RESUMEN TEST 1
RESUMEN TEST 1 PSY 260, PSY 240, PSY 230
Popular in Personality Psychology, Abnormal Psychology, Developmental Psychology
PSY 260, PSY 240, PSY 230
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Adriana Lindenfeld on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 260, PSY 240, PSY 230 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Kaplan, Calvin Fitch, Dr. Delgado in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 214 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology, Abnormal Psychology, Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Adriana!!!
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Date Created: 01/31/15
Psychology Test 1 pe nition of Psychology the scienti c study of mental processes internalsuch as thoughts feelings and perception and behavior outwardsuch as observable empirical and measurable Six Approaches to psychology 1 Psychoanalytic Freud Freud was very focused on sexuality shaping personalities He also focused on the fact that we have an unconscious mind dreams He was very focused on early childhood experiences especially sexual development Behavioral Watson Skinner Watson disagreed with Freud He says all we can study is behavior We can t measure one s mind or unconscious motivation He says we can only observe behavior so that s all we can study in psychology Let s not study hopes wishes dreams etc Skinner pigeons and rats and Classical Conditioning two stimuli are repeatedly paired bell and food Gestalt Kohler Wertheimer WWII they studied the phenomenon in which the whole is greater than the sum of its parts They say we will never understand the psychology of a person if we study its life experiences separately Visual perception Breaking the components doesn t tell you about the whole experience Humanistic Maslow Rogers focused on human experience quotevery human being is motivated to reach their full potentialquot achieve all possible We get stopped to reach our potentials by negativity by important people in our lives parents friends sibling etc Help by unconditional positive regard respect love Cognitive thinking memory language problem solving creativity People who disagree with Watson They study thinking memory language problem solving creativity short and long term memory BiologicalMedicalPhysiological it has become increasingly integrated with medicine and biology Study of brain hormones chemical unbalance Brain scan see what s happening in brain Fields Of Specialization Human Services Appli Expe 0 Therapy helping individuals to cope Clinical diagnosis and treatment of behavioral problems Counseling diagnosis and treatment of problems of adjustment often in schools Community School evaluating student s interests and abilities and resolving learning and emotional problems in school settings ed Educannal Forensic study of evidence motivation behind a crime court and legal system Sports focusing on athletic training marketing motivation lead athletes lndustrial organizational to industrial settings or business organizations working conditions Health doctor relationship with nurses helpers patients Engineering design of cars equipment humanmachine interactions User friendly or not Optimal relationships among people the machines they operate and the environment they work in rimental Social interactions between people Social environment Personality exploring the uniqueness of the individual elements that make up human personality Cognitive focuses on the way in which organisms process information investigating processes such as thinking memory language problem solving and creativity Developmental concerned with factors that in uence development and shape behavior throughout the life cycle from conception through old age PhysiologicalMedicalBiological relationship between behavior and physiological events within the brain and nervous system 0 Experimental conducting research 0 Positive promoting the positive strengths and attributes that enable individuals to succeed History of Psychology 1 Charles Darwin 1859 he came up with the idea quotorigin of speciesquot that species evolved from other species Survival of the ttest tter organisms will live longer In order for nature to select tter characteristics in genes there has to be variation in the gene pool Variation9 gives nature to select from different features 2 Wilhelm Wundt 1879Titchener 1893 credited for being the rst scienti c psychologist Set up a lab in Germany and funded the school of structuralism Titchener was the rst psychologist in America to take the scienti c approach In their view they focused in consciousness to understand but the focused even more in stuff individually like hearing looking etc to form the whole of the conscious lntrospection looking inside observe oneself when something happens Observe what they themselves did in certain situations but it is hard to be objective of oneself lntrospection failed because one cannot be objective when looking at oneself Structuralism school of