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Chapter 40 -43

by: Sophia Notetaker

Chapter 40 -43 BIOC 0170

Sophia Notetaker
GPA 3.5

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Animal Gas Exchange Circulation Animal Form and Function Animal Nutrition Immune System
Foundation of Biology I
Barbara Barnhart
Study Guide
Animal Gas Exchange, Circulation, animal form and function, Animal Nutrition, immune system, Biology, Chapter 40, chapter 41, Chapter 42, chapter 43
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophia Notetaker on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOC 0170 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Barbara Barnhart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Foundation of Biology I in Biology at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
Chapter 43 – Immune System  Explain the difference between “innate” and “acquired” immunity  Describe the properties of the 2 major components of our bodies’ external defense system  What role do “phagocytic cells” play in our internal defense system?  What role do “natural killer cells” play in our internal defense system?  What role do “antimicrobial proteins” play in our internal defense system?  What role does “inflammation” play in our internal defense system?  (what chemical  triggers inflammation?)  Describe the differences between the receptor proteins of the 2 types of “lymphocytes”  What is an “MHC molecule”?  o Name the 2 classes of MHC’s o Name the types of cells that recognize each specific MHC  Describe the difference between the “primary” and “secondary” immune responses  Describe the difference between “humoral” and “cell­mediated” immunity o What type of lymphocytes are involved in each, and what actions to they  perform?  Describe the action of “helper T­cells” o Are they involved in humoral immunity, cell­mediated immunity, or both? o What class of MHC do they bind to, and what cell­surface protein helps them  bind? o What chemical do they release?  Describe the action of “cytotoxic T­cells” o Are they involved in humoral immunity, cell­mediated immunity, or both? o What class of MHC do they bind to, and what cell­surface protein helps them  bind? o What chemical do they release?  Describe the action of “B­cells” o Are they involved in humoral immunity, cell­mediated immunity, or both? o What is the function of the “antibodies” they release? o What is clonal selection?  Describe the differences between “active” and “passive” immunity  Name the 3 different antigens that can be on the surface of your red blood cells o Which blood type does not have antigens on its cell surfaces? o Which blood type does not have antibodies for any of the blood antigens?  Explain the problem that might arise for a pregnant woman if she has “Rh negative”  blood (meaning that her blood cells do not have the Rh antigen on their cell surface)  Explain what should be done to maximize the chances of a successful tissue/organ  transplant (what should be matched between donor and recipient?)  Name the chemical released by “mast cells” during an allergic reaction  Explain what happens in “anaphylactic shock” and why it can be life­threatening  Describe the differences between “autoimmune disease” and “immunodeficiency  disease”  What type of cells does “HIV” destroy, and why is this so detrimental to the immune  system? Chapter 42 (Part 2) – Gas Exchange  Describe the respiratory surface that fish have (gills) – what is “countercurrent  exchange”?  Describe the “tracheal system” of insects  Explain the pathway of air in the mammalian respiratory system, starting at the nostrils  and ending at the alveoli  How do mammals breathe?  What is “negative pressure breathing”?  Describe the function of “air sacs” in the respiratory system of the bird  Name the 2 areas of the human brain responsible for controlling our breathing – what  specific change in the blood do these parts of the brain sense?  Gas diffuses from a ______ partial pressure to a _______ partial pressure  What are the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the ALVEOLI (are they  high or low?)  What are the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the BLOOD that comes to the lungs from the heart?  (high or low?)  Describe the function of a “respiratory pigment” – what is the major respiratory pigment  in our blood?  Describe the process of “cooperative binding/release” of oxygen to/from hemoglobin  Explain how the partial pressure of oxygen and the pH of the blood affect this  cooperative binding/release of oxygen  Explain how CO  i2 transported through the blood – some of it binds to hemoglobin,  while most of the remainder combines with water to form _______.  (Figure 42.30,  and movie on the book CD/website)  Describe how the lungs and hearts of animals that run very long distances very fast are  adapted to that function  Describe how diving mammals like dolphins/whales can hold their breath for such a long  time Chapter 42 (Part 1) – Circulatory System  The circulatory system allows exchange with the external environment at the ______  level.  Do cnidaria have circulatory systems?  What’s the function of the gastrovascular cavity?  