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Study Guide: Introduction to Psychology & Its Principles: Second Exam

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by: Brianda Hickey

Study Guide: Introduction to Psychology & Its Principles: Second Exam APSY.UE.0002

Marketplace > NYU School of Medicine > Psychlogy > APSY.UE.0002 > Study Guide Introduction to Psychology Its Principles Second Exam
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A detailed study guide covering the subjects of: Memory Thinking and Reasoning Intelligence Learning Motivation Human Development Links to videos that pertain to each subject are also pro...
Adina Schick,
Study Guide
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
Study Guide: Intro to Psychology & Its Principles: Second Exam Memory Key Processes (In Detail) Related Videos: Encoding Getting information into our brain Automatic Processing refers to unconscious encoding of incidental information Information: space, time frequency, meaning of common words Automatically process things around us without thinking about it Why we forget people’s name 30sec after meeting them - We are so focused on coming up with instantaneous judgement and what we are going to say to someone. We do not pay attention to something as basic as their name Do not remember name, because never encoded information Attention is critical to the encoding of memories Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events Cannot give all information full attention, have to be able to filter If did not filter, would be overwhelmed Multitasking often results in a reduction in memory performance The brain, while it can handle many things at once. Can only handle one real attention consuming things at once. Levels of Processing What meaning we are associating with certain words will serve a key role in how we remember/process them. Structural Encoding The encoding of picture images When hear ice-cream and think of soft serve ice-cream cone Remembering with images Phonetic Encoding The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words Semantic Encoding Encode information based on meaning, especially the meaning of words Yields much better memory over time over Structural Encoding & Phonetic Encoding We are very good at recalling information that we can meaningfully relate to ourselves Other forms of encoding can work as well or better than Semantic Encoding when memorizing if we are remembering in a way that is personally meaningful Improving Encoding Elaboration: Linking a stimulus to other information a the time of encoding Visual Imagery: Creating mental pictures to represent the word to be remembered Motivation to remember: Putting in extra effort to attend to and organize the information to facilitate future recall Key in improving encoding ex. studying for exam, motivated to remember/encode information vs. coming across random information Storage Anything that is stored in our memory, lies there over time until needed Sensory Memory Preserves information through the senses, in its original form. If hear something - sensory memory is auditory If see something - sensory memory is visual Allows us to experience a visual pattern, sound, or touch even after the event has come and gone. Gives us additional time to recognize and memorize things. Only lasts for about .25 seconds Short-Term Memory Can only memorize 7 (+/- 2) items at a time Adults and Children's short term memory recall proficiency may be measured by how many words they speak in 2min. Many words = recall 9 items at a time less words = recall 5 items at a time Short-term memory has limited capacity Only retain information for about 20 seconds Poor performance in basic recall is often a result of Time-related decay Overtime, it becomes harder and harder to remember things Interference: when other information gets in the way of what is being stored Proactive Interface Something that you learned earlier, disrupts your recall of something you learned later Your brain is full of information and you cannot remember anything else Retroactive Interface Information that is new makes it hard to remember something you learned later Strategies used to counteract these effect included Rehearsal repetitively verbalizing/thinking information Ex. someone give you a phone number, and as your dialing you keep repeating the last four numbers so you don’t forget it Chunking refers to organizing items into familiar, meaningful units Happens automatically Tricks our mind into thinking it is memorizing less than 7 items of information ex. ROY-G-BIV Long-Term Memory Long-Term Memory is unlimited in capacity and can hold information for very long periods of time Memories in Long-Term memory is permanent often inaccurate Retrieving information in Long-Term memory is very difficult ex. Looking for a file within a giant library of file cabinets that were slightly unorganized Memories are more vivid if they are experienced during times of intense emotion Flashbulb memories provide evidence of the permanence of long-term memories Flashbulb memories: Unusually vivid and detailed recollection of a momentous event ex. If you ask someone where they were when they heard of 9/11, they will be able to tell you exactly where they were. Types of Memory Declarative Memory: Factual information - recollection of definition, names, dated, times Episodic Memory Chronological or dates recollections of personal experiences Time stamps associated with the memory Semantic Memory General knowledge that is not tied in any day by the time it was learned ex. Learning that dogs have four legs Types of Declarative memory may be explained by a book analogy Semantic Memory = Encyclopedia Episodic Memory = Autobiography Non-Declarative Memory: Procedural Memory: Non-factual memory, related to remembering a set of action/skills/responses to a particular information Ability to tie shoes/type Retrieval Retrieval cues: (anchor points) are stimuli that help gain access to memories The more