psych breaking consciousness into its elemental structure 3 Sir Francis Galton 1884 Galton was a cousin of Darwin and when Darwin was recognized for his book Galton said if humans evolve and nature selects certain differences between individuals than they must run in the family He measured height weight and everything on a group of people that were related He concluded that those close to each other were similar but still had different characteristics genetics Measurement of individual differences Pearson coalition was invented in his lab 4 William James 1890 Principles of Psychology the most famous American psychologists He looked for the function of 5 6 7 the structures structuralists this led to functionalism James disagreed with introspection but used it Expressing what one feels exactly stream of conscience River of thoughts with no control Known for the quotPrinciples of Psychologyquot Summarizing everything known Looking for the functionalism instead of structure of conscience Sigmund Freud 1900 importance of dreams and unconsciousness Emphasize on unconscious mind Ivan Pavlov 1920 s working in Russia studied what came to be classical conditioning John Watson 1913 1920 s famous for written essay on behaviorism we should only be studying behavior of people it is impossible to study consciousness Famous for infamous experiment he scared a little kid by putting a white rat in front of him and made the child have fear of the rat He showed that phobias could be learned in childhood Ethical Issues Institutional Review Boards IRB group of professionals who are engaged in research review board which makes sure everything done is ethical and follows federal guidelines Minimize risk do anything possible to minimize risk in research Informed Consent everybody has a right to know what is going on and have everybody sign an informed consent Right to Privacy not many people are allowed to read surveys and information of people Debrie ng after an experiment people can learn more about it Record Keeping audit to make sure rules are followed lf rules are not followed researchers can lose federal funding Animal Research set of rules for animal research llll ll 39Illl l lll lllil lltllasls Observation El l i 5 Theory Goal of a theory is to advance in knowledge in that area Testable hypothesis it isn t testable if it is not falsi able m it if it works than support it by nding more information about it with hypothesis and experiments If the experiment doesn t work than modify the hypothesis and work with that True Experiment Correlational Method 1 Randomly Divide Subjects 1 Measure Two Variables 2 Manipulate the Independent Variable 2 Calculate the Relationship 3 Measure the Dependent Variable Example Mean Coffee gp 75 bpm Mean no Coffee gp 65 bpm Example Pearson s correlation 9O May infer that coffee CAUSED an increase in Heart Rate Support for hypothesis but cannot infer Causality Remember Correlation does not imply causation you don t know if coffee is causing changes in heart rate or maybe heart rate causes a change in coffee consumption Correlational studies often have Directionality Problems andor Third variable problems there can be another variable that is not known of Correlational studies do not prove causal relationships True experiment important to randomly divide into groups treat the groups differently some 1 cup others 2 and others none measure what should be affected heart rate Check the chance of coincidence check the statistical signi cance to see if the test is large enough sample size is important p value must be 5 or smaller Then one must infer with a conclusion Correlational Method measure coffee and heart rate measure correlation Strongest correlation is 1 as one goes up the other one goes up Statistics mathematical methods for describing and interpreting data DESCRIPTIVE INFERENTIAL The goal of Descriptive Uses descriptive Statistics is to present statistics like the data in an easy to Mean and understand way Standard Deviation along with probability theory to make judgments or inferences about reality Measures of Central Tendency aMean X b Median cMode 1 2 TEST 2 T TEST 3 F TEST 4 REGRESSION 5 CHI SQUARE 2 Measures of Variability a Range difference between the highest and lowest scores b Standard Deviation S how spread out the scores are c Variance 2 score The Normal Curve and zscores Correlation coef cient Graphs and Data tables X quotSuch tests when used properly allow us to determine if obtained results are signi cant or reliable Zscore 25X take the score substract the mean and divide by the deviation Number of standard deviations How far a score deviates from the average Normal Curve normal curve is a symmetrical bell shaped and the mean median and mode are all in the middle If there is a normal distribution what proportion of scores fall between 1 and 1 68 2143434142 Correlation Coef cient Ranges from 10 to 10 A correlation has 2 qualities direction and magnitude mention direction and magnitude of correlations The