Unit three study guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danae Sorensen on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FDWLD101-01 at a university taught by Brother Yost in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Founding of Rome and Roman virtues Pragmatic: problem solvers that didn’t War elephants twice routed the Romans complain Three periods of Rome However, the Roman soldiers nonetheless Virtuous: reasonable, honest, fulfilling fought with great courage and inflicted 1. The Monarchy 753 BC – 509 BC severe losses on the Greek armies 2. The Republic 509 BC- 31 BC Stoic: stoic philosophy, controls over 3. The Empire 31 BC - 476 AD emotions and passions for the good of The victory was not worth the casualties society The Northern Boundary of the Roman “Pyrrhuc victory” Empire was the Danube and Rhine Rivers. Mos Maiorum “Customs of the Ancestors” Maintaining their Conquests Founding of Rome, 753 BC, and the Pietas: privately fulfilling ones duty Monarchy showing respect for elders. Publicly meant Rome was able to maintain its growing patriotism/dedication territorial acquisitions in Italy because it - The best known and most treated its conquered peoples with great influential story was that of Firmitas: Stay the course when challenged. moderation Romulus Roman General. - A descendent of Aeneas, a Trojan Seldom severe demands made on Industria: diligent workers. Architecture conquered peoples hero who migrated to Italy after the Greeks destroyed Troy and engineering. - In Roman thinking, a divinely Strong loyalty to Rome appointed leader descended from Lustitia: hallmark of a virtuous society. the gods. Obsession of justice and law Rome generated loyalty among the - The story of how the gods founded, soldiers of these peoples who were willing Auctoritas: “authority”. Had to be earned to fight for Rome by giving them land that blessed, and prospered the Roman not claimed they could farm state - He summoned his subjects The Roman Republic, 509- 31 BC Punic Wars together and gave them laws - Nation that welcomed immigrants and different ethnic groups as Established checks and balances on Friction powers over who would control the individual power large island of Sicily initiated the first of future citizens who would help three wars between Carthage and Rome building up their state and its Consuls were elected annually power The First Punic War, 264-241 BC - The second problem faced by A dictator could be substituted for the two Romulus was that his city had too consuls and given absolute power but only The Second Punic War, 218-201 BC many men and not enough women for six months Hannibals Invasion Route - Romulus promised them civic and property rights and convinced Most important institution, republic them that their husbands would remained the Senate - Detachment of African elephants love them and treat them well - Armies wandered in Italy for fifteen - Legendary accounts that reveal The war against Pyrrhus and the Greeks years defeating Roman armies how the romans say themselves as everywhere they went a people Troubled by Romes growing power The Third Punic War, 149-146 BC Greeks in southern Italy prepared for war Survivors: people that faced hardships but and called on the Hellenistic Greek king The Late republican Period, 133-31 BC overcame the obstacles Pyrrhus of Epirus for help Issues and Problems Caesar Augustus 30 BC – 14 AD Advertising the idea that Rome was a nation blessed by the divine sanction of 1. The loss of a middle class, and First emperor the gods growing poverty 2. Corruption in Government Sought to end the disruptions and civil Virgils great epic poem: Aeneid 3. Corruption of purpose in the wars of the late Roman Republic military The hero of the story, Aenaes, is portrayed - dropped the property and A skilled propagandist who kept all real as a man devoted to the greatness of his power to himself country, willing to sacrifice personal weapons qualifications for membership in the army and The friction that the republic still existed desires for its success began recruiting his soldiers with no regard to land ownership Unification of political and religious - most of the Roman army came All power- civil, military, and religious- authority in the person of the emperor from the very poorest members of resided in him Roman emperors would be both the society, the homeless and jobless He would restore the public political head of state and the head of the - Roman soldiers had vested intrest state religion- a dangerous mix as the in protecting their country and their Princeps means “first citizen” land. Loyalty was to the state Christians would soon discover - top loyalty was to their general Another of the titles bestowed on him - would supply his soldiers with Pax Romona Augustus means “the revered” land Means Roman Peace First triumvirate: alliance formed in 60 BC Previously only used for the gods Military reforms that reduced the size of by three famous generals; Caesar, the army and utilized the soldier for public Pompey, Crassus Title of emperor is derived from another of works Octavians ancient titles, “imperator”, Second Triumvirate: Octavian (Augustus), meaning “victorious general” Mark Antony, Lepidus This peace was a result of the blessing of Augustus sought to rectify several societal the gods and a sign of the roman right to problems that he faced as leader of Rome rule Third civil war: Antony versus Octavian Panis at cirences; bread and circuses Battle of Actium 31 BC He created a civil service that was open to everyone Coliseum Cicero 106-44 BC He created a permanent professional army Begun in 72 Ad by Vespasian