retrieval cues you have, the better your chances of retrieving the memory Context Cues: involve putting yourself in the context in which the memory occurred Need to go back to where you learned the information In bedroom, walk to kitchen to get something but forget what you needed to get…Walk back to bedroom to remember what you needed to do in kitchen Schemas: organized clusters of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experiences with the object or event Create mental images based on our general experiences, if we can link something we are trying to recall to the images - will make it easier to recall memory Misinformation Effect Our poor abilities to retrieve information accurately is known as the misinformation effect When we retrieve information, it is never an exact replica of the past We pull up reconstructions of the past that can be distorted and include inaccurate information People include inaccuracies in everyday storytelling A source-monitoring error occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source Source-Monitoring = the process of making inferences about the source of memories this notion of misattributing memories became very clear within the study done by Loftus and Palmer (Hock Reading) The memory of events are highly suggestible and the way someone asks a question effects our memory of the event Calls into question eye witness testing Forgetting & Retention Ebbinghaus We forget a lot of what is memorized, shortly after we memorize. Forget within the first day, only 44% of memory leftover After 6 days, only 25% of the original memory was left over Recall: Reproduce information without any cues require that a person reproduce information on their own with no cues ex. asked to memorize 10 words, then asked to recall 5 of the words Recognition: Select previously learned information from an array of options ex. Multiple choice questions, T & F questions Relearning: Memorize information a second time, and less time and effort since learned it before If it took you 10 minutes to memorize a list of words, the next day it took you 2 minutes to memorize the original list of words 60% less time to memorize information - 60% was retained, only need to remember 40% Thinking & Reasoning Problem Solving Related Videos: Types Problems of Inducing Structure required to discover the relations among numbers, words, symbols, or ideas ex. Analogy Problems of Arrangement Required to arrange the parts of a problem in a way that satisfies some criterion Usually solved by insight (a sudden discover of the correct solution) ex. Anagrams - SPOYOCHYG = Psychology Problems of Transformation Required to carry out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a specific goal ex. The water jug problem: Suppose you are given three pitchers a 21 cup pitcher 127 cup peter and a 3 cup pitcher Given following task: Need to measure out exactly 100 cups of water Best way to solve problem, use 21 cup pitcher + 3 cup pitcher to fill up the 127 cup pitcher and take out water until you have 100 cups of wat Approaches Trial and error is common approach to problem solving Works best when there are few possible solutions to try Impractical when there are many possibilities More commonly, we use heuristics Forming sub-goals Searing for analogies Changing how you present a problem Barriers Irrelevant Information Serves as a barrier to our effective problem solving Ex. often assume all numerical information in word problem is important and MUST be used, may not always be right Conformation Bias Major obstacle to problem solving Look for evidence to confirm what we think will be the answer to problem rather than looking for evidence that will dispute us Fixation Inability to see a problem from a new or fresh situation Mental Set Predispose the way we think refers to our tendency to approach a problem with the mindset of what worked for us previously Functional Fixedness We think of what we are used to rather than new ideas Cultural Differences shape our problem solving techniques Decision Making Related : Heuristics Involves evaluating alternatives and making choices Representativeness Heuristic Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how they seem to represent or match particular prototypes. aka stereotyping ex. If we meet someone who is shy, awkward, and a tournament chess player, we might guess that he is more likely to be a computer science major than a communications major Often a result of our over generalizing form experiences with individuals in a minority group to all individuals in that group Availability Heuristic Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory - how "available" it is in our memories ex. When someone asks you to compare the amount of murders in Michigan vs Detroit, Michigan... you are most likely to report more murders in Detroit, Michigan than Michigan Flaws Ignoring Base Rates: We tend to ignore the overall likelihood that a given case will fall in a given category Base Rate: how common a characteristic or behavior is in the general population The Conjugation Fallacy: We assume that specific conditions are more probable than a single general one The Gambler’s Fallacy: We believe that the odds of a chance event increases if the event has not occurred recently Overestimating the Improbable: We tend to think that dramatic, vivid acts are more likely to occur than more common place ones Loss Aversion: We assume that losses will have more impact that gains of equal size Intelligence Intelligence Tests & IQs Related Videos: History Sir Francis Galton wondered if it might be possible to measure “natural ability” Hoped to encourage those of high ability to mate with one another Original focus on intelligence was tied to a very much Darwinism view of Natural Selection Failed on attempt to measure intelligence ability was not able to quantify what high mental ability would look like His ideas set the foundation for future work instrumental because he began the debate of what is