Biological Basis of Behavior Nervous System Central Brain Peri hem and Spinal Chord P L Somatic Autonomic Self Voluntary regulating Sympathetic Amusing Parasympathetic calming The Neuron Dendritesreceive information neural impulse travels to the axon and through it Axonsend information branches into terminal bers and terminal buttons 0 Cell body Myelin sheath speed up transmission and protects from electric signal loss Impulsechange in polarity that moves down the cell membrane change in polarity Neurons reside in networks no neuron functions alone 1 Synapse gap that permits a neuron to pass an electrical signal Synapse is a traf c cop make sure every signal stops at intersection and decide if and where it goes 2 Neurotransmitters chemical from neuron to neuron rst ve that were discovered 1 Acetylcholine 2 Norepinephrine 3 Dopamine 4 Serotonin 5 Gammaaminobutyric acid GABA 3 Neuromodulators chemical that travels from gland through the blood to the neuron Natural Opioids Endorphins released from a gland The Brain 0 The temporal lobe hearing o Wernike s area interpretating sounds The Frontal loberesponsible for movement motor control 0 Broca s area speech 0 The parietal lobe sensations The occipital lobevision Imaging Techniques 0 CAT or CT see tumor in brain looks for soft tissue not activity 0 can indicate the activity of different brain areas Looking for activity not tissue 0 MRI and FMRI yields clear pictures of the internal brain structures Magnetic Resonance imaging functional magnetic resonance imaging Lesions stimulation and recording make lesions to see what part of brain is damaged or wait until an animal or person was injured to test stimulate region of brain by applying electrical current recording a part of the brain can determine the response of a neuron Overview of Brain 1 Cerebral Cortex Cerebrum Neocortex new brainevolution cortex bark thin tissue that is folded on itself there is a lot of surface area that is crammed into a smaller skull through evolution 2 Corpus Callosum structure that connects left and right hemisphere Thick bundle of bers 3 Contralateral Connection Right side of brain controls left side of body and left side of brain controls right side 4 Cerebellum movement balance coordination re exes heart rate blood pressure The Cerebral Cortex the 4 lobes a Broca s area controls the speech when stroke or injuries damage this area they may have the inability to speak but they can understand because of the Wernike s area b Wernike s area language learning language c Primary Visual Cortex PVCeft and right PVC area in the middle of occipital lobe around of it is the VAC m geography of the visual eld is retained in the PVC d Visual Association Cortex VAC where we recognize what we have seen Interpret and understand the visual image Visual Agnosia inability to recognize or know something visual If they touch it or hear it they will recognize it e Central Fissure Motor and Sensory regions central ssure that runs across from left to right Front CF is motor and back CF is sensory To regain function through physical therapy neighboring parts of the motor cortex make new connections and take over f Brain plasticity after injury or stroke parts of brain that have lost function can be taken over by other parts of brain to work Split Brain and Lateralization two different hemispheres with different functions 1 Left Hemisphere Analysis Verbal activity language math formulas de nitions evidence proof talking understanding speech reading writing logical and scienti c good at breaking into components 2 Right Hemisphere synthesis putting elements together perceive whole maps 3D sketch Not worried about pieces but putting them together and nding patterns Religious side of brain Visual Perception and Attention Visual Perception of Form ability to separate gure from backgroundto be able to see A Figure Ground what part is background and what is the object You can see one and later the other but not both at the same time B Illusory contours lines or boundaries that do not exist Absence of things that make lines appear C Grouping of Elements Gestalt laws of grouping quotthe whole is greater than the sum of its partsquot Laws that guide vision 1 Law of Proximity objects that are close together are perceived as belonging together Law of similarity similar objects are grouped together Law of good continuity we want lines to continue Law of closure tendency to see the nished unit when it is truly cut off 5 Law of Common Fate objects that share a common fate or move together are perceived as belonging together 39gtWlJ Depth Perception 1 Binocular cues 2 eyes a Binocular Disparity deals with the fact that we have two eyes Even though they are very close they see the world in slightly different angles Stereopsis is the ability to fuse the images on both eyes into one b Convergence has to do with the tension in the muscles loking at something far away eyes are relaxed but trying to focus on words really close by it might get painful because they