PY 370 Exam 1 Study Guide
PY 370 Exam 1 Study Guide PY 370
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Sheila Black in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 315 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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PY 370 Exam 1 Rationalist truth lies within you Empiricist based on experience inborn knowledge Socrates Aristotle Plato John Locke Descartes Berkeley Kant Chapter 1 Psychology and the Ancients 1 Early Greek Medicine a Dream Book 9 they talked about things that were embarrassing things that people dreamed about naked in public b Alcmaeon the first to dissect bodies of animals i Did not rely on the mysticism of the priests ii He planted a seed from mysticism pushing away from gods c Hippocrates rejected the notion that gods responsible for illnesses such as epilepsy emphasized science nature emphasized holistic approach to medicine did feel phenomena could be explained through science and supported nature i Identified various mental illnesses ii Formulated theory of thirst iii Formulated theory of temperament iv Brain lateralization left hemisphere controls right side of body d Galen lived 600 years after Hippocrates but he revived interest in Hippocrates work agreed with Hippocrates e He talked about curing disorders of the soul by describing the dynamics that currently take place in psychotherapy 2 Advances in Mathematics a Thales predicted a solar eclipse in 585 BC i Pythagoras and the Pythagorean theorem ii Today we have mathematical model which purport to explain the effects of familiarity on memory retention iii 11618 is the ratio used for the beautiful body b Materialism 9 the universe can be understood via the great materialism of the world 3 Atomism a Atomism was developed by Democritus He thought that the world was comprised of a collection of atoms b The human mine was a collection of atoms which could in uence the external world c Narrow point of view breaking big concepts into little components d The human mind is thought to be formed by experience e He thought there was no need for external all you need is explanation for how organisms were put together by physiological components f Objects would emit atoms and because of this we would perceive these objects a certain way i These atoms allow us to see a circle as a circle ii Put a lot of faith in the physical world a 495435 BC Greeks questioned the reliability of the sensory system b Not interested in materialism9 sometimes senses can fool you c Zeno invented puzzles and paradoxes to point out the inadequacy of the sensory system d Motion is an illusion imposed by the mind e Zeno challenged the notion that the human mind can be studied via the material world Advances in Philosophy 1 Socrates a Socratic Method b Rationalist 9 truth lies within you born with inborn knowledge i Disagree with No child left behindquot if knowledge is born within you so it cannot be standardized ii Come up with knowledge that is already with you c Deductive Reasoning 9 logically thinking way to be true d Put to death 9 trial trying to figure out if he corrupted youth upset religious norms and it was ruled that he did and put to death by poison 2 Plato a Did not trust senses or perceptions b Forms 9 believed in deductive reasoning we through our senses only see a shadow of what really exists c Rationalist who believed in measurement and deductive reasoning d Pythagoras had shown that some aspects of human skill could be measured e In Plato s utopian society people would be assigned roles based on their skills 3 Aristotle a More of a natural scientists than Plato or Socrates b More of an empiricist in that he did rely on observation c He believed that both deductive and inductive reasoning were important i Deductive reasoning was good but not the only way d He was able to uncover basic principles of human memory 4 Epicureans a Philosophy of life that should lead a person a life where they could be as great as they could b Should be happy do what makes you happy no matter what goal of life c Do not create sufferings in others 5 Stoics a Reasoning was more important than being happy b Did not like for people to express emotion in public c Learn to control emotions and take whatever comes to you and stride d People should focus on their duty 6 Epistemology a Try to determine the origin of knowledge b Branch of philosophy c Socrates Plato reasoning and Aristotle empiricismsenses Humanism Video 1 313 century focus on church and religion 2 14th century power of church started to decline reason for humanism 3 Less interest in god and afterlife More interest in selves and the present world 4 Causes of decline bubonic plague in Europe and rise of market economy 5 Humanism study of human progress and nature Petrarch 9 father of humanism 6 Humanism radically changed the idea of human independence 7 Wealth was based on land ownership keeping manner system in tact 8 Feudalism began to shrink John Locke 1 Historical Context a Rationalism vs empiricism b John Locke disagrees with rationalism c Possible examples of innate knowledge i Whatsoever is is ii It is impossible for the same thing to be and not to be d Occam s Razor e Man is born as Tabula rasa born with blank slate f Locke believes in