mental ability and how do you measure it He coined the phrase “nature vs. nurture" What is due to someone’s genetics or what is due to how they get up? Types of Tests IQ tests [ can measure potential and one’s knowledge base] are... Exceptionally reliable Reasonably valid indicators of academic intelligence predict school success accurately Poor predictors of social intelligence measures a very specific aspect of one’s intelligence Positively correlated with high status jobs remember: correlation does not equate to causation Achievement Test Intended to reflect what you have learned any kind of school test (AP test, ACT etc) Aptitude Test Intended to predict your ability to learn a new skill What should the function of intelligence test be? Should intelligence test look at someone’s achievement or their aptitude? The most commonly used intelligence test is the WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) The WISC and WPPSI are used for children Yields an overall intelligence scores, as well as sub-scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed Information from these scores, especially if there are differences in individual subcategories, provide clues for teachers on their ability - strength/weaknesses aptitude test ability for someone to gain information rather than what they have already learned Standardization Defining meaningful scores by comparison to the performance of a pretested group Group members’ scores are typically distributed in a normal curve - bell shaped curve Most scores fall near the center Fewer scores closer to the extremes For most IQ test, the mean is 100 and the standard deviation is 15 if know mean score and standard deviation, can make comparison between individuals test scores can be converted to percentile scores for ease of interpretation Reliability The extent to which a test yields consistent results Doesn’t assure a test’s validity Validity The extent to which the test measures or predicts what it is supposed to predict ex. IF you are interest in gaging your height and you take your tape measure that a 4 year old constructed for a pre-school project where they randomly put on numbers…would give you high reliability, where the numbers have been placed will be consistent over time, but no validity to score - a reliable predictor to your height Flynn Effect Average IQ scores in industrialized countries have steadily increased Researcher Flynn found: For as far back as there is data, IQ test rose by 3 points per decade his work has been cooberated There is no clear explanation for why intelligence has increased Flynn believes we need to understand what these changes are capturing not that individuals are smarter over time, but we are growing to be adept to specific cognitive skills Heredity Are our intellectual ability inherited or molded by our environment? The best evidence regarding the role of genetics in intelligence comes from twin studies Identical twins reared apart -> scores are 50% - 70% similar Identical Twins reared together - > virtually the same Identical Twins = brains are essential the same in areas that pertain to intelligence Nevertheless, heredity is credited with 50% of the variation in intelligence among individuals Genetics matter, but so do life experiences Siblings from impoverished families -> more similar IQ scores environmental conditions can diminish inherited intelligence Adopted Children Show resemblance to their adopted parents adopted parents share their environment/shape their opportunities Theories of Intelligence Related Videos: Triarchic Theory Robert Sternberg applied cognitive perspective to the study of intellegence Analytical Intelligence Involves abstract reasoning, evaluation, & judgment predictive of school grades Creative Intelligence Involves the ability ago generate new ideas Demonstrated by reacting adaptively to novel situations and ideas Practical Intelligence Involves the ability to deal effectively with the kinds of problems we encounter in everyday life Multiple Intelligence Theory Howard Gardner views intelligence as multiple abilities that go beyond verbal and math skills These intelligences are not captured by conventional IQ tests The theory has had a major impact in the field of education, but has been subject to much debate Learning Related Videos: Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Response: An unlearned, naturally occurring response Unconditioned Stimulus: A stimulus that unconditionally triggers a response Conditioned Response: A learned response to a previously neutral stimulus Conditioned Stimulus: An originally irrelevant stimulus that triggers a conditioned response Conditioning Processes Acquisition Higher-Order Conditioning Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Generalization Discrimination Operant Conditioning In the operant conditioning, organisms associate their own actions with consequences Actions followed by reinforcers increase Actions followed by punishers decrease ex. Elephants walking not heir hind legs in a circus Behavior that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli is known as operant behavior Reinforcement and Shaping Reinforcement refers to any event that strengthens or increases the frequency of a preceding response Shaping is a procedure in which reinforcers gradually guide one’s actions toward a desired behavior Small steps of reinforcement that would ultimately result in a wanted behavior Successive approximation: Reward responses that are getting closer and closer to the desired behavior and ignore all other behaviors ex. Skinner and Operant Chamber w Rats Types of Reinforcers Positive Reinforcement strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasant stimulus after a response Ex. Getting Paid; Getting a sticker Negative Reinforcement strengthens a response by reducing or removing something undesirable or unpleasant NOT the same thing as a punishment Goal is to increase a response Ex. taking Tylenol to relieve headache; Pressing on the