are focusing too much Rotation of the eyes necessary to see things that are close by 2 Monocular cues eye a Motion Parallax relative motion even if you move you can get information about depth and other information about the object bEevation above horizon height on a plane elevation above the horizon gives information If it is very big you know the thing is close by c lnterposition Overlap tells us what is closer dLinear Perspective parallel lines will appear to converge toward vanishing point eAerial Perspective in the distance objects become hazier Atmospheric haze f Relative brightness objects in the foreground appear to be brighter gTexture Gradient things get smaller and smaller towards the end you can see more of them but they get smaller hShading shadows give clues about depth Without shadows images appear at Perceptual constancy A Size constancy objects may seem smaller but we can understand them as being further away or vice versa when they seem biggerthey are closer to us B Shape constancy image on our eye is changing shape but we don t see it as changing shape because we know how it looks like Door closed opening and open C Brightness constancy same decisions can be made in bright light dim and dark room Bright room white is brighter dark room white is darker Other issues in perception 1 TopDown processing see the entire object and recognize and then you notice details maybe something is different or off 2 Bottomup processing seeing the elements and from them recognize the whole Attention Dichotic listening studies of 1950 s where participants shadowed one ear while ignoring input to the other ear Sleep and Altered States Consciousness Uniquely human We think that our level of consciousness is way further than any other level Awareness of oneself in a social environment Awareness of being aware Altered Consciousness Daydreaming drug induced emotionally induced meditation hypnosis Not fully awake consciousness Sleep the best studied altered state EEG Electroencephalogram monitoring brain waves today they can develope a 3d image of the brain a Brain activity varies during sleep stages of sleep wake to REM and REM to REM about 90 minutes 90 minute cycles Pueden ser hasta 5 cycles REM primero luego deep sleep volvemos a REM y asi sucesivamente hasta que nos despertamos Alpha waves person is awake and relaxed wide awake and alert Hypnogogic state on the way to stage 1 of sleep where you review your day and get scared of something and suddenly wake UP 0 REM rapid eye movement visual narrative because we are watching our dream in a very high rated speed b Circadian Rhythms technical term that means daily rhythms Humans are day creatures Melatonin is produced in darkness so we get tired SAD seasonal affective disorder seasonally depressed every certain time a person gets depressed Winter short days gain weight don t want to get up loose job alcoholics etc Light therapy c Why do we sleep because we get tired We get tired at night why 1Repair Theory because nature needs us to slow down rest and recover from the day s activites To repair damage to our bodies psychology 2Adaptive Nonresponding sleep is a period where we don t do anything because it is adaptive to us to not do anything We are not night people bad night vision so we should get out of the way d Why do we dream 1Repression Hypothesis Freud s theory the unconscious mind is the seat of repressed memories The dream is the royal road to the unconscious mind Dreams represent wish ful llment Manifest content the meaning of dreams Latent content the hidden content or true meaning of dreams 2ActivationSynthesis Hypothesis Random neural activity Brain remains active another part of the brain makes up a random story meaningless 3Probem Solving Hypothesis one of the main functions of dreams is to solve problems REM 1 anxiety of the day REM 2 similar experience earlier in life REM 3 as a child trying to satisfy something REM 4 earlier experience to solve problem 4Memory Consolidation dreams help us to store longterm memories Everyday things happen to us most of that will be lost Certain things are important sleeping and dream process can edit the memories and keep some and delete others e Sleep disorders 0 Insomnia not enough sleep or no sleep at all Narcolepsy sudden sleep attacks come from intense emotion middle of conversation etc Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS disorder where healthy babies can suddenly die in sleep Used to say that babies should sleep on their tummy but now they say its better to sleep on their back to reduce SIDS deaths Back to sleep problem Sleep Apnea when adults often heavy stop breathing at night They do not die but they stop breathing for a while Sleep walking Somnambulism usually occurs during deep sleep No knowledge of what happened Sleep talking Bed wetting Enuresis often children Nocturnal Myoclonus uncontrolled leg movements Kicking punching Thrash and do things unconsciously
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