generated? Energy 1. What is the formula for creating energy? 2. What is soluble in the cytoplasm and how long does it last? 3. Where is Creatin-P found? 4. What is the fomula for Creatin-P? How long does it last? 5. What makes up creatine phosphokinase? 6. What is the formula for Aerobic respiration? 7. Glucose is not broken down during Aerobic Respiration? T or F 8. During what is glucose the main thing that glycogen is broken down to? 9. When there is plenty of O2 what occurs? 10. Name the steps of the Aerobic Pathway 11. Where does glycolysis take place? 12. What is the formula for glycolysis? 13. What happens during Oxidative phosphorylation mitochondrion? 14. Of the two; which one has more ATP? How much more? 15. What happens when there is no O2, enlarge and engorge muscles, pinching of blood vessels? 16. Name the two steps of anaerobic pathway. 17. Name the differences between anaerobic and aerobic pathways. 18. What is pyruvic acid? 19. When is ATP very quickly created? 20. What are the characteristics of a small 15 second exercise? 21. What are the characteristics of a small 60 second exercise? 22. What happens during hours of exercise? 23. Define oxygen debt 24. Describe ATP production in muscle fatique 25. Define a cramp 26. What must happen in order for a cramp to be released? 27. What happens when you have an accumulation of lactic acid? 28. Name the salts that are necessary for conduction of action potentials. Fiber Types 1. Which fibers are fatigue resistant? 2. Which fiber has low amounts of glycogen and runs on glucose? 3. Which type of fiber can be brought to the cell via blood stream? 4. Name the characteristics of Slow Oxidative Fibers 5. What does it mean for a fiber to be slow or fast? 6. What does it mean for a fiber to be oxidative? 7. What does it mean for a fiber to have myoglobin? 8. What type of fiber do sprinters have? 9. Which fiber has large amounts of glycolytic enzymes, not so many mitochondria? 10. What is the effect of a fiber having no myoglobin? 11. What is the intermediate fiber? 12. What does it mean to have a relatively fast myosin? 13. What effects does an intermediate amount of myoglobin create? 14. Which fiber has low levels of glycogen? 15. Name the characteristics of Fast Oxidative Fiber. 16. Name the characteristics of Fast Glycolytic Fibers. 17. Most muscles will contain what type of fiber? 18. All the muscle fibers of a different motor unit are ____. Smooth Muscle 1. Compare smooth muscle and skeletal muscle with striations. 2. What is the ratio of thick and thin filaments in smooth and skeletal muscle? 3. What does smooth muscle NOT contain? 4. Are there bundle of filaments in smooth muscle? 5. Describe the bundle of thin filaments in smooth muscle 6. Define Caveolae 7. Does smooth muscle have elaborate coverings? 8. How many layers of smooth muscle? Name them. 9. What sheet wraps around tube? 10. What sheet is parallel to the axis of the tube? 11. Name some examples of smooth muscle locations. 12. Describe the neuromusclular junction of smooth muscle 13. Describe the synaptic cleft in smooth muscle 14. Define varicosities Characteristics of Contraction for Smooth Muscle 1. Describe the sheets 2. What are cells connected by? 3. What is the contraction regulated by? 4. Where does most Ca+ come from? 5. Where does SOME of the Ca+ come from? 6. Smooth muscles are also known as ______. 7. Compare the latent period and period of contraction between skeletal and smooth muscle. 8. Does smooth muscle require a lot of energy to contract? Regulation of Smooth Muscle 1. What is it regulated by? 2. Define nervous stimulation 3. What does acetylcholine do in nervous stimulation? 4. What does norepinephrine do in nervous stimulation? 5. What does it mean for it to be NOT nervous? 6. What will pacemaker cells do if the stimulation is NOT nervous? 7. What does hormone/chemical do is the stimulation is NOT nervous? Types of Smooth Muscle 1. Describe the sheets in a single unit smooth muscle. 2. Why can cells respond as a single sheet? 3. Describe multiunit smooth muscle. 4. What does the arrector pilli create? 5. What controls the size of pupil? Terms/Pathology 1. Define the following: Flaccid, Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Muscular Dystrophies 2. What are the characteristics of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy? 3. X*Y is a __ __. 4. X*X is a ___________ ___________. 5. X*X* is a ________ __________. 6. What does it mean for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy to go in spells? Development 1. Describe the nucleated cells and nuclei in skeletal muscle. 2. What is the formula of skeletal cells that creates things? 3. What doe adult’s muscles have? 4. What happens in an adult skeletal muscle if there is injury? 5. What is limited in adult skeletal muscle? 6. What happens if a cardiac muscle is injured? 7. Does cardiac muscle have good regeneration? 8. Can smooth muscle regenerate? 9. What is smooth muscles relationship to the response control center and stimuli? 10. Describe the pathway. II. Chapter 11 Central Nervous System 1. What body system is considered the major control system of the body? 2. What does it take to decide whether a response is necessary? 3. What does the Central Nervous System consist of? Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 1. What are the two parts of the PNS? 2. What does the Sensory (Afferent) Division do? 3. What two types of nerves are in the sensory division? 4. Define Somatic Sensory Nerves 5. What carries info from various organs toward CNS? 6. What does Motor (Efferent) Division do? 7. What two systems are a part of the Motor Division? 8. What does the Somatic Nervous System supply? 9. What nervous system supplies smooth, cardiac muscle and some glands? 10. What is the name for a fight or flight response? 11. What are Autonomic Nervous system not consciouslyaware of? 12. What does parasympathetic do? Nerve Cells 1. Define neurons 2.
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