US history Since 1877 Study Guide Test 3
US history Since 1877 Study Guide Test 3 HIST 10613
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Harris on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 10613 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Mary Wilson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see US Hist: Surv Since 1877 in History at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
04/03/2016 ▯ Bolshevik Revolution ▯ Lever Act 1917 Gave President control over production, prices, and distribution of food and fuel ▯ Overman Act 1918 Reinforced the president’s emerging war power ▯ Herbert Hoover Food Administration Cut back on American food consumption Increased food shipment overseas to troops ▯ William McAdoo Railroad Administration Took all competing railroads and synchronized them ▯ Bernard Baruch War Industries Board o Decided what factories did o Had power to take over factories o Could cut off raw materials to factories if they didn’t cooperate ▯ War Labor Board Tried to ensure peace between companies and Unions Established 8 hour work days and better wages ▯ Committee on Public Information George Creel Canned speeches Trying to bring everyone together ▯ Liberty Leagues Spy on neighbors Report suspicious activity Propaganda ▯ Executive Order 1917 Federal employees could not criticize war effort ▯ Espionage Act of 1917 Automatic 20 year sentence for aiding and abetting the enemy or refusing to enlist ▯ Sedition Act 1918 No criticism of the government, flag, military, or constitution 15,000 arrested ▯ 14 Points Woodrow Wilson’s plan in 1918 Germany thought they could have an honorable surrender with this treaty o They were alone in the war and decided to surrender Negotiated at Palace of Versailles in hall of mirrors 1. Open diplomacy o no more secret alliances 2. Freedom of the seas o rights of neutrals to travel on seas o Britain didn’t like this one 3. Free trade o trading partners generally don’t fight 4. Arms reductions o If people aren’t prepared for war, they won’t be so anxious to fight 6-13 other points 14. League of Nations o wanted to forget the past o Europe was not ready to let past go Wilhelm abdicates; flees to Holland o Queen Wilhelmina protected him ▯ Treaty of Versailles 1919 1. Heavy Reparations 2. Germany gave up all colonies 3. Germany army and navy reduced to police forces 4. War guild clauses i. Germany was humiliated Alsace Lorrants o Contested territory o Given to France Saar o Industrial heart of Germany o Given to France ▯ John Maynard Keynes Predicted another war from the treatment of Germany in the Treaty of Versailles 1919 ▯ Irreconcilables Led by senator William E. Borah Opposition to League of Nations equal protection clause Henry Cabot Lodge supported them Group of senators campaigned against ratification of the treaty Wilson had stroke Edith Wilson basically became president for his last two years ▯ Election of 1920 Americans were unhappy with USA’s role in WWI Recession as economy recovered from sudden change from wartime to peacetime Spanish epidemic killed more than the war did st 1 election women could vote James M. Cox (D) v. Warren G. Harding (R) o Both relatively unknown Harding invented word “normalcy” o Pro business o Won by a lot Solid democrat south ▯ ▯ Roaring 20s ▯ Urban vs. Rural Split became obvious Values of people are very different City people saw country people as uncultured Active disdain for rural values Sinclair Lewis- “Main Street” o Cynical book about small town people Thomas Wolfe o “Look Homeward Angel” o Book based on hometown- Asheville, NC o Didn’t disguise characters well enough o Active disdain for rural values H.L. Mencken o Founded a magazine catering to city folk o Hated William Jennings Bryan (populist) “The New Yorker” o debut in 1925 ▯ National Origins Act of 1924 Set quotas for ethnic groups Went to 1890 census and based quotas country’s immigrants Limitations stayed in effect until 1960s ▯ KKK Had been destroyed after Civil War By 1920s- rose up because of black success and immigrants William Joseph Simmons o Revived KK 1920s o Claimed to be real Americans o White robes and peaked hats used Over 5 million members Biggest clans in IN and IL Anti- catholic, Jewish, black, immigrants o (Anyone not protestant whites) Woodrow Wilson took a hit Emphasized white woman’s protection DC Stephenson o Kidnapped and raped his secretary o Led to fall of KKK ▯ ▯ Biggest causes of divide between rural and urban life Prohibition Evolution ▯ Prohibition To maintain status quo o Immigrants used alcohol differently than Americans Rural Americans wanted dry Urban Americans wanted wet 18 Amendment in 1918 (repealed 1933 by FDR) Al Capone o Ran illegal booze business ▯ Evolution Charles Darwin o A lot of people accepted his theories o Many rejected it –southerners especially Passed laws to keep evolution from being taught in schools (creationism was taught) John T. Scope- “the monkey trial” o Bio teacher in TN taught evolution in his class o Defense lawyer- Clarence Darrow o Prosecutor- William Jennings Bryan Trial attracted