Studyguide Midterm #2
Studyguide Midterm #2 ARTH 1305
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grecia Sanchez on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTH 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Max Grossman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see History of Art I in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
FEBRUARY 25 We are in the Late Classical of Ancient Greece, an era characterized for the shift of stylistic to naturalistic sculptures. It was the shift to war, sometimes tyrany and political inestability. Naturalistic, experimentation and individualism is emphasized in here. There is no longer the universal ideals pursued by Greeks, there is no universal truth of Beauty. Famous masters Praximeles Skopas Lysippos 1. Aphrodite of Knodos Hydria=water Basel Scurve= it is a typical feature in the work of Praxiteles, in Aphrodite statue, there is this S throughout her whole body, a contrapposto in form of an S throughout her body. 2. Hermes and Baby Dionisos 3. Stele of young hunter 4. Weary Heracles 5. Battle of Issus Mossaic=consists of many little pieces of tesserae, tens of thousands sometimes. Tesserae is a durable and solid material, you can clean it easily and it is easier to handle. 6. Theater Orchestra = place of the performance Skene = stone wall where they had customs for the theatre, statues, or any major material used for the performances Cavea = cavity on the earth 7. Corinthian Order Acanthus leaves = leaves that appear in this order, famous plant used by Greeks in ceremonies (specially if they are religious) We now move forward to the Hellenistic Era (last one of the Greeks). Begins with the death of Alex the Great (323 BC). The empire divides in two, they have many princesses and many kingdoms that split themselves after the death of Alex, and because of this, they have multiple capitals. It is the deadline period of the Greeks (the dark age). Ionians cities are going to become the most powerful. We are going to see the culture of Greeks in different empires (Romans for example) 8. Temple of Apollo Dipteral plan = double peristyle around the temple (remember peristyle=colonnade) 9. Hippodamian plan Agora = central marketplace where Greeks used to buy things, place for religious purposes, philosophers meetings, center of government because of the administration buildings that surrounded the agora. 10.Stoa of Artalos II Stoa = the surrounding colonnade of the agora, they provided shadow and they were always straight MAR 1 We stood up with Hellenistic, which begins in 323 BC (death of Alex the great) to 330 BC (death of Cleopatra). At this period, statues intensified their energetic representation, they tend to be even more violent and intense than in the Late period. 1. Altar of zeus 2. Athena battling 3. Epigonos 4. Dying gaul 5. Nike of samothrace 6. Aphrodite (venus de milo) 7. Seated boxer 8. Old market woman 9. Demosthenes 10.Laoccon and his sons Etruscans These were the people who dominated Middle and North Italy. Etruria=Erustrian Italy. There is a modern Tuscany region in Italy right now. We don’t know where these people came from, but we do know they migrated here in 900 BC. Each city was ruled by a king (monarchic societies). They lived out of mines (great miners of gold, silver, iron and cooper) which is the reason why almost all of their work in out of metal. Rome, at their conquest, absorbs Greek culture and also Etruscans. They traded with Egypt and Greece. They believed in several gods. Periodization Orientalizing 7 century Archaic (highest point in their culture)600480 BC Classical/Hellenistic 48089 BC 11.Fibula with orientalizing lions 12.Model of Typical 6 century Etruscan temple MAR 15 1. Etruscan Temple (Model) Tuscan capitals order of this civilization; unfluted columns, they have bases and wide intercolumniations 2. Apullu (apollo) 3. Sarcophagus 4. Tumuli Tufa was the name of the stone o which tombs were built. It is a volcanic soft stone found everywhere in central Italy, it is of colors brown and orange 5. Tomb of reliefs Cerberus dog with three heads characteristic of the Greek myth, it welcomes you to the underworld (guardian of this world) 6. Tomb of leopardo 7. Capitoline wolf Shewolf the wolf which feed twins Romulus and Romus, legend says Romulus killed his brother and founded Rome in April 12, 753 BC 8. Chimera of arezzo 9. Sarcophagus of lars 10.Aule matele Adlocutio process of speaking to people, addressing the people Roman republican They were known for their empire War like people Manly culture Population of Rome was 12 million people They had a Roman Forum where government, commerce and religion activities were held Coliseum was a place to see death Circus Maximus: greatest building at the time, quarter million could fit, where the persecutions of the army were executed Chronology Before any periods listed on the chronology, people were simply living in villages Monarchy 753509 BC Period of seven kings, starting with Romulus (the founder) Republic 50927 BC Romans looked at Greeks and learned; their government was a republic (ruled by law, not majority of opinions); this ends with the civil war which started with the th murder of Julius Caesar on March 15 44 BC Roman Empire 27 BC476 AD which subdivides in a) Pax Romana 27180 AD pax meaning peace of Rome, relative time where Rome was at peace; time in which Christ was born and died b) Crisis and Decline 180284 AD c) Late Antiquity 284476 AD time where Christianity is born Monarchy Humble side of the Romans Started as farmers and warriors with strong work ethic Archaeology has discovered ancient ruins where platforms with holes are found (these holes where the place in which the vertical