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Study Guide for Test 2

by: Gab Aranc

Study Guide for Test 2 KIN212

Marketplace > KIN212 > Study Guide for Test 2
Gab Aranc
GPA 3.6
Sports Elements of Psychology
Dr. Brian Arwari

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Study Guide Test #2- Ch 5, 6, 7, 10
Sports Elements of Psychology
Dr. Brian Arwari
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gab Aranc on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN212 at a university taught by Dr. Brian Arwari in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 200 views.


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Date Created: 02/01/15
Study Guide Test 2 Ch 5 6 7 10 Wednesday October 16th Ch 5 0 Competition A social process that occurs when rewards are given to people for how their performance compares with the performances of others during the same task or event o Is not good or bad Neutral Cooperation A social process through which performance is evaluated and rewarded in terms of the collective achievement of a group of people working together to reach a particular goal 0 Triplett s Cyclists were faster in competition than alone racing against the clock 0 Deutsch s puzzles Competitiongroup students were self centered directed efforts towards beating each other had closed communication and exhibited group con ict and distrust Cooperationgroup students communicated openly shared information developed friendships and solved more puzzles Cooperation as opposed to competition produces superior performance but competition can serve as a positive source of motivation o Prisoner s Dilemma competitors draw cooperators into competition Two members of a criminal gang arrested and imprisoned without any means of communication with each other Police offer option o If A and B both confess each serve 2 years in prison o If A confesses and B denies A is set free and B will serve three years and vice versa o If A and B both deny the crime both will serve only 1 year 0 Better reward for both with cooperation to deny the crime but will betray partner because of potential of better reward for selfinterest 0 Summer Camp Study Finding competition can be reduced through cooperative efforts to achieve superordinate goals Attributes related to both competition and cooperation 0 Sense of mission 0 Strong work ethic 0 Use of resources 0 Strong preparation ethic 0 Love of challenge and change 0 Great teamwork Component structure of games 0 Competitive meanscompetitive ends King of the Mountain 100 yard dash o Cooperative means competitive ends soccer basketball 0 Individual meansindividual ends cross country skiing o Cooperative meansindividual ends helping others individually improve ie Lance Armstrong uses teammates to win the race 0 Cooperative meanscooperative ends keeping a volleyball from hitting the ground Ch6 Principles of reinforcement 2 1 If doing something results in good consequence people tend to repeat the behavior to achieve additional positive reinforcement 2 If doing something results in negative consequences people tend not to repeat the behavior to avoid more negative consequences 0 Principles of reinforcement are complex because 0 People react differently to the same reinforcement 0 People are unable to repeat desirable behavior 0 People receive different reinforcment in different situations 0 Predominant approach with physical activity and sport participants should be positive because the negative approach often instills fear in participants 0 Choose timeschedule of reinforcement o Earlyearning continuous and immediate reinforcement desirable o Learned skil intermittent and immediate reinforcement desirable Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement 0 Reward appropriate behavior DraWbaCkS Choose the proper behaviors Can arouse fear of failure to rewa rd Can act as reinforce 0 Shape or reinforce successful can cfeate quotquotE easant39 approximations of dif cult avefslve learnmg behaviors enwronment 0 Reward performance as well Give everyone same type of as OUtCOme punishment be consistent 39 REWard Effort Punish the behavior and not 0 Reward emotional and social the person skill Allow athlete s input in making up punishment for Can control and change breaking rules behavior but 8090 of 0 Do not use physical activity reinforcement should be as punishment positive Impose impersonally SHAPING any behavior can be broken down into a sequence of simpler actions All behaviors we know have been shaped buildup of steps Bacltward5 Chainn9 begin the performance of a skill with the LAST step then add the second to last and so forth until we arrive at the rst step of a skill 0ver5haping going above and beyond what is necessary to perform a skill so that competition will later seem easier by comparison EXPOSURE the more an action is repeated the better it will be performed Practice makes perfect or at least better quot Intrinsic Motivation People who strive inwardly to be competent and selfdetermining in their quest to master the task at hand Enjoy competition like action and excitement and focus on having fun Want to learn skills to the best of their ability Factors In uencing Intrinsic Motivation Success and failure Focus of competition Coaches behavior Need for competence autonomy and relatedness Do extrinsic re wards undermine intrinsic motivation Research shows that being paid for working on an intrinsically interesting activity can decrease a person s intrinsic motivation for the activity Cognitive evaluation theory How rewards are perceived is critical in determining whether intrinsic motivation increases or decreases Controlling aspects 1 Rewards perceived to control a person decrease intrinsic motivation 2 Rewards that contribute to an internal locus of causality increase intrinsic motivation Informational Aspects 1 Rewards that provide information and positive feedback about competence increase intrinsic motivation 2 Rewards that suggest the person is not competent decrease intrinsic motivation How a reward affects intrinsic motivation is based on whether the recipient perceives it to be controlling or informational How Extrinsic Rewards affect Intrinsic Motivation in Sport Scholarships can decrease or increase athletes level of intrinsic motivation Competitive success and failure Success increase in intrinsic motivation Failure decrease Feedback positive feebackljincrease intrinsic motivation Any activity