Cultural Anthropology Study Guide 3
Cultural Anthropology Study Guide 3 ANT 10
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlee Notetaker on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 10 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Donner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Cultural Anthropology: study guide 3 Gender Nature: refers to all of the genes and hereditary factors that influence who we are – from our physical appearance to our personality characteristics. Nurture: refers to all the environmental variables that impact who we are, including our early childhood experiences, how we were raised, our social relationships, and our surrounding culture. Sex: born with (biology) – ascribed. Chromosomes: XX (female), XY (male) Gender: shaped by culture, concepts of male and female vary across different cultures. Sexuality: a person’s sexual orientation or preference. Gender patterns: Sexual: double standards restrict women more than men and illustrate gender stratification. Economic: gender stratification (unequal distribution of social resources between men and women) is more equal when men and women make roughly equal contributions to subsistence, and women have access to and control over resources; more equal when there is less separation between public and private domains. Patriarchy: male dominance over political and economic resources. Common, universal Matriarchy: women dominate political, economic and social institutions. Not matrilineal (descent traced through women only), even in matrilineal societies, men usually dominate public sphere, although usually there is more equality between genders. Matriarchal societies are very rare. Matrifocal: women centered – reduced gender stratification as in matrilineal –women have more power and resources. Caribbean Gender and Making a Living Among foragers: Men fight, hunt and travel. Women gather and care for children. Food Foraging and Horticulture: Matrilineal/Uxorilocal/Matrilocal Societies: reduced stratification – women are relatively important, although men dominate. Almost all matrilineal societies are of simple farming/agriculture. o Iroquois, Trobriands Patrilineal/Patrilocal Societies: male supremacy – women are separate and considered to be polluting and dangerous. o Female oppression Agriculturalist (patrilineal societies): intensive farming Asia – China, Japan and India. Complex farming with plow, men dominate. o At marriage women moved into husbands home. Enters with low status but status rises as she has male children and they grow/mature. Stratification makes things complex. o High status women > low status men Industrialization Initially, men in workforce and women in home. Women separated from access to resources. o More recently, women moved into workforce but earn less than men. Feminization of poverty: increasing representation of women and their children among America’s poorest people. Patterns of Sexuality and Sexual Orientation Variability in sexual response. o Female sexual response is more complex than male. o Females receptive throughout reproductive cycle. Variability in sexual expression – hetero/homo sexual. Humans are the most unique among mammals. Sexual Orientation: refers to a person’s habitual sexual attraction to, and sexual activities with, persons of the opposite sex. Intersex: pertaining to a group of conditions reflecting a discrepancy between external and internal genitals. Heterosexuality: desire for the opposite sex. Bisexuality: desire for both sexes. Asexuality: indifference toward or lack of desire for either sex. Transgender: individuals whose gender identity contradicts their biological sex at birth and the gender identify assigned to them at birth. Transvestites, not uncommon in Brazil, are members of gender (usually males) who dress as another (female). Form a third gender in Brazil’s polarized malefemale identity scale. Homosexuality: desire for the same sex. In the late 1940’s, Alfred Kinsey found about 40% of American men have one homosexual experience to the point at least once. o Developed 10 point scale to measure sexual orientation. o Found 10% of males primarily homosexual in orientation. More recent studies suggest about 1520% of American men have at least one homosexual experience; maybe 35% primarily homosexual. Kinship Changes in American Kinship: American culture tends to promote the idea that kinship is, and should be, biological. The American emphasis on biology for kinship is seen also in the recent proliferation of DNA testing. Viewing our beliefs through the lens of crosscultural comparison helps us appreciate that kindship and biology don’t always converge, nor do they need to. Divorce and women in the workforce are other factors that are changing American kinship. Cultural Construction of Kinship: crossculturally, the social construction of kinship illustrates considerable diversity. Kinship Based Societies: Extended and nuclear family. Extended kinship not very important in American society. Family Reproduction and Socialization: Economics o Mutual cooperation and division of labor. o Inheritance of wealth, status and prestige. Solidarity – unity o Support within the group. o Symbol of connectedness – “blood” line. Descent Form a group by tracing descent from a common ancestor. Main mechanism for creating social groups, especially in tribes and chiefdoms. Patrilineal Descent: Tracing kinship and descent through the male line. About 50% of world’s societies. Indiana, china, Sikaina. Matrilineal Descent: Tracing kinship and descent through female line. About 25% of world’s societies. Iroqouis, Trobiands. Ambilineal/Bilateral/Cognatic Descent: Tracing kinship and descent through both male and female line. Descent in the United States: Patrilineal (last name through father). In terms of wealth we are ambilineal. Matrifocal ties are usually strongest. o Not descent/ancestor/group centered. Descent groups may be lineages or clans. Lineage: unilineal descent group based on demonstrated descent. Know specific relationship between members. Usually “corporate” Clan: unilineal descent group based on stipulated descent – assume ancestor but can’t trace relationship. Usually lineages are segments of clans. Several lineages belong to one clan. Segmentary Lineages: Descendants of close kin stand together against more distant kin: descendants of brothers are allied against descendants of cousins, cousins against second cousins etc. Thus, even very distant kin will automatically put their conflicts to the side and unite against any threat from groups of nonkin. Kinship Terminology and Meaning Lewis Henry Morgan: classification of relatives into categories. Language and thought (SapirWhorf hypothesis) Kave: siblings of the opposite sex. Taina: siblings of the same sex. Generational/Hawaiian: Father = Father Brother = Mother Brother Mother = Mother Sister = Father Sister Lineal/Eskimo: Father/Father Brother = Mother Brother Mother/Mother Sister = Father Sister Bifurcate Merging/Iroquois: Father = Father Brother/ Mother Brother Mother = Mother Sister/ Father Sister Cross Cousins: children of a brother and a sister. Cross cousin marriage: children of a brother and a sister get married. Parallel cousins: children of two brothers or two sisters. Marriage Marriage: not usually about love, usually involves groups beyond the individual – often couples cannot choose their spouses. Definitions of Marriage: Usually some rights of sexual access. Usually offspring have special status that offspring of unmarried do not. Usually some rights in offspring. o Especially important for men. Marriage Rules and Preferences: Endogamy: Marriage of people in the same group. o Ethnic groups, religion, class, “race” Exogamy (incest): Marriage outside of a group. Theories of Incest: Biological: interbreeding causes problems in offspring. Freud: prohibits what we want. Westermarck: intimacy breeds contempt. Structural function: keep conflict outside of family. Alliance: create allies. Marriage Practices and Relations between Groups Sororate: to take wife’s sister upon death of wife. Levirate: to take brother’s wife upon brother’s death. Bridewealth: wealth given to bride’s family often seen as form of compensation for woman. Brideservice: work in household of bride – prove yourself. Dowry: wealth that goes with woman. Monogamy: one spouse Serial monogamy: one at a time Polygamy: plural spouses Polygyny: many wives Polyandry: many husbands Residence Patrilocal: live with husband’s family. Matrilocal: live with wife’s family. Neolocal: new residence. Avunculocal: uncle: in Trobriands, husbands mother’s brother. o Closest ties is brother/sister.
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