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AU / History / HIST 1020 / War of attrition refers to what?

War of attrition refers to what?

War of attrition refers to what?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: history and World History
Cost: 50
Name: History Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: This study guide has the key terms for exam 3
Uploaded: 04/04/2016
10 Pages 169 Views 13 Unlocks
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World History II / Exam 3 Study Guide / Professor Sippial  Without Mercy: Total War  


War of attrition refers to what?



∙ “War of Attrition”

o 2 parties attack one another to get reaction/movement  ∙ Total War

o Complete war; air, ground, water, chemicals  

∙ Chemical Warfare  

o The use of poisonous gases like mustard and chlorine as weapon against the other side  

∙ Trench Foot  

o The effect of feet rotting from never being dry; sometimes called  gangrene  

∙ Shell Shock  

o Also known as war neurosis; modern day post-traumatic stress  disorder; constant shelling during the war caused severe trembling  and paranoia  

∙ Christmas Truce (1914)


Total war refers to what?



o British and German soldiers call a truce to celebrate Christmas eve in  Ypres, Belgium  

∙ “Girls with Yellow Hands”

o Women make bong and explosives for the war, have sulfur exposure  which causes their hands to turn yellow; usually led to infertility but  they were widely celebrated women  

∙ Erich Maria Remarque

o German who wrote the novel All Quiet on the Western Front about  the journey of a soldier during WWI

∙ Helen Zenna Smith

o Wrote the novel Not So Quiet about experience as emt in the war  ∙ “Do Your Bit” We also discuss several other topics like What is the environment in egypt?

o Anything that can help the country/soldiers in the war, propaganda  used to tell what citizens can do to help  


Chemical warfare refers to what?



∙ War Bonds  

o Items citizens were required to purchase to help generate funds to  military operations during the war

∙ Victory Gardens

o Small plots or pots used to grow own produce; part of a citizens bit in  the war effort  

∙ Woodrow Wilson

o President who runs in 1916 under the promise to keep the US out of  the war; also writer of the Fourteen Points  

∙ Lusitania  

o A ship that had 128 US passengers; it was sunk by German U-Boats in  1915 and this shifted the thinking of the US entering the war  ∙ Zimmerman Telegram We also discuss several other topics like What are the effects of sales taxes and excise taxes?

o Sent by a German minister to the German minister in Mexico that  said if they side in the war with Germany they will be given a  financial reward and the Southern US territory  We also discuss several other topics like How do we obtain or learn virtue?

∙ Harlem Hellfighters

o African Americans who fought in WWI even though they were denied  basic rights of full citizenship  

∙ Eastern Front  If you want to learn more check out What are restrictive respiratory diseases?

o 1000 miles long (2X Western front), no trench system and had the  soldiers more spread out; War of Maneuver  

∙ Russian Revolution  

o Unstable Government, acute food shortages and riots lead to  complete chaos for this Empire; main reason for withdrawing from  the war

∙ Vladimir Lenin

o Leader who applied communist language to war and stated that  people only want bread, land, and peace  

∙ “Bread, Land, Peace”

o The people in Russia are going through complete chaos, food shortages, and Lenin uses this saying to rile up the people  We also discuss several other topics like What are the benefits of the legislative branch?

∙ Fourteen Points  

o Wilson’s response to Lenin; vision for the future that is supposed to  help everyone  

∙ Treaty of Brest-Litovsk  

o Russia withdraws from the war; signed with Germany and lost the  Baltic states, Finland and Poland; plunged into a civil war that led to  more casualties than lost in WWI  

∙ Armistice Day

o November 11, 1918, the eleventh month, day, and hour; reflect over  the many people and resources lost during WWI

∙ Treaty of Versailles  

o Meeting of Great Britain, Italy, France, and the US that blamed  Germany for the war and required that they disarm, pay reparations,  and lose certain territory  If you want to learn more check out What is the probability that she is a carrier?

∙ Article 231  

o Part of the Treaty of Versailles known as the War guilt clause; assign  moral responsibility for the war to Germany  

∙ Crash of 1929  

o Stock market crash in US that led to significant unemployment and  the great depression  

∙ Great Depression  

o Huge economic disaster after the market crash  

∙ Dawes Plan  

o Attempt to help pay the reparations for the war; give the loan to  Germany

∙ Fascism  

o Fascio is Italian for bundle of sticks and every major institution in  every state is a stick, a single leader is what binds the sticks together  ∙ Adolf Hitler  

o Austrian who gives the German people something to blame and a  vision of themselves in the future  

∙ Weimar Republic

o Republican government established after WWI that Hitler uses as  one of the things to blame  

Uncertainty and Anxiety in Post-WWI Europe

∙ National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis)

o Political group established by Hitler  

∙ General Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934)  

o President of Germany before Hitler’s rule as Fuhrer  

∙ Reichstag Fire (1933)  

o Destruction of the place where the legislative body convenes; the  major symbol for German government  

∙ Enabling Act (1933-1937)

o Act that dissolved trade unions and political parties and exerted  martial law for 4 years in Germany  