re ection to one s self 9 can observe within 2 Simple vs Complex ideas a Examples of knowledge not derived from senses i Concept of God and infinity ii Are we able to build these ideas from sensory input iii Must have simple ideas to come up with complex ideas of God b Can you invent a new simple idea i Impossible to come up with simple idea without other ideas ii How would you explain a color to a blind person c Primary vs secondary qualities i Primary exist in bodies itself extension figure motion number ii Secondary 9 truth is in power to produce sensations within us texture sound taste Bishop Barkley 1 Mental Dependency a Sensory objects houses mountains rivers etc are things to present us in sense experience b What is presented to us in sense experience consists solely of our ideas or sensations c Ideas exist solely in our minds d Therefore sensible objects exist solely in our minds Occam s Razor 2 The Cause of Ideas a Only the mind can cause ideas b Did our minds produce them i No because then the things would disappear when no one was looking at them c God s mind must have created them d We can have direct experience of the world without the intermediate step of physical matter e To be is to be perceivedquot Esse est percipi f They really exist just not as a substance 3 Connections to modern debates a Newton vs Einstein b Noam Chomsky c Geoffrey Sampson d Steven Pinker 4 Perceptions of mind a Impressions 9 the love hate desire we feel within us b Ideas 9 copies of our impressions thoughts or memories of impressions we have 5 Hume s Fork a Relations of ideas 9 geometry math etc discovered by thought but is not innate Plato s believed to be innate Use reason to discover them b Matters of fact 9 where contrary is always possible i Cold outside might be matter of fact or it could be hot outside 6 Cause and Effect a Entire idea of cause and effect comes entirely from experience i Cant tell whatever will suffocate just from looking at it b Cause leads to effect Chapter 2 The Renaissance 1 What was the Renaissance a Discoveries in science church was still in charge b Beautiful art c People started to think about the scientific method and applying it to the mind creation of Psychology 2 Scientific Discoveries a Gutenberg printing press b Iohn Broughton s Psychologia or An Account of the Nature of the Rational Soul c Copernicus heliocentric discovery through experience data you could make new discoveries d Galileo and the telescope provide empirical evidence of Copernicus ideas e Newton physicist and use of scientific method 3 Inductive vs Deductive Reasoning a Inductive 9 start with bits and pieces of information form a hypothesis Starts outside of yourself b Deductive 9 check logic given premises correct use careful logic to develop hypothesis 4 Contributions of Philosophers a Descartes i Rationalist and Nativism ii Eccentric iii Doubted everything without proof iv 1 think therefore I amquot I am thinking right now and ifI am thinking I am a real person I exist v Dualism separates soul and body vi Forerunner of Nativism some notions are innate vii Animals vs Humans didn t think animals could think mindful thoughts but humans did thought animals were incapable of having the feelings emotions that humans did would subject animals to surgery with no anesthesia viii Summoned to help Queen who wanted to have fun without annoying God tried but she was a bad student b Associationism i In psychology the theory that the mind learns by combining simple irreducible elements through association ii You can process a concept easier if you compare it to a similar association iii Concepts will cooccur c HobbesAssociationism i Associations between elements of the mind could occur through habit wishes and repetition ii Probably best known for his view of mankind 1 Individuals are aggressive animals 2 Individuals act in their own selfinterest 3 The life of man is solitary poor nasty brutish and shortquot d Locke i Noted as the first British Empiricist 1 Rejected Descartes notions of innate ideas and pure speculation as a means of inquiry your ideas need to be confirmed by evidence not just speculation 2 Advocated the observational experimental scientific method used by Newton and Harvey ii Locke s notions of human understanding 1 just as Newton had conceived of the universe as a huge clockwork with rules 2 Locke wanted to see if there were rules that governed the human mind 3 Locke wanted to refract consciousness into the most basic elements just as Newton had a Reductionistic and atomistic Locke is empiricist Human mind is a blank slate All knowledge comes through experience Two types of knowledge from ideas a Sensation hard red loudquot b Re ection ideas of our own mental representations remembering perceiving abstracting iii The association of ideas 1 Combining simple ideas into complex ideas 2 Bringing two simple ideas together and seeing the relation between them 3 Abstraction separating ideas from other ideas that accompany them iv Evidence to support Locke s contention that everything is learned 1 The blind who receive sight people who are blind from birth and receive sight late on in life when this happens the people are confusedwhy because it is learned through science gt195 e Berkeley i Believed that knowledge