Characteristics of Stoicism stationed in the frontiers and therefore, at least for a time, kept it out of policies 1. Empirical observation Took ten years to build 2. Obedience to Laws The finantial administration of the empire 3. Mental Discipline Beneath were chambers, passageways, and its tax system dressing rooms and maintenance centers 4. Emotional Discipline Building projects helped beautify Rome Its inauguration lasted 100 days Orthodoxy: right belief The long period of civil wars and the Death of 1000s of gladiators and animals Orthopraxy: right practice decline of the Roman religion had taken their toll on traditional Roman civilization, Name from Colossus of Nero? 100 foot tall Pax Romona traditional Roman values statue 50,000-70,000 spectators according to The Empire in Decline and Early To be seen as irreligious, seen as being their social class Christianity dangerous to societys well being Gladitorial Contests Crisis of the Third Century 235-284 True Religion - Cirero what you do > what you believe By the 1 century A.D it was a three part Reasons for the Crisis: Hypertrophy, - Lactantius who you worship > what you event that lasted a day reliance on foreign troops, threats of do invasion from Sassanid Persia and Became common to stage public Germania, civil war due to battle of Christianity was badly divided by a executions during the lunch break succession, economic depression and theological debate concerning the nature plagues of God, Arian controversy After the executions the gladiators would be brought out Tetrachy and Constantinian dynasty First church- wide ecumenical council, Nicaea Circus Maximus Tetrarchs “four rules” Arius, teaching that the Son was not God The Pantheon Constantine was hailed by his troops as in the same way that the Father was God Augustus The sunlight on the caissons served to establish a calendar The Son was created by the Father and is Final battle – Milivian Bridge not equal to the Father Dome is 20 feet thick Edict of Milan making Christianity legal in Arian Heresy the empire Represent the Dome of Heaven Proto-Orthodox Christianity The Last Emperors of the Western Empire Dedicated to the 7 Gods and the & planets 455-476 The Latin Church Pantheon means “temple of the Gods” Ichthus: Iesous=Jesus, Christos= Christ, St. Augustine of Hippo, 354-430 AD Aqueducts Theos= God, Uios= Son, Soter= Savior Doctors of the Church are considered to be Pont de gard in 180 feet high Christianities emerged competing with the foundation of Christian orthodoxy each other for doctrinal and dogmatic hegemony and often led by a local leader Neo- Platonism influenced Christianity Carried water 25 miles called a bishop though the teachings of St. Augustine Basilica Orthodox Christianity on the one hand and In Platos teachings the cosmos was created by a Divine Craftsman Roman justice was pragmatic elimination of numerous heresies on the other Every citizen had the right to “appeal to For Plotinus, Platos forms became the Caesar” Two developments in the church deity, Plotinus calls the One - growing consensus of the New Testament Roman law has provided the basic writings One, Nous, World soul, Material World framework of todays body of laws - the push by the bishops of Rome toward the acceptance of papal primacy Man’s nature in soul-in-body Rectangle with a semi-circular apse on one Later Christian philosophers take this view end 64-68 Neros Persecutions. Peter and Pal of The One, describe it as the Christian are both executed God, development of Mysticism Mystic: person who seeks a direct - Just War theory one of Pepin ll : the mayor of the palace experience with God justifications for Crusades 3. Contoversy with the Pagans Though he had actual power, it was the Mystical experience: intense, direct - blamed the fall of Rome on Merovingians that still held titular power Christian influence Taught most desirable of existences was - state to be endured for good of The Carolingians union with supreme One society, church was to instruct it -Growth of feudalism - legitimize his power This was philosophers quest Gregory the Great Donation of Constantine Philosophers task is to overcome physical 1. Gave away grain from the papal - Charlemagne realm, turn inward to mental/spiritual storehouses - established a church- state relationship ascent back to the One 2. Began to pay the imperial troops with church funds, appoint their The Rise and Growth of Papacy Final moment of illumination is mystical officers, and direct their experience movements. Wrote that he had Augustines Confessions only done what had needed to be done as the consul of God Pear tree 3. Reorganized the papal government, administration that exemplified good government during an St. Augustines Theological Controversies otherwise chaotic time 1. Controversy with the Maichees 4. Missionary work reconverting Arian - taught that evil was the result of Germans to Catholicism the exercise of the will 2. Controversy with the Donatists Barbarian Kingdoms - insisted sacraments effective only Four factors for the cultural transformation when administered by a pure priest in Western Europe - invisible grace of God to operate - sacraments depend on Gods grace Conversions of Europe - valid even if the person who administers them is not pure The franks, the popes, and a new emperor of the romans - Theory of Just War: 1. Proper - the merovingians authorities, 2. Goal restoring peace -clovis: swore that if he was victorious he or justice, 3. Motivated by love, 4. would convert to his wifes Catholic Reasonable chance to succeed, 5. Christianity Benefit society
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