that people are not doing needs an extrinsic reward so they begin to do it Lepper and Greene Study Nursery school two classrooms In one classroom they asked the children to stop doing work and draw pictures and rewarded them with a dollar In the other classroom they did the same without the reward of the dollar The next day they went back and asked the kids to do the same thing In the second classroom they were happy and drew pictures without a problem In the rst classroom the children asked how much they would be paid They would not settle for an amount less than what they had been paid the previous time Resultsljl extrinsic rewards decrease intrinsic motivation CH 7 0 Group 0 Team two or more people who interact and exert mutual in uence on each other and share the following characteristics 0 Collective sense of identity 0 Distinctive roles o Structured modes of communication 0 Group norms Theories of Team Development Linear Perspective Forming MeetGreet put best foot forward familiarization Storming rebellion within team resistance to leader interpersonal con ict Norming Team con icts resolved development of cooperation Performing Channel energies for team success Cyclical Life Cycle Perspective 0 Birth growth death Emphasis on the terminal phase of the team s existence 0 As team develops it psychologically prepares for its own breakup Pendular Perspective Shift occurs in interpersonal relationships during growthdevelopment of teams 0 Do not progress through linear stages 0 Stages 0 Orientation o Differentiationcon ict o Resolutioncohesion o Differentiationcon ict 0 Termination Team Structure 0 Group Roles involve behaviors required or expected of a person occupying a certain position a Formal Roles dictated by the nature and structure of the organization Informal Roles evolve from the group s dynamics or interactions among team members Team Norms o A norm is a level of performance pattern of behavior or belief Leaders need to establish positive group norms or standards The source of communication is critical in modifying norms the more credible better liked similar attractive highstatus and powerful individuals are more effective persuaders ie books writings celebrities Support Social Support mutual respect and support to enhance team climate Provides appraisal information reassurance and cooperation Reduces uncertainty in times of stress aids in mental and physical recovery and improves communication 1 Proximity closer contact between teammates promotes team interaction 2 Distinctiveness the more distinctive the team feels the better the climate 3 Seven types of Social Support a Listening b Emotional c Emotionalchallenge d Realitycon rmation eTaskappreciation f Taskchallenge g Personalassistance Steiner s Model of Productivity Actual Productivity potential productivity Losses are due to faulty group processes Ex Volleyball ock to where the ball is going Losses result from motivation and coordination Role of the coach reo39uce process losses through enhancing cohesion and emphasizing individual contributions to the team Increase relevant resources increase talent through training The greater the need for cooperation in a task the more individual ability decreases in importance and team productivity increases Ringelmann Effect and Social Loa ng Ringelmann effect is the phenomenon by which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the team increases 0 Social loa ng when individuals within a group or team put forth less than 100 effort due to loss of motivation Social loafing is increased when 0 An individual s output cannot be independently evaluated 0 The task perceived to be low in meaningfulness 0 An individual s personal involvement in the task is low 0 A comparison against group standards is not possible 0 Other individuals contributing to the collective effort are strangers o Teammates or coworkers are seen as high in ability 0 Individual team member perceive their contribution to the outcome as redundant o The individual is competing against what he or she believes to be a weaker opponent 0 Social loa ng can be eliminated by Emphasis on the importance of individual pride and unique contributions Increase identi cation of individual performances Determine speci c situations in which social loa ng occurs Divide the team into smaller units Task cohesion ex Group bonds together to Win a basketball game Social cohesion Group bonds through social activities CH10 Content what is said Relational how we say it and how the receiver perceives the information 0 Text and subtext ex What s wrong Nothing 0 There is something wrong that remains unsaid Underlying meanings The communication process Decision to send a Encoding of message about the message by l something the sender Channel through which Decoding of the message the message is l by the receiver transmitted to receiver Internal response by the receiver to the message Proxemics The study of the use of space Types of Communication Interpersonal at least two people in a meaningful exchange Nonverbal communication 0 5070 of all communication 0 messages harder to hide Powerful lntrapersonal communication selftalk the communication we have with ourselves Active listening ask questions paraphrase attend to main and supporting ideas acknowledge and respond give appropriate feedback and pay attention to the speaker s total communication verbal and nonverbal Keys mentally prepare to listen don t mistake hearing for listening paraphrase what the speaker said Breakdowns When there is a breakdown in communication people usually believe that the fault lies with the other person Failure at any of the 5 stages will result in a breakdown Confrontation facetoface discussion among people in con ict Can be used as an effective part of communication Problems must be solved not tolerated Do not confront when you are angry Confront when you are in control can express feelings constructively and have a wellthought out reason for doing so Solutions and resolutions are temporary states of balance and are not absolute or timeless Sandwich Approach to Constructive Criticism A positive statement a futureoriented instruction a compliment Positive statement quotSally you are really working hard out therequot Futureoriented statement quotNext time try to slow down and not get ahead of the musicquot Compliment quotYou re getting there keep up the good workquot


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