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Test 1

by: Ally Shafer

Test 1 PSY350

Ally Shafer
GPA 3.31
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Rollock

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Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Rollock
Study Guide
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ally Shafer on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY350 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Rollock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 02/01/15
Chapter 1 Clinical Psychologist psychotherapy clinical assessment teaching neuropsych testing research PhD Counseling psychologist Psychiatric social worker Psychiatrist MD Psychoanalyst psychoanalytic training psychoanalysis and any degree Psychotherapist Ed D MFT religious leadership training Problem assessment and intervention within specialized contexts What is abnormal Culturally framed reference Deviant unusual nonnormative 0 Ex sexual activity with children food binges followed by vomiting Irrational does not make sense in cultural context 0 Ex Loos associations bizarre gestures Maladaptiveharmful dangerous to self or others interferes with self care 0 Ex neglect for selfcare selfmutilation suicide Painfuldistressing Subjective sense of discomfort or distress 0 Ex ashbacks to trauma in PTSD paranoia These de nitions don39t always allow us to say any given behavior always represents an illness or psychological disorder PerspectivesParadigmsModels Need for perspectives to approach fuzzy concept of quotabnormalquot in systematic way 0 quotSystematic way are paradigms organized thinking re what is important 0 Importance of perspective and context also means social and cultural issues are central to understanding abnormal behavior 3 Key Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior Perspective Cause of Necessary Professionals Abnormality Treatment Control by Drive out evil Priests sensitive SpiritualSupernatural supernatural forces and persons elders forces nurture good forces Somaticbodil Correct body Physicians and SomatogenicMedicalBiol y processes and or other experts in ogical gone wrong physiological somatic processes processesca re Disturbed Change Training in social Psychogenic feelings behavior by science and attitudes experiences Some HistoricalConceptual Issues SpiritualSupernatural Model In EuropequotThe Westquot Demonic possession as cause of abnormal behavior 0 Logical need for prayers and spiritual interventions Treatment drive out evil spirits by making body inhospitable Rise and fall of moral therapy in late 1800searly 19005 In other traditional societies eg West Africa Pacate or nurture good spirits Healing and rest for less bene cent spirits Some contemporary and related issues Tensions between folk medicine and other approaches quotMoralquot issues and culpability ex addictions paraphiias Limitations and Questions WHOSE spirituality 0 Radical divergences in spiritualsupernatural systems 0 Meaning of problem and behaviors vary with core beliefs EX contract with ancestors vs demonic activity Place of unrelated sociopolitical concerns 0 lndividual39s moral culpability for problems in some systems EX Addiction anxiety depression insuf cient quotfaithquot 0 Training of appropriate professionals 0 Training dependent upon belief systems 0 Emphasis on behavior problems vs other spiritual matters 0 Better tools for relevant knowledge production 0 Ef ciency and success rates in treating many problems by opposing evil spirits o Other means to establish agreement SomatogenicquotMedicalquot Model If viewing abnormal behavior like physical quotillnessquot then underlying processes can be seen at levels of 0 Symptoms 0 Discrete identi able abnormal process that may signal a larger problem habits talk new human behavior Sneezing Hallucinations o Syndrome 0 Pattern group of regularlycooccurring symptoms without reference to origin Sneezing and watery eyes Hallucinations with delusions o Disorder 0 Syndrome with a clear coherent pattern re ecting a larger condition but with unknown etiology origin A cold Schizophrenia 0 Disease 0 Disorder with a known etiology A speci c cold virus Schizophrenia if cause were known NB etiology informs treatment but treating symptoms does not quotcurequot a disease Etiology Disease organism Virusesother pathogens 0 EX syphilis as cause of general paresis Biochemistry imbalances in brain or other bodily chemicals 0 EX dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia Neuroanatomy Structural changes in brain or other parts of central nervous system 0 EX brain injury cortical deterioration dementia Genetics inherited quotweaknessquot or disposition 0 Ex Concordance rates of schizophrenia autism Some Key Bene ts Understanding previously misunderstood patterns 0 EX Alzheimer s disease as biologicaly distinct from normal aging other cognitive