world wide attention Found guilty- didn’t make it supreme Court Emphasized the gap between those who wanted change and those who didn’t ▯ Warren G. Harding (R) st 1 President in 1920s big business came back o very powerful in government corrupt administration o very easily swayed o let friends benefit from government contracts refused to answer questions o spoke only from scripts ▯ Teapot Dome Scandal Oil discovered in federally owned land in Wyoming o Government set it aside as oil reserve Edwin Denby- Sec. of navy o In charge of oil reserves Albert Fall- secretary of interior o Took over oil reserves o Sold under the table o Forced to resign o Sent to jail- 1 time a cabinet member had been sent to jail ▯ Budget and accounting act 1921 US had structure to keep track of budget; money coming in and out Only good thing from Harding Created Bureau of budget Ensured tax money was appropriated appropriately Described how to create federal budget annually H of Reps controls money ▯ Harding died from heart attack 1923 ▯ Calvin Coolidge (Vp) took over Modest, quiet “silent cal,” honest Won re-election in 1924 Didn’t run again in 1928 Best president of 1920s Son died from infection ▯ Election of 1928 Al Smith (D) o Roman immigrant parents; Catholic o Wet (against prohibition) o Everything rural Americans hated Herbert Hoover (R) o Engineer, humanitarian, protestant o In favor of prohibition Loved by rural Americans o Broke solid south o Took blame for depression Had been 10 years in the making in reality ▯ Agricultural depression 1919 Prices went down- decrease in demand o Farmers increased production o Drove prices further down Imbalance of Foreign trade o Trade barriers went up o US passed high tarrifs in attempt to protect our industries o Other countries made their own tariffs in retaliation ▯ Causes of Depression Poor distribution of Income o Trickle down economics- the belief that increasing the salary of high income earners will benefit the rest of society because they will invest their extra income into their companies didn’t work properly Too much money staying at upper levels of business Money put into stock market rather than re-investing in industry Purchasing power didn’t keep up with production o Disguised by installment buying Supreme court struck down min wage and max work hour o Causes decline in auto and hosing industry 1920s- merger mania o thousands put out of work o due to weakness in corporate structure defects in banking system o no separation between commercial bank and investment bank o bankers took millions from depositors and invested in stock markets o 1926 >1,000 banks failed ▯ Buying On The Margin The purchase of stocks by paying the “margin” and borrowing the rest of the money from the bank ▯ The Crash “Black Tuesday” Over 4,000 banks failed Over 100,000 businesses were broke Unemployment went from 3 million to 15 million National income went from 81 billion to 49 billion ▯ Herbert Hoover’s Efforts hoover believed government should try to help Agriculture Marketing Act 1929 o Government bought surplus grain Emergencey Relief and Reconstruction Act o Public services created jobs Hoover Dam o Stimulated jobs Reconstruction Finance Corporation o To help save banks ▯ Bonus Army WWI vets had been promised a bonus in 1945 20,000 vets congregated in DC and demanded their bonus NOW Walter W. Waters- leader Army came to disperse the vets o Douglas MacArthur Directed Removal o Thought vets were going to overthrow gov’t o w/ palton and Eisenhower turned public opinion against Hoover and Republicans ▯ Franklin Delano Roosevelt “nobles oblige”- need to work in government to pay back society for all of the wealth and things you had Secretary of Navy VP John Garner; TX “Fireside chats”- over the radio 15 pieces of legislature passed in 1 100 days tried to rebuild confidence and purchasing power ▯ The New Deal All programs passed by FDR 1933-1935 – first new deal 1935-1937 – second new deal ▯ Relief- help people survive Civilian Conservation Corps o Helped young men o $30/week & had to send $25 home o had jobs at camps o 3.5 million men went through program o conservation projects: re- sod prairies national parks fought forest fires o taught men how to read Public Works Administration o Promoted heavy industry o Skilled workers from housing industry o Local government bought supplies o PWA paid salaries Federal Emergency Relief Administration o Gave out $ to people who didn’t qualify for other programs Homeowners Loan Corp o Helped people stay in homes o Paid unpaid mortgages o Loaned money to those who qualified o Started basis for 30 year mortgage o Only program that was completely paid off Farm Credit Association o Government refinanced loans for farms ▯ Recovery- help people recover National Industrial Recovery Act o National Recovery Administration o Job: stimulate economy o Limit production to make prices go up o Big businesses got together and eliminated competition Each agreed to only produce certain products o Minimum wage o Uniform working hours o Child labor abolished Agricultural Adjustment