snooze button on the alarm clock = the results of these actions provides you with negative reinforcement and increase the odds you will repeat the behaviors in the future Punishment decreases the frequency of a preceding behavior Any consequence that decreases something from happening again Very powerful in restraining some kind of unwanted behavior Ex. Reprimanding a child for their actions and the child never does the actions again Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcing the desired behavior every time it occurs Learning occurs rapidly Downside - Extinction Occurs rapidly Real life very rarely provides us with continuous reinforcement Ex. Being hugged by your mother every time you clean your room Intermitten (Partial) Reinforcement Responses are reinforced some of the time Learning occurs slowly - it takes time to come to associate a behavior with the reinforcement More resistant to extinction - you know you don’t always receive an award -> do not expect one every time Ex. Slot machines reward individuals occasionally, but humans will try again and again to win Observational Learning Observational Learning is learning that occurs by observing and imitating others The Pioneer researcher in the field of observational learning is Albert Bandura Bobo Doll Experiment Experimental design with 36 preschoolers Child was working on a drawing while an adult was playing with toys in another part of the room the adult would then act out and beat up the bobo doll The child will be taken to another room and exposed to a frustrating situation - child would act out in an aggressive behavior (as they had observed from adult) Not just that children observe behaviors that they see, but they also extended what they observed and engaged in additional acts of aggression they had not witnessed. Key Processes in Observational Learning Attention attend to the behavior of others, as well as the consequences of that behavior Retention Retain the memory of the behavior for later use Reproduction Be in a situation that gives you an opportunity to reproduce the behavior Produce the behavior Motivation Find the pay-off of the behavior for yourself Motivation Motivational Theories Related Videos: Instinct To qualify as an instance, a complex behavior must have a fixed pattern throughout a species and be unlearned Psychologist that prescribe to this believe natural selection favors behaviors that maximizes reproductive success (that passes genes on to the next generation) At the heart of this perspective is the genetically-driven motivation to survive that is why Dolphins migrate in the winter - so their offsprings have a better chance of survival Why mothers wake up at night so they can feed and care for their infants Basic and biological drives that stem from the basic survival drive to survive to the next generation Fails in describing what leads to specific motivation Ex. Why we want to eat the prettiest cupcake Drive Reduction A physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce the need When a physiological need increases, so does a psychological drive, an aroused motivated state The aim of drive reduction is homeostasis, the maintenance of a steady internal state We are pushed to reduce drives and pulled by incentives, positive or negative stimuli that lure or repel us Ex. Depending on our past experiences, the smell of food will incentives us to act in a certain way We act when there is both a need and an incentive Drive Theories: Emphasize how internal states push people in certain directions Incentive Theories: Emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directions Arousal We are more than homeostatic beings Humans motivation seeks optimal levels of arousal Once our biological needs are satisfied, we feel driven to experience stimulation Ex. You have slept, you have been fed Ex. Babys crawl around and want to experience their arousal Lacking stimulation, we feel bored With too much stimulation comes stress, and we look for ways to decrease arousal Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Related Videos: Our Needs form an ascending triangle, once one level is met…you seek to satisfy the next level The order of these needs are not universally fixed Ex. People starve themselves to make a political statement - Sacrificing lower needs for the higher ones Needs (6-3) are our Psychological Needs Self-Transcendence Strive for meaning, purpose, and identity that is beyond one self; more globally - general needs Self-Actualization Want to complete goals to fewest potential Self-Esteem Love and belonging Safety Physiological Needs Motivation of Hunger, Belonging & Achievement Related Video: Hunger Palatability If something tastes good to us, we will eat more of it Quantity Available The amount of food available to us plays a factor into how much we eat Variety More options = Eat more overall Presence of Others We eat 44% more when we are eating with someone else We learn what we like to eat based on Classical Conditioning & Observational Learning Belongingness (Abraham Maslow) We have a strong need to belong Our need to belong influences our thoughts and relationships A study done with College students in America and South Korea Showed: College students level of happiness is related to the satisfaction of sense self-esteem and belonging Our need to belong results in both deep attachments and menacing threats Our need to belong leads us to form close bonds with family, friends, team mates, and join ganges Achievement The achievement motive is the needs to: Master difficult challenges Outperform others Meet high standards of excellence Excel People with a high needs to achieve Handle critique and feedback a lot better Successful Strong positive correlation between motivation to achieve and educational achievement Achievement motivation is influenced by: The probability of success The incentives for success Components of Emotion Related Videos: Physiological Component The autonomic nervous system mobilizes the