Explain the difference between an “open circulatory system” and a “closed circulatory  system”  Describe the function of the 3 types of blood vessels  Describe the mammalian heart  Explain the pathway of that the blood takes through the heart, to the body parts/lungs and back again o Name important veins/arteries o Which side of the heart receives oxygen­rich blood o Which side of the heart receives oxygen­poor blood  Explain the difference between “systole” and “diastole”  Define “cardiac output.”  What two things does it depend on?  Where is the atrioventricular valve located? (between____ and ____)  Where is the semilunar valve located?  (between ____ and ____)  Explain the purpose of the sinoatrial node and how it affects the atrioventricular node Compare and contrast the physical properties of the walls of arteries and veins  Compare and contrast the speed at which blood flows through (and explain why is moves at that speed) o Arteries o Veins o Capillaries  When measuring blood pressure, what is the difference between “systolic” and  “diastolic” pressures  Explain how the exchange of fluid between the capillary and the body tissues is driven by blood pressure  o Differentiate between what happens on the artery side of the capillaries and what  happens on the vein side  Name the 3 major components of plasma  Name and give the function of the 3 cellular components of blood  What protein works with platelets to clot blood at the site of a wound  Describe what the problem is in the following cardiovascular diseases o Atherosclerosis o Hypertension o Heart attack o stroke Chapter 41 – Animal Nutrition  List 3 types of heterotrophs  List the 3 basic needs of heterotrophs  Define “malnourishment”  Name 4 essential nutrients (Why are they “essential”?)  Name 4 fat­soluble vitamins – why do we need to be worried about taking in too  much of these?  Why don’t we worry about taking in too much of water­soluble  vitamins?  List the 4 stages of food processing   Describe 4 different feeding mechanisms (Figure 41.6)  Explain the difference between “intracellular digestion” and “extracellular  digestion”  Explain the role played by the “gastrovascular cavity” in simple organisms as it  pertains to digestion  Name the “tube” that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus in complex animals  Name 4 “accessory glands/organs” that secrete digestive juices into our digestive  system  Describe the process of “peristalsis”  What is the enzyme that is present in saliva?  What is its purpose?  Be able to identify/label the “pharynx” and the “esophagus”  Name the 2 major components of “gastric juice” – how is the stomach wall  protected from the gastric juice?  What is the name of the bacteria that causes  ulcers to occur?  Describe the main function of the small intestine  The pancrease secretes _________ into the small intestine, while the liver and gall bladder secrete _______.  What are the functions of each of these secretions?  What type of tissue makes up the inside lining of the small intestine?  Describe the structure and major function of “villi” and “microvilli” in the small  intestine.  What is a “lacteal”? (Figure 41.15)  Explain the main function of the large intestine – What is the purpose of the E.  coli that lives in our large intestine?  Describe the different dental adaptations of carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores  Explain the symbiotic adaptation that cattle, deer, and sheep have to help them  digest cellulose   Explain the homeostasis of glucose levels after a nutrient­rich meal and several  hours after the meal  Explain what “undernourishment” is (How is it different from “malnourishment”)  Explain what “overnourishment” is o What role does the hormone leptin play in regulating our appetite? Chapter 40 – Animal Form and Function Form is related to function  Define “anatomy”  Define “physiology”  What structural adaptation do we have in our bodies to increase our ability to exchange  energy with our environment?  Define “tissue”  List the 4 Main Types of tissue and describe the general form and function of each  How are tissues arranged in organs?  What is an “organ system”?  Define “homeostasis”  Describe the 2 facets of homeostasis  Describe the 3 parts of a homeostatic control system  Define “thermoregulation”  Explain the difference between an endotherm and an ectotherm  Ectotherms have an advantage over endotherms in that they are able to tolerate a much  larger temperature range – what advantage do endotherms have over ectotherms?  Describe 4 methods for exchanging heat with the surroundings  List the 5 adaptations animals use to balance heat loss/gain o Name of the system that is responsible for insulation? o Difference between vasodilation and vasoconstriction o What’s a countercurrent heat exchanger? o Why do we sweat? o List some behavioral responses to heat loss/gain o Why do we shiver?  What does the hypothalamus do in our homeostatic control system?  Define “acclimatization”  Define “bioenergetics”  Define “metabolic rate”  Explain how size of the animal and the amount of activity of an animal affect metabolic  rate  The higher the metabolic rate, the ________ the duration of the activity  List the 5 main things that our bodies spend energy on  Define “torpor” 


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