History Exam 3 Study Guide
History Exam 3 Study Guide HIST 1020
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Tiffany Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 171 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
World History II / Exam 3 Study Guide / Professor Sippial Without Mercy: Total War “War of Attrition” o 2 parties attack one another to get reaction/movement Total War o Complete war; air, ground, water, chemicals Chemical Warfare o The use of poisonous gases like mustard and chlorine as weapon against the other side Trench Foot o The effect of feet rotting from never being dry; sometimes called gangrene Shell Shock o Also known as war neurosis; modern day post-traumatic stress disorder; constant shelling during the war caused severe trembling and paranoia Christmas Truce (1914) o British and German soldiers call a truce to celebrate Christmas eve in Ypres, Belgium “Girls with Yellow Hands” o Women make bong and explosives for the war, have sulfur exposure which causes their hands to turn yellow; usually led to infertility but they were widely celebrated women Erich Maria Remarque o German who wrote the novel All Quiet on the Western Front about the journey of a soldier during WWI Helen Zenna Smith o Wrote the novel Not So Quiet about experience as emt in the war “Do Your Bit” o Anything that can help the country/soldiers in the war, propaganda used to tell what citizens can do to help War Bonds o Items citizens were required to purchase to help generate funds to military operations during the war Victory Gardens o Small plots or pots used to grow own produce; part of a citizens bit in the war effort Woodrow Wilson o President who runs in 1916 under the promise to keep the US out of the war; also writer of the Fourteen Points Lusitania o A ship that had 128 US passengers; it was sunk by German U-Boats in 1915 and this shifted the thinking of the US entering the war Zimmerman Telegram o Sent by a German minister to the German minister in Mexico that said if they side in the war with Germany they will be given a financial reward and the Southern US territory Harlem Hellfighters o African Americans who fought in WWI even though they were denied basic rights of full citizenship Eastern Front o 1000 miles long (2X Western front), no trench system and had the soldiers more spread out; War of Maneuver Russian Revolution o Unstable Government, acute food shortages and riots lead to complete chaos for this Empire; main reason for withdrawing from the war Vladimir Lenin o Leader who applied communist language to war and stated that people only want bread, land, and peace “Bread, Land, Peace” o The people in Russia are going through complete chaos, food shortages, and Lenin uses this saying to rile up the people Fourteen Points o Wilson’s response to Lenin; vision for the future that is supposed to help everyone Treaty of Brest-Litovsk o Russia withdraws from the war; signed with Germany and lost the Baltic states, Finland and Poland; plunged into a civil war that led to more casualties than lost in WWI Armistice Day o November 11, 1918, the eleventh month, day, and hour; reflect over the many people and resources lost during WWI Treaty of Versailles o Meeting of Great Britain, Italy, France, and the US that blamed Germany for the war and required that they disarm, pay reparations, and lose certain territory Article 231 o Part of the Treaty of Versailles known as the War guilt clause; assign moral responsibility for the war to Germany Crash of 1929 o Stock market crash in US that led to significant unemployment and the great depression Great Depression o Huge economic disaster after the market crash Dawes Plan o Attempt to help pay the reparations for the war; give the loan to Germany Fascism o Fascio is Italian for bundle of sticks and every major institution in every state is a stick, a single leader is what binds the sticks together Adolf Hitler o Austrian who gives the German people something to blame and a vision of themselves in the future Weimar Republic o Republican government established after WWI that Hitler uses as one of the things to blame Uncertainty and Anxiety in Post-WWI Europe National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) o Political group established by Hitler General Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934) o President of Germany before Hitler’s rule as Fuhrer Reichstag Fire (1933) o Destruction of the place where the legislative body convenes; the major symbol for German government Enabling Act (1933-1937) o Act that dissolved trade unions and political parties and exerted martial law for 4 years