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exam 2 study guide

by: Michelle Ibrahim

exam 2 study guide psych 391

Michelle Ibrahim
Cal State Fullerton

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this is a complete study guide for exam 2
Industrial/Organizational Psyc
Nadia Alvarez
Study Guide
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Ibrahim on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psych 391 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Nadia Alvarez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 201 views. For similar materials see Industrial/Organizational Psyc in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide Types of employee screening tests: -Individual vs. group- individual tests are administered to only one person at a time. Administrators are more involved in individual tests than in- group tests. Require constant supervision. Group tests are administered to multiple people at a time. Administrator is usually only there as a test monitor, reduces cost, more tests are becoming online. -Speed vs. power- speed tests has a fixed time limit. Important focus of speed tests is number of items completed within given time. May increase the risk of legal challenges. Ex. Typing tests. Power tests allow for more time, they are typically more difficult, with a focus on number of correct. -Paper and pencil vs. performance tests- paper and pencil refers to online as well, require some form of written reply ex sat, act, exams, etc. Performance tests are of manual dexterity or grip strength, manipulation of physical objects. Types of validity: the accuracy of inferences or projection we draw from measurements, whether the measurement allows for accurate inferences -Content- whether a predictor measurement process (test items or interview questions) adequately sample important job behaviors and elements involved in performing a job. Whether it measures what it is suppose to measure. Demonstrates that content of selection procedure represents adequate sample of important work behaviors & activities or worker KSAOs defined by job analysis. Ex intelligence and extra version (good predictors of managerial success) Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide - Criterion- the accuracy of a measurement instrument in determining the relationship between scores on the instrument and some criterion of job success. Personality Tests: measure psychological characteristics of individuals. Inexpensive and easy to interpret. Validity is modest to strong -MMPI- (Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory) used to access the normal characteristics for professions such as cop, pilot, nuclear power plant operator etc. -CPI- (California physiological inventory) personality inventory that measures 20 personality dimensions, predictor of employee performance across positions Wonderlic: cognitive ability test. Used to measure players cognitive ability. Asses basic verbal and numerical abilities, designed to measure the ability to learn simple jobs, follow instructions and solve work related problems, used to screen people for jobs such as office clerks, assembly workers, machine operators m and certain frontline supervisors Bennet Test (BMCT): mechanical ability test, developed to measure abilities in identifying, recognizing, and applying mechanical principles, effective in screening people for positions that require operating or repairing machinery, construction jobs, engineering positions. Widely used since WWII, 68 multiple-choice questions. Good reliability, good criterion related validity. Outdated in appearance and content Emotional intelligence: The ability to understand, regulate and communicate emotions and to use them to inform thinking, using emotions to facilitate thinking Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide Conscientiousness: this is a good predictor of both job performance and work attendance but may not be predictive of managerial success. Assessment center: most detailed, structured evaluation of job applications using a variety of instruments and techniques, attempts to measure include oral and communication skills, behavioral flexibility and, creativity, tolerance of uncertainty and skills in organization, planning and decision making. Collection of procedurals for evaluation. Assessment done in groups, by groups, have a “feel” of relevance. Usually only used by large companies and for the selection of people in higher level managerial positions Work sample: measures applicant’s abilities to perform brief examples of some of the critical tasks that the job requires. Advantage is that they are clearly job related, they serve as realistic job preview, allowing applicants to determine their own suitability and capabilities for preforming a job. Ex rudder control test for pilots, speech interview for foreign student. Disadvantage can be expensive Comparable validity of selection devices: videotaped and computerized assessments of participants had led to a recent renewal of interest in assessment. Interviewing is the most widely used employee screening and selection device, if not conducted correctly than it can be a poor predictor of future job performance. Part of the problem is interviews are conducted haphazardly with little structure to them. Interviews have been found to be more favorable of videoconference. The reliability of the interviewer judgments is also problematic because interview bias and snap judgment Types of interviews: Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide -Structured interview- situational interview (future) -Behavioral interview (past) -Unstructured interview (tend to cover job knowledge, abilities, skills, personality) Performance appraisals: the