∙ Hitler Youth  

o The young Aryan boys taught to be Aryan men in the future  ∙ League of German Maidens

o Young Aryan girls taught to become future mothers  

∙ “Strength Through Joy”

o The savings program put in place to provide national pride for  Germany  

∙ Leni Riefenstahl (1902-2003)  

o Director of the film Triumph of the Will  

∙ Triumph of the Will (1934)  

o Portrayed Germany as powerful, unified, prideful, Hitler, Nazis, and  ready

∙ Autarky  

o Self-determination  

∙ Lebensraum

o Idea that German’s need room to live in order to achieve autarky  ∙ Mein Kampf/My Struggle (1925)  

o Hitler’s autobiography that showed his plan for German expansion  and also mentioned his desire to conquer Russia  

∙ Luftwaffe  

o German Air Force under Hitler’s use of Blitzkrieg  

∙ Rome-Berlin Axis  

o Agreement between Italy and Germany; Hitler’s use to make sure the  Balkans are secured in his future invasion of Russia  

∙ Munich Conference (1938)  

o Meeting of Italy, France, England, and Germany to discuss Hitler’s  invasions; they permit him to keep the territory in the Sudetenland  and made him promise to stop invading  

∙ Appeasement  

o Policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of  armed resistance  

∙ Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940)  

o Prime Minister of Great Britain; some saw him as weak and disillusioned  

∙ Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939)

o Hitler’s way of neutralizing the Eastern front through diplomacy;  USSR signed a non-aggression pact that will dived eastern Europe in  to 2 sphere of influence  

∙ Blitzkrieg  

o Lightening war

∙ Panzer Divisions

o Huge wave of troops who are self-sustaining (not dependent on  supplies) like the infantry  

WWII: Nationalist Dreams  

∙ Maginot Line  

o Construction of line of fortification along the Eastern border of  France  

∙ Vichy France (1940-1944)

o The regime that came from the collaboration of France and Germany  after Germany’s invasion of Paris  

∙ Battle of Britain (1940)  

o Germany’s first defeat in the WWII

∙ Winston Churchill (1874-1965)  

o Prime Minister after Neville Chamberlain; casted as a hero  ∙ Operation Barbarossa (1941)  

o Delayed invasion of the Soviet Union because of the time spent in  the Balkans  

∙ Battle of Stalingrad (1943)  

o Defeat of Germany because of the Soviet Union’s harsh winter  ∙ Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere  

o Japan’s desire for economic security and more land and materials  ∙ Tri-Partite Pact (1940)  

o Alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan; eventually known as  Axis Powers  

∙ Pearl Harbor (7 December 1941)

o Japan’s retaliation to the US embargo act  

∙ Why We Fight (1943)  

o Film US used to gain support for the war; directed by Capra  ∙ Axis Powers  

o Germany, Italy, Japan

∙ Allied Powers  

o U.S., Great Britain, USSR

Nationalist Nightmares  

∙ Teheran Conference (1943)

o Meeting of the Big Three where they agree to open the western front  to relieve USSR; USSR promises to join US in war against Japan after defeat of Germany

∙ “Big Three”  

o Stalin of USSR, Roosevelt of U.S., and Churchill of Great Britain ∙ D Day (6 June 1944)  

o Immense operation to make Germany fight a war on multiple fronts;  established a beachhead in Normandy, France; considered the  largest ship borne assault ever staged  

∙ VE-Day (May 1945)  

o The end of Fascist Dictatorship in Europe; Mussolini, Hitler, and  Himmler all dead from suicide or execution; Victory in Europe  ∙ Hiroshima (6 August 1945)

o First atomic bomb dropped here in Japan by the US; had initial 135000 casualties

∙ Nagasaki (9 August 1945)  

o Second atomic bomb dropped in Japan by the US; 60000 initial casualties  

∙ Anti-Semitism  

o Hatred of Jewish race even though Jewish identity is based on  ancestry, tradition, culture, and religion of Judaism  

∙ Nuremberg Laws (1935)  

o Laws that defined people as German (4 grandparents “German  blood”), crossbreed (2 parents “Jewish blood”), or Jew (3-4  

grandparents “Jewish blood); if a Crossbreed or Jew then excluded;  marriage between Jews and German citizens is now forbidden  ∙ Kristallnacht (1938)

o Night of Shattered Glass; there was an act of violence against a  German official from a Jew and Hitler capitalizes of that act; huge  destruction of Jewish homes, synagogues, and businesses; many put  in concentration camps or killed; encouraged to emigrate  

∙ “Final Solution”

o The creation of concentration camps to exterminate Jews, those  marked with the yellow star or a J

Extra things to Remember

∙ 1932  

1. The height of German employment and important date in Hitler’s rise  to power  

∙ Hitler’s Rise to Power

1. Formation of Nazi Party  2. Chancellor of Germany  3. Reich Stag Fire  

4. Enabling Act  

5. Death of Hindenburg

∙ Assembling Lebensraum  1. Rhineland  

2. Austria  

3. Sudetenland  

4. Poland

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