body for action and then calms it when the crisis has past Sympathetic Nervous System Prepares us for a fight or flight response Parasympathetic Nervous System Calms the body Cognition and Emotion Cognition can define emotion Spillover Effect: Arousal response to one event influences our response to another event Schachter & Singer (1962) Some emotional responses do not require conscious thinking Many of our emotional reactions are automatic and effortless Particularly true for our dislikes/fears and simple likes Changing these emotional responses is difficult Easier to change our cognition than to change our emotions Behavior and Emotion Emotions are expressed through body language and facial expressions The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis posits that facial muscles send signals to the brain that help it recognize the emotion being experienced When you frown: Send message to brain that you are sad When you smile: Send message to brain that you are happy Cross-Culturally there are: Similarities in the ability to differentiate facial expressions of emotions Ex. Emojis - We can send an emoji to someone in China and they will know what we mean Differences in the expression of emotions Ex. The Chinese do not have a word for depression The way we talk about emotions changes Human Development Prenatal Development Related Videos: Development begins with the creation of a zygote One cell organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg Each cell in the human body develop from this one cell The prenatal period extends from conception to birth Encompassing approx. 9 month period Great deal of development during this time Germinal - First two weeks post conception Most often, mother does not yet know she is pregnant Embryonic - Next six weeks Organism begins to form and function Fetal - 9 weeks to birth The embryo (fetus) begins to look unmistakingly human in nature At each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors influence our development The placenta: Transfers nutrients and oxygens from mother to fetus Connects the mother’s body to the growing fetus’s body Crucial: screens out many potentially harmful substances Teratogens are harmful agents that can impede development Teratogen: any harmful agent that is past from mother to growing baby which can impede the growing embryo’s development Ex. virus (HIV), drugs, Smoking, alcohol Lasting effects Ex. teens who’s mothers drank during pregnancy have a higher risk of alcoholism during adolescents At any stage of development - Teratogens can be transferred from mother to baby. Limbs may not develop properly, head size effected etc. Early Childhood Related Videos: examples.html attachment.html Motor Development The developing brain enables physical development Motor development follows an universal sequence Regardless of where you are raised, when you are born…the general pattern is universal Ex. babies roll over before able to sit up unsupported Not reflective of observational learning, an outcome of a maturing nervous system We know this because - even blind children crawl before they walk There are, however, individual differences in timing Related to genetics along with environment Identical twins typically begin to walk within the same day - suggesting there is strong genetic role in saturation Ex. In the United States about 25% of babies walk by the time they turn 11months, 50% walk within a week of 1st baby, 90% walk by the time they are 15 months old Rapid motor development has been observed in some cultures cultural differences Some cultures provide practice in motor skills soon after birth and result in babies walking earlier Attachment Babies from birth are social creatures Critical parent-child bond- helps in survival Parents protect child Child learns to stay close to their parents and follow their lead Mary Ainsworth developed a method called the strange situation paradigm to asses quality of attachment Put infants in short separations from parents and observed their reaction Attachment styles: Secure Play and explore comfortably when mother is in the room Become visibly upset when the mother leaves Becomes quickly comforted when mother returns Anxious-Ambivalent Play and explore comfortably when mother is in the room Become visibly upset when the mother leaves Cannot be comforted even when the mother return Avoidant Seek little contact with mother when they are in the room Are not particularly distressed when mother leaves the room Secure attachment is predictive of resilience, self-reliance, curiosity, and leadership Secure attachment appears to be the most common type of attachment irrespective of culture The prevalence of other type of attachment changes from culture to culture Language Development Form first birthday to HS graduation - an individual learns about 60,000 words How are we able to do this? Humans have a large facility for language Able to sort through them, (without effort), assemble them and talk about 3 words per second Rarely form sentence in our mind before speaking, typically we assemble them automatically Receptive Language Ability to comprehend 4-months: Begin to discriminate speech sounds Babies are more able to discriminate speech sounds than adults As we get older, loose ability to discriminate speed sounds 8-months: Begin to understand word meaning Productive Language Ability to produce words Matures after respective language 4-months: Begin to babble Ex. Baaabaababa, Mamamamamamam Includes sounds of various languages, not just the language the baby is exposed to 10-months: the sounds outside the language the babies are spoken to disappear 12-months: Begin to speak Experience can either hasten or slow down development Receptive skills always one step ahead of productive skills, able to understand more before they can speak One Word Stage -> 3-50 words -> One word per day -> two-word stage (Telegraphic Speech) Telegraphic Speech: Two line wording involving nouns and verbs Fast Mapping: The process by