comes from experience empiricist ii Subjective idealism or radical immaterialism 1 Existence of external world depends on perception 2 Can something exist if it is never perceived 3 God perceives it thus it does exist iii mighty framequot of the world would not exist without a mind to perceive 5 18th Century Associationism a David Hume i Pneumatic Philosophy ii iii iv vi Distinguished between impressions and ideas ideas become impressions impressions come from the mind physical properties Impressions are considered more lively than ideas When impression and ideas occur together they become associated The idea begins to resemble the impression Three ideas of association 1 Contiguity in time and place 2 Cause and effect 3 Resemblance 6 19th Century Associationism a James Mill and John Stuart Mill 1 ii iii iv V vi Iames father John son Interesting psychological dynamic between father and son Academic rigor so intense that he John S Mill had no time for friends or playmate Advocate for women Learned but not about life Utilitarianism 1 Like predecessors John S Mills believed that sensations lead to ideas 2 Sensationsideas combination of simple ideas 3 Utilitarian 4 Psychology be a specific science b Alexander Bain 1 ii iii iv v 7 Kant Founded the journal Mind issues related to psychology Physiologist Interested in movements in habits Distrusted speculation and arm chair theorizing Sympathetic to the experimental method for advancing psychology a Rationalist b Nativist we are not born a blank slate we are born with some inclination c Space time there is no reason we have to allocate space for individuals d Categorical Imperative ethical standard before you do anything think what the world would be like if everyone acted the way you do in specific moments e How can we perceive time and space Chapter 3 Contributions of early scientists 1 Descartes and Dualism f Descartes where is the seat of the mind Not the brain but the heart g Where is the brain and what role does it play i Believed body and mind were separate ii The mind is separate from body but the mind can control the body 2 Contributions to scientists studying the nervous system a Michelangelo depicted the brain accurately b Decapitations decapitated heads smiledwink found to be re ex not through own will c Veterans of War brain injuries can you localize the injured part of the brain d Animals subjected to dissections the legs of decapitated animals continued to move 3 Spinal Cord a Magendie dorsal and ventral roots of spinal cord dissected animals with no anesthesia puppies did not experience pain found that when injury was to dorsal there was lack of sensation but when it was to ventral there was lack of movement Bell c Whytt spinal cord amp frog legs if you decapitated frog left spinal cord the legs would still move BUT when he decapitated the frog took out spinal cord nothing would happen 4 Helmholtz a Visual System three nerve fibers each sensitive to different wavelengths Based off Young Light of different wavelengths that conformed to red blue and green Found if you mix all wavelengths you can create any color within the color system Color Vision c Important because it laid down groundwork for perception 5 Muscles Nerves and electricity a Importance of Galvani and Du Bois Reymond s work b Du BoisReymond 9wanted to show that his own body had electricity blistered his arm and soaked in saline solutionconnected wire to arm and demonstrated that electricity was traveling through his arm c Electricity generated by the brain and distributed throughout the body through the nervous system argued that these impulses is what cause the limbs to move d Galvani 9 Attached wire to lab roof and to frog s leg 6 Helmholtz and the neural impulse a Myograph b Short delay between stimulation of neural impulse and movement c Sadly he couldn t explain his work in a way that people could understand 7 Phrenology a Franz Joseph Gall father of Phrenology localize different areas in the brain with behaviors facial configurations had certain personality traits i Eyes protrude had better memories ii Feel bumps in skull to see personality b Iohann Spurzheim put on shows to convince this was a science and could use this to predict whom you are interacting with Before people get marriedmatch maker c Comb s idealism not as materialistic as Spurzheim did not take advantage wanted people to benefit d Money and Science 8 Phrenology Makes money a Fowler and Wells making money took advantage of it b Failure of Phrenology cannot be supported by science and was a hoax took advantage of people 9 Flourens a Ablation remove part of the brain w animals dissect part of the brain and see how it behaved if removed and acts certain way then that is an indication that that part of the brain is responsible for a certain act i Which parts of brain is responsible for certain behaviors b Action Proper each part of the brain is responsible for different functions c Action Commune different functions for each component of the brain the brain works together as a unit 10 Localization of function a Importance of frontal loves i Phineas Gage railroad worker looked away and a rod ended up inside his frontal lobe Able to talk IQ stayed the same but personality changed happy stablebut after he couldn t keep