Act o Limited production and circulated more money o Farm subsidy program Pays farmers to not plant food Farmers destroyed food Farmers fined for producing too much food o Consequences: Tenant farmers kicked out ▯ 1933- USA off the gold standard ▯ Reform- make sure depression didn’t happen again Securities Act 1933 o Outlined what stock market could and couldn’t do o Required full disclosure of company that wanted to sell stock o Outlawed insider trading o Helped restore confidence in stock market Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) o 1934 o regulates stock market and stock exchange o no pooling o stock brokers couldn’t use clients money unless clients knew money was being used o license required for stock selling o margin requirements Glass-Steagall (Banking Act) Act 1933 o Closed all banks in US and called emergency audit o Loans were given to banks teetering on closure/failure o Restored confidence in banking system o Curbed abuses of banks o No more commercial and investment banks o Established Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Government insured your money if your bank failed National Banking Act 1935 o Strengthened federal reserve board o Gave the government more power over money ▯ Huey P. “Kingfish” Long governor of Louisiana Take money from rich and give it to poor o Free text books, free night courses for adults o Increased spending at state university o New roads, bridges, free medical care Accused, impeached for bribery, but was failed to be convicted Became Senator but kept control over LA government o O.K. Allen (Alvin O. King) = new governor (Kingfish’s puppet) Thought he was going to get a cabinet position but FDR didn’t like him o When he didn’t receive position, he became FDR’s enemy 1934- Share the Wealth Program o state taxes and income taxes o no family could make more than $5 million o death tax Assassinated by frustrated office seeker ▯ Dr. Francis Townsend Dr. in California Townsend Plan- Old age pension plan o $200/month o paid for by 2% national tax on business o rejected by FDR ▯ Father Charles Coughlin Catholic priest Early supporter of FDR Became more and more radical o Preached against stock market, capitalism o Founded Union Party 1936 Became sympathetic with Mussolini and Hitler Blamed Jewish Bankers for Depression Radios stations banned his speeches ▯ Second New Deal 1. Wealthy Tax Act o 70% tax of income on wealthy 2. Social Security Act o employees and employers paid for this o stipend for old people 3. Empowered labor- o National Labor Relations Act Robert F. Wagner “Wagner Act” Created board to watch over companies and Unions Gave labor the right to organize and bargain collectively Defined unfair labor practices Supervises labor elections o Fair Labors Standards Act Minimum wage 40 hour work week abolished child labor ▯ Work Progress Administration (WPA) Harry Hopkins Small projects under $25,000 Employed unskilled workers Sidewalks to buildings Kept wages low so as not to compete with private businesses Government paid wages o Art Project Dallas Fair Park Murals o Federal Theatre Project Like Vaudeville o Federal Writers Project “slaves narratives” interviewed those born into slavery any brochure you’d find in a state welcome center ▯ ▯ “Purge of 1938” Election of 1938 FDR campaigned against those who had previously supported him Americans didn’t like that Democrats lost 7 seats in the Senate and 81 in House of Representatives ▯ Changes and Accomplishments of the New Deal Creation of “imperial presidency” o Executive power grew with his aggressive use of power Acceptances of Keynesian economics o Federal government should help economy when times are bad by pumping money in to stimulate it The establishment of a welfare state o Government tried to provide a minimum standard of living Formation of the democratic coalition o Brought south, women, jews, organized labor, blacks, and immigrants together ▯ Europe Post- WWI ▯ Benito Mussolini Offered order (facism) Henchmen = “black shirts” Threatened the monarchy Marched on Rome o Scared everyone King offered to make him Prime minister Wanted to recreate the Roman Empire by expanding through colonies o Ethiopia o Somalia ▯ Adolf Hitler Mussolini’s colonies attracted him Believed in “the Dagger Myth” o Germany had been betrayed by its politicians and diplomats in the first world war Appealed to German nationalism and pride Forced President Hindenburg to make him Chancellor o Killed opposition Build up military Encouraged discrimination against Jews ▯ Meiji Restoration Emperor Meiji of Japan Seized Germany’s possessions in China and New Guinea after WWI Started to develop into industrial nation o Had no raw materials seized Korea in 1897 for resources ▯ Emperor Hirohito Crowned in 1928 Japanese military became increasingly uncontrollable 1934 second Sino Japanese War o China (+Russia) v. Japan Japanese thought they were racially superior ▯ NYE Committee To figure out how US became involved in WWI ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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