posts were placed for the entire structure to have a stable architecture) Roman republic Begins in 509 BC Senate is the most powerful form of law Elders with strong talkative skills and high status are within the Senate Latin is spoken in the senate Classes are: Patricians (senators, man who possessed land), plebeians (common people, the majority of Rome), and slaves (about one fourth of the society, there are no discrimination of color, even a white could be slave) Patricians and Plebeians were balanced with the powers of law (Senate for the first and Popular assembles for the second) Dictator was another important character within this period; it is a temporary authority for a temporary period of time (dictator was the person in charge of a crisis, the person who would rule the army and make a difference between a life and death of any citizen for a period of 6 months) Cincinnati was the famous dictator who quit his job This period ends with the murder of Julius Caesar (dictator who stood more than 6 months) MAR 17 Roman Empire By this time, Rome is the largest city of the world (in fact, it is the largest city in human history) The first emperor was Augustus, he found a palace near the forum of Rome (the equivalent of the agora of the Greeks, marketplace, most important place of the entire city) There are seven important hills (buildings) in Rome but we only have to learn 2: Capitoline hill and Forum Every major town in Rome had its amphitheater Rome had the three branches of the government (Executive, Legislative and Judicial) Although they had their own language (Latin), Rome culture is a mix of Etruscans and Greeks cultures (hybrid culture), its culture is influenced by both civilizations Temples are going to be defined by cheap materials, only bases are from expensive material; this allowed the Romans to build their temples in a faster way Masters of vault and arch engineering Portraits for Romans are composed of the head or bust (nipples to head) and they are never idealized, they are verist 1. Temple of portunus Tufa, cheap stone found at local buildings, and concrete (mix of cement, lime and sand) are the materials used for this temple. Columns in this temple are made of tufa, and also engaged columns Rebet means to clothe or to bet something Travertine is a local stone, clistaline limestone found at the city walls of Rome, it is soft when you extract it but becomes solid with time, and it is of a crème color. This is the type of stone which is rebeted at the podium of this temple (it is not seen at the picture of the power point slide because it has disappear) Pseudoperipteral occurs when the peristyle of a temple is not open 2. Sanctuary of fortuna Vault is the term for stone ceiling (or concrete ceiling) ALL VAULTS ARE FIREPROOF Barrel vault is a half cylinder of vault Groin vault: it is an efficient, more stable type of vault in which each vault is rotated 90 degrees Fenestrated sequence: allowed light to come in Hemispherical dome: hemispherical means half sphere, it has a oculus which makes the complex enter light BARREL GROIN FENESTRATED SEQUENCE HEMISPHERICAL DOME Arch: Romans though post and lintel architecture of Greeks would not last (because lintel could easily be broken or it could crack), so they mastered arch since this architecture is more resistant than post and lintel The upper squares of the arch are called voussoirs 3. Head of man from scoppito Verism: the exaggeration of naturalism in portraits, most portraits from Rome were verist, rathen than idealized 4. Portrait bust of a man 5. Second portrait of bust of a man 6. Portrait of roman general 7. Funerary relief…Gesii 8. Denarius 9. Head of julus caesar 10.Mount vesuvius This was the volcano which destroyed Pompeii (population of 20,000) in August 24, 79 AD Pompeii had two main avenues: Decumanus (the horizontal line at the map of Pompeii) and Cardo (the vertical line) Forum shown next at the power point, was almost a sacred place, people could not defecate in there and not even pets were allowed (only pedestrians). It is surrounded by religious buildings 11.Temple of jupiter 12.Capitoline 13.Basilica 14.Amphitheater It was always built at the edge of town by civic man (not by government) Composed of two parts: arena (sand in Latin, the place were gladiators used to fight) and cavea (place were the audience sits) MAR 22 Roman republic Last thing we saw was the amphitheater which could accommodate 20,000 people, it wasn’t exactly at a hill (Romans didn’t need hills specifically like Greeks, they could just construct the theaters) 1. Atrium of house of the Vettii Atrium is the entrance of the house, the courtyard that receives you once entering a home Impluvium is the pool designed for gathering rain water Peristyle is the courtyard (most intimate place at the house) which was surrounded by columns 2. Typical home (model) Fauces is the entrance of the home Cubiculum is the room/bedroom, ordinary storage room Triclinium is the dinner room, designed for special meals 3. First style of painting 4. Dyonisiac mystery 5. Gardenscape Roman empire Period in which Rome is again a monarchy; begins when Octavius (later called Augustus, first emperor of Rome) defeats Marc Anthony (Cleopatra suicides because of this). Augustus adopts Julius Caesar (his grandnephew) as his direct son. Different titles to augustus Augustus means the great one Imperator: control of military force Pontefex Maximus: head of state (highest) Although he had these sophisticated titles, he would always appear to the Roman people such a beloved, respected, modest, honest man; he would silence his enemies quietly. He mastered political propaganda, he would always send messages to Roman Empire of the greatness of