in Germany Hitler Youth o The young Aryan boys taught to be Aryan men in the future League of German Maidens o Young Aryan girls taught to become future mothers “Strength Through Joy” o The savings program put in place to provide national pride for Germany Leni Riefenstahl (1902-2003) o Director of the film Triumph of the Will Triumph of the Will (1934) o Portrayed Germany as powerful, unified, prideful, Hitler, Nazis, and ready Autarky o Self-determination Lebensraum o Idea that German’s need room to live in order to achieve autarky Mein Kampf/My Struggle (1925) o Hitler’s autobiography that showed his plan for German expansion and also mentioned his desire to conquer Russia Luftwaffe o German Air Force under Hitler’s use of Blitzkrieg Rome-Berlin Axis o Agreement between Italy and Germany; Hitler’s use to make sure the Balkans are secured in his future invasion of Russia Munich Conference (1938) o Meeting of Italy, France, England, and Germany to discuss Hitler’s invasions; they permit him to keep the territory in the Sudetenland and made him promise to stop invading Appeasement o Policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940) o Prime Minister of Great Britain; some saw him as weak and disillusioned Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939) o Hitler’s way of neutralizing the Eastern front through diplomacy; USSR signed a non-aggression pact that will dived eastern Europe in to 2 sphere of influence Blitzkrieg o Lightening war Panzer Divisions o Huge wave of troops who are self-sustaining (not dependent on supplies) like the infantry WWII: Nationalist Dreams Maginot Line o Construction of line of fortification along the Eastern border of France Vichy France (1940-1944) o The regime that came from the collaboration of France and Germany after Germany’s invasion of Paris Battle of Britain (1940) o Germany’s first defeat in the WWII Winston Churchill (1874-1965) o Prime Minister after Neville Chamberlain; casted as a hero Operation Barbarossa (1941) o Delayed invasion of the Soviet Union because of the time spent in the Balkans Battle of Stalingrad (1943) o Defeat of Germany because of the Soviet Union’s harsh winter Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere o Japan’s desire for economic security and more land and materials Tri-Partite Pact (1940) o Alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan; eventually known as Axis Powers Pearl Harbor (7 December 1941) o Japan’s retaliation to the US embargo act Why We Fight (1943) o Film US used to gain support for the war; directed by Capra Axis Powers o Germany, Italy, Japan Allied Powers o U.S., Great Britain, USSR Nationalist Nightmares Teheran Conference (1943) o Meeting of the Big Three where they agree to open the western front to relieve USSR; USSR promises to join US in war against Japan after defeat of Germany “Big Three” o Stalin of USSR, Roosevelt of U.S., and Churchill of Great Britain D Day (6 June 1944) o Immense operation to make Germany fight a war on multiple fronts; established a beachhead in Normandy, France; considered the largest ship borne assault ever staged VE-Day (May 1945) o The end of Fascist Dictatorship in Europe; Mussolini, Hitler, and Himmler all dead from suicide or execution; Victory in Europe Hiroshima (6 August 1945) o First atomic bomb dropped here in Japan by the US; had initial 135000 casualties Nagasaki (9 August 1945) o Second atomic bomb dropped in Japan by the US; 60000 initial casualties Anti-Semitism o Hatred of Jewish race even though Jewish identity is based on ancestry, tradition, culture, and religion of Judaism Nuremberg Laws (1935) o Laws that defined people as German (4 grandparents “German blood”), crossbreed (2 parents “Jewish blood”), or Jew (3-4 grandparents “Jewish blood); if a Crossbreed or Jew then excluded; marriage between Jews and German citizens is now forbidden Kristallnacht (1938) o Night of Shattered Glass; there was an act of violence against a German official from a Jew and Hitler capitalizes of that act; huge destruction of Jewish homes, synagogues, and businesses; many put in concentration camps or killed; encouraged to emigrate “Final Solution” o The creation of concentration camps to exterminate Jews, those marked with the yellow star or a J Extra things to Remember 1932 1. The height of German employment and important date in Hitler’s rise to power Hitler’s Rise to Power 1. Formation of Nazi Party 2. Chancellor of Germany 3. Reich Stag Fire 4. Enabling Act 5. Death of Hindenburg Assembling Lebensraum 1. Rhineland 2. Austria 3. Sudetenland 4. Poland
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