formalized means of assessing worker performance in comparison to certain established organizational standards -Comparative methods: performance appraisal methods involving comparisons of one workers performance against that of another worker. Simple rankings, paired comparisons, forced distribution. Individual methods of appraisal do not make direct comparisons with other workers, individual’s methods include checklists and forced choice scales, most common individual performance appraisal is the use of graphic rating scales. -Multiple perspectives: supervisors, self, peer, subordinate, customer, and electronic sources/monitoring -Halo effect: an overall positive evaluation of a worker based on one known positive characteristic or action. Physical attractiveness or being labeled a rising star can lead to these effects. Objective performance criteria: measure of job performance that is easily quantified such as the number of units produced or the dollar amount of sales. Such criteria are often referred to as measures of productivity Criterion contamination- the extent to which performance appraisals contain elements that detract from the accurate assessment of job effectiveness, elements that should not be included in the performance assessment, common source of criterion contamination stems from appraiser bias. It can also stem from extraneous factors ex a sales person might Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide receive a poor performance review for low sales even though they are young and inexperienced Use of multiple reviewers and 360-degree feedback: a method of gathering performance appraisals from workers supervisors, peers, customers, subordinates, vendors/suppliers and other relevant parties Employee comparison methods and examples: -Rankings: performance appraisal methods involving the ranking of supervisees from best to worse. A limitation is that there are no absolute standards on performance so there is a problem if few or none of the group are preforming at acceptable levels. -Paired comparisons: performance appraisal method in which the rater compares each worker with each other worker in the group. Advantage is this is simple to use and can be applicable to a variety of jobs. Ex. There are 6 possible paired comparisons for a group of 4 workers, but 28 paired comparisons for a 7-member group. Each person final rank consists of the number of times that individual was chosen as the better pair. Drawbacks are similar to ranking -Forced distributions: assigning workers to establish categories of poor to good performance with fixed limitations on how many employees can be assigned to each category. One problem with this is there is an abundance of either good or bad employees. Ex when subordinates were presented with info comparing their job performance with one of their peers, their self-ratings of performance were more accurate and there was greater agreement between self-appraisals and appraisals made by supervisors Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide Factors that affect perceptions of fairness: Appraisal frequency positive and related to fairness perceptions, Joint planning with supervisor to eliminate weaknesses enhances fairness perception, Supervisor’s knowledge of duties of person being measured, and Supervisor’s knowledge of actual performance of person being rated Common rating errors: -Leniency errors- the tendency to give all workers very positive performance appraisals -Severity errors- the tendency to give all workers very negative performance appraisals -Central tendency errors- the tendency to give all workers the midpoint rating in performance -Halo effect- occurs when appraisers make overall positive (or negative) performance appraisals because of one known outstanding characteristic or action -Recency effect- gives greater weight on a more recent performance -Actor observer bias- tendency of appraiser to place greater emphasis on dispositional factors and lesser emphasis on situational factors that may have affected performance Types of training: -New employee orientation and training- are designed to introduce employees to the organization and its goals, philosophies, policies, and procedures. Learn about compensation, benefits and safety rules and procedures. Many do not give sufficient attention or resources in this area. People who receive more training early on are more likely to stay with the company within the first 6 months Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide -Retraining and continuing education programs- to maintain workers proficiencies organizations must encourage and support “refresher courses” as well as continuing education programs. The use of advanced technology must be constantly updated. It is suggested that companies provide incentives for older workers to build their confidence in learning new things/ participating in retraining programs. -Employee planning and preparation- training departments offer help in creating retirement plans. Seminars are offered in efforts to help employees be able to plan their retirements. A study found that pre and post retirement plans are necessary in planning a successful retirement -Employee career development- the development and planning of employees careers, helping workers plan their careers can help lead them to become more productive, more satisfied, and more loyal to the workforce. Include career counseling, courses in career planning, and workshops that provide tools to help manage careers. May help assist in finding jobs for employees who are about to be laid off -Training workers for international assignments- increasing globalization of business means that workers will be requires meeting with representatives of other nations. Might have employees spent time in a host country; working in another culture requires specialized training. Some skills include learning new languages, knowledge of host country general culture, country specific business culture. It is said that the best workers are those who can adapt to different international assignments. -Training in diversity issues and ethical behavior- efforts to prevent harassment, especially sexual harassment. Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide -Team training- as organizations rely more on work teams, training in this area has grown. Rather than individual focus the focus is shifted onto groups. Transfer of training: concept dealing with whether training is actually applied in the work setting. The most useful training processes directly address the actual tasks that are performed on the job. Positive transfer of learning tasks has been found to be maximized when there is identical stimulus and response elements found in the training and the job. A study showed that feedback was necessary for employees to stay on track. Brush up or reminder-training sessions should follow a few months down the line. Needs analysis (organizational analysis, task analysis, demographic analysis, person analysis) -Task analysis (KSAOs): requirements for performing a job, knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics. Starting point for obtaining this information is job description derived from a detailed job analysis. Ex a job as a department store assistant manager might require the worker to handle customer complaints effectively. Task How task is learned Answer customer questions about rates Basic rate charts Process customer transactions Basic teller training Calm irate customers Check loan applications for accuracy Loan processing course Ask customers to complete VISA applications Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide Input customer transactions into the Basic teller training computer Answer customer questions about Basic teller training services On-site methods of job training: -On the job training- an employee training method of placing an inexperienced worker in the workplace and having a more experience workers teach about a job. One of the oldest and most widely used training method. Relies on the principle of modeling. It requires little preparation and has few costs to the organization. Downside is if the trainers do not see a personal benefit which they usually don’t they are less likely to want to do a good job in training. Best used when the trainers have been carefully selected. -Apprenticeship- a training technique usually lasting several years that combines on the job experience with classroom instructions. Skilled trade professionals such as carpentry, printing, masonry, plumbing. Will learn mechanical skills in a classroom for a while then go out and do it. On site training method. Advantage is that they are very prepared. Drawbacks are that there might be disproportionately chosen from majority groups and women and ethnic groups have been selectively omitted. -Vestibule training- training that uses a separate are adjacent to the work are to simulate the actual work setting. On site training method as well. Allowing hands on experience. Positive of this is there is no disruption of Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide actual production. Drawbacks are the costs in terms of trainers and space and equipment needed. -Job rotation- a method of rotating workers among a variety of jobs to increase their bread of knowledge. Beneficial because of cross training of employees thus if a worker is absent than the other one can step in. Have positive effects in career progression however employees must be trained adequately so they are fully prepared. Simulation training- training that replicates job conditions without placing the trainee in the actual work setting. Example. Jet pilots, astronauts and nuclear power plant operators are all subject to intensive simulation training. Computer-assisted instruction- programmed instruction delivered by computer that adapts to the trainees learning rate. CAI offers the flexibility to change and update the instructional programs continually. Allows for immediate testing of the trainee learning because the computer can ask questions. One problem is that some employees may not have the self- motivation to learn and may do better in live situations. Evaluation of training: -Behavioral criteria- measure the amount of newly learned skills displayed once the trainee has returned to the job. Observational methods are used to assess behavioral. What kind of changes in behavior will it cause? -Results criteria- what the results are from the training, measure the outcome, such as quality of work, dollar sales figures, using the results a cost benefit analysis can be made. Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide Maslow’s need hierarchy theory & Alderfer’s ERG theory: Maslow's and Alderfer's basic need theories propose that needs are arranged in a hierarchy from the lowest, most basic needs, to higher-order needs such as the need for esteem or self-actualization Maslow- lowest to highest, 1. Physiological needs (basic survival, food, water, sleep, sex). 2. Safety needs (shelter, psychological safety). 3. Social needs (acceptance, love, affection). 4. Esteem needs (recognized for accomplishments, be admired). 