the empire (he used coins and portraits for his propaganda). He served 2025 years at the military (which later, he managed for the army to maintain the peace [pax romana] at Rome), it was the most powerful army at the time. Barbarians: Germans, people who used to destroy piece by piece their enemies Under Augustus, Roman Empire extended widely (from Egypt to Arabia Saudi) Population was 1 to 2 million people (largest at the time) Augustus would send geologists in search for marble and would command the construction of other temples such as Capitoline (most antique of all main buildings) 6. Augustus as general Cuirass was the main propaganda in this statue; he has two sphinx depicted on his shoulders (triumph over Marc Anthony and conquest over Egypt), at his torso he the four borders of Roman Empire (Spain, Gaul. Egypt, and Parthia), at the approach of his neck he has the skygod at the middle of the necklace of cuirass, below that he has dawn and dust (eternity over Augustus reign), then he has the Apollo arch (continual eternity), below this arch there is a cornucopia (prosperity and abundance); at the mere center of the cuirass we have a barbarian against a roman giving the standard to the roman general (where Rome recovered peace without a war). MAR 24 Pax romana 1. Pontifex maximus Patera is the thing over his extended arm 2. Portrait bust of livia Coiffure is the hairstyle of Livia at this portrait (curls=nodus) 3. Ara pacis augustae 4. Female personification 5. Imperial fora From left to right at the Power Point 1. Roman forum 2. Forum 3. Forum of Augustus Carrara marble was the material used for construction of columns 6. Maison carree Pseudoperipteral is a peristyle confined with cella, with engaged columns 7. Pont du gard 8. Bust of nero Colossus was the 120 ft statue, the most expensive in human history (decorated entrance of his palace) 9. Octagonal Severus and Celer were the architects and engineers of the golden house Civil War erupts after Nero’s death; after this, there are several sucesors to Vespasian (first of Flavians who ruled for 10 years) At this era, we see a return to veristic in men, women prefer idealized images of themselves 10.Colosseum Travetine exterior is the exterior reberted of this stone MAR 29 We stood with the Colosseum, which was completed by son, constructed above the artificial lake of Nero, could accommodate 50,000 people, divided into cavea, arena, and basement. The interior of the building is made with white marble and the exterior with tufa and concrete reberted with travertine. 1. Coin 2. Image of exterior decoration of Colosseum Piers are the supports which are not cylindrical, there are 76 in the 2d and 3 level and also the basement of the Flavian Amphitheater Cobels are the little structures on the top of the Colosseum made to support a roof that used to be there (now gone) Velarium is the track of rood made of wood 3. Arch of Titus Composite volutes are volutes that have multiple influence (ionic and Corinthian elements in this case) Coffers are the little squares beneath the arch decorating the inside of the roof At the sides, it has two reliefs which tell a story; on the right, Titus is drawn by 4 horses, this is called a quadriga, he is coming back after defeating the Jews accompanied by the god Honos (god of Honor) and god Virtus (god of military valor). At the left, there is a relief of the destruction of Jerusalem, the Romans are carrying the menorah which is the symbol of the Jews 4. NervanAntonine Flavians didn’t last so long, NervanAntonine dynasty permitted Rome to extend and this was their greatest moment geographically. Nerva was a Senate man, he replaced Domesian (the last of the pervious dynasty who got assassinated because he, like Nero, held also a tyranny 5. Circus Maximus 6. Column of Trajan 7. Portrait bust of Hadrian 8. Pantheon Pumice is the light weight volcanic stone which makes the structure lighter Oculus is eye in latin, made for the message that when light comes in throughout the day, there are gods moving across heavens Polychrome are the marbles reberted in other colors to make the decoration better 9. Model of Insula Insula refers to an island 10.Antonine Emperors They are recognized because they learned from the past and they adopted benevolent and talented kids, Antonius Pius adopted Marcus and Lucius, until Marcus led his natural biological son Commodus the reign Lucius died first, this is why Marcus gets the reign All successors wore beards 11.Apotheosis Aion means eternity, it is the man who is on the left side of the emperor Campus martius is the place where Emperors where cremated, Martius refers to Mars. It was a complete neighborhood for the military drills Roma is the man who is at the right side of the emperor 12.Decursio 13.Equestrian This statue was believed by the Catholic Church to be the first emperor of Rome who led the spread of Catholicism and was even put at the Vatican Entrance 14.Severan Emperors This is the beginning of Crisis and Decline They came from Libya, this is the first dynasty who is not European Caracalia murdered his brother Geta This is a period of chaos, crisis, continuous assassinations (only the first emperor had a natural death) 15.Portrait This is the only imperial portrait Face of Geta is missing because of Damnatio memoriae, which is the worst punishment of a man (to pretend his memory didn’t exist), documents, coins, portraits, and everything depicting this person is burned. Geta wasn’t the first in receiving this punishment 16.Plan of baths at Carcalia 17.Battle of Romans and Barbarians 18.Portraits of 4 Tetrarchs 19.Arch of Constantine 20.Portrait of Constantine 21.Aula Palatina
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