which children connect a word to a concept after only one exposure Ex. baby sees a dog for the first time - suddenly acquire the word for a dog Critical: Allows us to pick up language very quickly Common errors in children’s language use: Overextension: Children incorrectly use a word to describe a wider set of objects than it is meant to describe Ex. Calling every 4 legged animal a doggy - Calling all men daddy Under extensions: Child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of object than it is meant for Ex. Baby calls for a cup, when you give them a generic organs cup - they cry and push away…they want their special blue cup Ex. A doll is only their favorite fall - other dolls are not dolls too Overgeneralization’s : the application of a grammatical rule in cases where it doesn’t apply Ex. “ If I Knowed the last bug I hated would be the last bug I hated, I woulda rated it slower" Bilingualism There is no one point in which someone is considered bilingual Ex. You are able to understand but not produce speech…can be considered bilingual Language skills Balances vs. Unbalance Do you need to know as much in your first language as you do in your second language? If you have equal control of both languages = Balanced Bilingual If you are far more dominant in native language = Unbalanced Bilingual Reception vs. Productive Receptive Bilingual = Somebody who understands the second language Productive Bilingual = Somebody who can speak and understand the language Additive vs. Subtractive (relation between the languages) Additive Bilingual = Learn one language growing up, then add a second language Subtractive Bilingual = Learns a second language that begins to take the place of the fist language Early vs. Late (age of acquisition Are you learning language during childhood years (early) Are you learning second language during adolescents/adulthood? (late) The earlier you learn a second language, the easier it will be Early Bilingual : Simultaneous (birth to 3 years) vs. Sequential (3 to 7 years) Simultaneous = a child that learns and requires both languages Sequential = Developed basic language first, then add second language Key Developmental Theorists & Theories Related Videos: Piaget Cognitive Development Piaget believed that children develop as a result of maturation, as well as their interactions with their environments Assimilation: Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them Ex. A child goes to zoo, sees a four legged animal and calls it a dog - Dog is the only animal they know that has four legs Accommodation: Changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences Ex. A child that is able to change mental concept from…all four legged animals are dogs to some four legged animals who also bark are dogs Piaget believed the progress through stages are highly influenced by age Piaget posited that there are four stages of development Sensorimotor Period (birth to age 2) Pre operational Period (ages 2-7) Concrete Operational Period (ages 7-11) Formal Operational Period (ages 11 and up) Sensorimotor Stage Children learn to coordinate their sensory input with their motor actions Major development is the appearance of symbolic thought Key to this is the development of object permanence, the recognition that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible Piaget believed children developed object permanence around 18months Recent Research suggests Piaget was wrong; children develop it earlier - underestimated children’s development Pre operational Stage Children engage in symbolic thought, representing things with words and images Nevertheless, there are characteristic flaws in their reasoning Conservation: the recognition the the amount of a substance doesn’t change simply because its appearance has changed Centration: Tendency to focus on one feature of a problem Egocentrism Very limited ability to view something from another person’s perspective Concrete Operational Stage Characterized by the ability to perform operations with symbolic thought Operational thinking allows children to mentally combine, separate, order, and transform tangible objects and actions, as well as actual events Children are capable of conversation and decantation, and there is a marked decline in their egocentrism Unable to think abstractly Formal Operational Stage This stage is marked by the ability to apply operations to abstract concepts Able to think of love, freedom etc. Thought is systematic, logical, and reflective During this stage, adolescents become capable of solving hypothetical propositions and deducing consequences Erikson Psychosocial Development Psychosocial Stage Developmental Stage Trust vs. Mistrust Infant is solely dependent on caregiver If Infant gets what it needs to Infancy (0-1) thrive - will develop a trusting sense of the world If infant is neglects - will develop a mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Children learn to exercise their free will and do things for themselves Toddlerhood (2-3) Initiative vs. Guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans - Preschool (4-6) leave this stage with a case of initiative Become guilt Industry vs.Inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks If they do not develop the Elementary please, will develop a low sense of self worth Intimacy vs. Isolation Teenagers work on refining sense of self by testing different roles and merge them to develop a single Early Adulthood identity Otherwise become confused about who they are Generatively vs. Stagnation During adulthood, people continue to build their lives, focusing on their career and family Those who are successful during this phase will feel that Middle Adulthood they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world Integrity vs. Despair This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair Those who feel proud of their Late Adulthood accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death


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