5. Self actualization (need to reach ones highest potential, highest point on hierarchy) Alderfers ERG theory- existence needs, relatedness, and growth needs McClelland’s achievement motivation theory: emphasizes the importance of 3 needs, achievement (get the job done), power (control the activates of others), and affiliation (desire to be liked) in determining worker motivation. Measured by the Thematic Apperception Test Schedules of reinforcement: 4 types of reinforcement schedules -Fixed interval schedule- reinforcement that occurs after the passage of a specified amount of time. Ex. Employees whoa re paid hourly or daily wage or a weekly or monthly salary are being reinforced. Reinforcement follows regardless of whether the rate of performance is high or low. Predictable -Variable interval schedule- reinforcement that follows the passage of a specific amount of time, with exact time of reinforcement varying. Rare means of compensation. Ex. Worker for a small business might be paid on Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide the average of once a month but the exact time depends on when the owner does payroll. Bonuses are also variable interval -Fixed ratio schedule- reinforcement that is contingent on the performance of a fixed number of behaviors. Ex. Workers who are paid on the number of components assembled, baskets of fruit picked etc. commonly referred to as piecework -Variable ratio schedule- reinforcement that depends on the performance of a specified but varying number of behaviors. Ex. A salesperson on commission who is required to give a number of sales presentations (work behavior) to make the sale and receive a commission (the reinforcement). This leads to high levels of motivation because the reinforcement it contingent on performance and because of the surprise effect. Reinforcement theory: the theory that behavior is motivated by its consequences. Draws the principle of operant conditioning. A consequence that follows a behavior and serves to increase the motivation to perform that behavior again is a reinforce. Limitations: -Positive reinforces- desirable events that strengthen the tendency to respond. Receiving praise or money or a pat on the back. -Negative reinforces- events that strengthen a behavior through the avoidance of an existing negative state. Ex. Being allowed to escape the noise and confusion of a busy work area by taking a short break or working hard to avoid the wrath of a watchful supervisor Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide -Punishment- unpleasant consequences that directly follow the performance of a behavior. It is to weaken the tendency to perform the behavior again. Key components from the Drive LinkedIn video Goal setting theory: emphasizes setting challenging goals for workers, and getting workers committed to those goals as the keys to motivation. Must be clear, specific, attainable, and quantified if possible. May emphasize taking large goals and breaking them down into smaller attainable goals. Herzberg’s two-factor theory: focuses on job satisfaction and dissatisfaction as two independent dimensions important in determining motivation. • Motivators are factors related to job content that, when present, lead to job satisfaction • Hygiene’s are elements related to job context that, when absent, cause job dissatisfaction Job characteristics model: 5 core job characteristics • Skill variety- job demands a range of skills • Task identity- job requires the completion of an entire job or function • Task significance- degree to which a job has a substantial impact on other people within the organization, such as consumers • Autonomy- degree to which a job gives the worker freedom and independence to choose how to schedule and carry out the necessary tasks Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide • Task feedback- degree to which job allows the worker to receive direct and clear information about the effectiveness of performance Equity theory of motivation: a theory that workers are motivated to reduce perceived inequities between work inputs and outcomes. They want to be treated fairly. If they feel they are treated inequitable than their motivation will be channeled into some strategy to reduce inequity. Overpayment inequity- workers perception that outcomes are greater than inputs Three core components of Expectancy Theory of Motivation (VIE): a cognitive theory of motivation that states that workers weigh expected costs and benefits of particular courses before they are motivated to take action -Valence- the desirability or undesirability of an outcome to an individual -Instrumentality- the perceived relationship between the performance of a particular behavior and the likelihood of receiving a particular outcome, the link between one outcome (the workers behavior) and another outcome (obtaining recognition or a pay raise) -Expectancy- the perceived relationship between the individual’s effort and performance of a behavior. Motivational Trait Questionnaire- measures 6 aspects of general motivation • Desire to learn • Mastery • Other referenced goals • Competitiveness • Worry • Emotionality Ted Talks: Surprising Science Behind Motivation Psych 391 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide -When task was based on mechanical skills the bonuses worked, small, medium, and large money prices led to better performance this is logical. But once the task called for rudimentary cognitive skill a larger reward led to poorer performance. Higher incentives led to worse results for cognitive conceptual creative thinking. Once you pay people enough so they are not thinking about the money and instead thinking about the work, there are 3 factors that lead to better job performance are autonomy, mastery, and self-purpose. Autonomy is our desire to be self-directed; if you want engagement self-engagement is required. Ex. An Australian company let’s workers work on whatever they ant for 24 hrs as long as they show them results after 24 hrs. Mastery is our urge to get better at stuff.


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