a job disruptive and didn t care ii Iohn Harlow Gage s doctor felt the accident affected the frontal lobe and that area of brain maintained the function of selfcontrol judgment etc b Language and the localization of Speech i Broca Had a patient who had damage to his left frontal lobe debating if speech was localized Broca believed frontal lobes do control speech found that it was the LEFT frontal lobe that controlled speech ii Wernike found that brain damage in the left temporal lobe can speak but could not comprehend c Direct Stimulation of the Brain i Fritsch and Hitzig were able to identify the primary motor cortex through brain stimulation ii Hitzig was tending to soldiers in the war one solider with brain exposed and he stimulated ithis limbs started to move The brain is responsible for movement iii Talked to Fritsch they began to conduct experiments with animals By stimulating portion of the cortex they would see the dogs move Only the rear portion of cortex 11 John Hughlings Iackson amp David Ferrier a John Hughlings Iackson s wife had epilepsy b Iohn Hughlings Iackson compared brain to the government c David Ferrier follows up on Fritsch and Hitzig s work i Primary motor cortex expanded Fritsch and Hitzig work used electrolytes Mapping portions of motor cortex 12 Bartholow a Mary Rafferty was feeble minded couldn t give consent b Agreed to brain stimulation drill holes in brain c Bartholow drilled holes in the brain 1St human surgery i Inserted needles in the brain 1 Pt complained of pain when ulcer touched 2 When inserted in the Dura mater answered questions reported no pain 3 Noted contractions when stimulating posterior lobes and pt complained 4 Despite her distress he increased the strength of the electrical stimulation 5 She ended up frothing at the mouth and eventually died 6 People were outraged 12 Aubrey Mussen invented the first stereotaxic instrument for the human brain 13Penfield performed surgeries on individuals with epilepsy 14Michael Victor Pachon and Valentin Delmas Marsalet found a cortical area for reward the caudate nucleus 15Golgi and Cajal a Staining brain was stained and neurons dendrites were outlined able to look at brain and locate neurons b Neurons brain was a network neural impulses travel through brain network c Synapses d Nobel prize 16 Karl Spencer Lashley a Engram b Equipotentiality thinking that if you damage one part of the brain another part of the brain would take over their function c Concluded was that multiple parts of the brain work together for memory and retention d Couldn t identify any one location responsible for memory and retention Chapter 4 Wilhem Wundt and the Founding of Psychology 1 Wundt s Education a Ch dhood b Education i Gymnasium ii School didn t go wellfailed iii Graduated high school iv Graduated medical school with an A average V Top score on medical board exam c Father of Psychology d Early Career i Lecturer ii Helmholtz s assistant iii Leipzig 1 Taught physiological psychology 2 New science to be objective and experimental 3 Brass instrument psychology electrical stimulators timers sensory mapping devices e Getting Started i Difficult to start new discipline of psychology 1 Applied to principles of physiology 2 Immediate experience domain of psychology subjective experience someone has when interacting with the environment vs mediate experience domain of physiology a phenomena is measured objectively through a measurement ii Used introspection but was not elemental iii Voluntarism Wundt s form of psychology f Agreed with Iohn Stuart Mill i One can combine associations and develop and entirely new idea creative synthesis wouldn t be able to dissociate the elements that involve to create a new concept 1 Ex play musical instrument combine 2 notes to create a tone but if someone listens to the created tone they wont be able to determine which keys created it ii Psychology should include social relationships human development etc g Data Collection i Experimental observer 10000 hours of introspection practice before being a participant in experiment ii Wundt conducted research on a range of topic iii Introspection wasn t always used h Philosophical Studies i Reaction time ii Attention iii Feelings iv Associations 2 Titchener amp Munsterberg a Wundt s students b Titchener dominated psychology for 2 decades i Very narrow conception of psychology should not include culture interpersonal relations ii Wanted it to focus on sensations c Titchener know for structuralism using infrastructure to figure out the mind i Thought Wundt was too easy on students undergo 20000 hours of practice before one can participate d Titchener s rise to prominence i Brilliant student ii Loyal to Wundt fashioned career after Wundt iii Obsessed with determining the elements that make up the structure of the mind iv Very narrow view of psychology e Titchener s increasing restrictiveness i 20000 hours needed to be a participant ii Focused on sensation iii Immediate experiences consist of sensations images and feelings elements of consciousness iv Put down psychology b c he was upset hobby was coins f Intolerance i Dismissed students that didn t agree with his views on psychology ii Very much against the new applied fields
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