decline 0 Ex Agreement that bipolar do likey genetic Potential for early diagnosis and treatment by identifying biological markers 0 Early identi cation of PKU l avoid later mental retardation Foundations for effective new treatment 0 Discovery of major tranquilizers antipsychotics 19505 D deinstitutionalization of SMI patients 19605 History Thru 19th centurv abnormal behavior stigmatizing and norms for home care though more asylums for poor Industrialization l39l changed family structures for caring later warehousing of patients in state facilities 0 19505 discovery of major tranquilizers antipsychotics 19605 Kennedy administration meds D possible to deinstitutionalize D creation of CMHCs for outpatient care Some Key Criticisms Reductionism Not all abnormal behavior can be reduced to or treated as mere physical processes 0 quotProblemsquot often extend well beyond just brain abnormalities 0 Eg schizophrenia anorexia PTSD affected by experiences skills Mental vs Physical Illness Originscoursestreatment of many abnormal patterns differ from medical problems 0 Eg paranoia phobias or other nonpsychotic disorders Social Responsibility f abnormal behavior is just faulty physical processes then quotmentally illquot should not be held responsible for their behavior 0 Eg alcoholism and drinking amp driving Current Lack of Understanding Etiology Few conclusive links between biological conditions and speci c abnormal behavior eg no blood test for Scz Psychogenic Models Abnormal behavior is the result of disturbances in 0 Thoughts increased meanings and other cognitive activity Feelings increased positive and negative emotions and moods Behavior increased social and privateinternal activity as well as habits o Other psychological behavioral internal experiences and phenomena Freud39s Structural Theory ID 0 lnborn based on biological needs Repository of libidinal energy Pleasure Principle satisfaction through 0 Direct grati cation 0 Primary process thinking wishful llment o Unconscious Freud39s Structural Theory EGO Develops out of id to meet the needs of the id in the quotreal worldquot 0 Reality Principle satisfaction through 0 Grati cation by indirect means 0 Secondary process thinking logical planful thought 0 Largelv conscious Freud39s Structural Theory SUPEREGO quotMoral Armquot of the psyche based on assuming the moral values of the samesex parent 0 Develops 0 Out of fear of parents 0 Out of love of parents 0 Around ages 37 0 Partiallv conscious Superego conscious l Ego preconscious l ld unconscious Stage Age Erogenous zoneactivity Con ict D Fixations Oral 01 Mouthsucking Weaning Dependency indulgence Anal 13 Anuselimination Toilet Stinginess training compulsiveness Phalli 35 quotPenisquotMasturbation Oedipal Morality c Electra homosexuality Laten 512 None in particular cy Consolidate None in particular Samesex identity Genit 12 Genitalsintercourse Societal Sexual al mores impulsivity Classical Freudian Approach to Development Con ict ID impulses vs social rules I Neurotic anxiety l o Mediation by ego via some combination of Symptoms Anxiety quotPerversionsquot Conversion Dependency Psychosis weak ego Defense Mechanisms Repression Displacement Rationalization Projection Sublimation strong ego Some Major Criticism of Classical Psychoanalytic Approach 1 Questionable evidence for unobservable constructs and untestable processes EX test for quotoedipa con ict Alternatives to con ict as mechanisms for normalabnormal development EX bicycle riding irrational fear of animals Highly deterministic but not predictive EX who Will be gaylesbian cigarette smoking Stringent requirements for psychoanalysis EX age verbal activity reality contact time Some Major Contributions of Classical Psychoanalytic Approach 1 Hard psvchic determinim abnormal behavior as not random but the result of de nite psychological antecedents even ifnot well understood Theory of unconscious mental life increase societal conditions thatshapeit EX social needs for order I curbs on particular id urges Abnormal 63 normal behavior are on continuum EVERYONE warped to some degree by common early experiences and biology 4 Con ict as basis for abnormal behavior sex and aggression are most likely to cause con ict and anxiety are crucial symptoms 5 First maior talking treatment with a clear guiding theoretical basis Psychoanalysis Key Underpinnings from Theory Theory Theoretical Element Implications of TX Aspect Structural o Drives are basic 0 Focus unconscious Drives are unconscious Assess and Access Overt behavior D unconscious unconscious through mental life quotunguardedquot routes amp Must gratify drives recurring behavior Developmen tal Con ict society vs drives Development Early experiences l xations D Speci c symptoms Identify original Trauma D liberate Energy D reduce symptoms Focuscthhood Additional Drives don39t quotgo awayquot D Anxiety amp new areas of expression Con icts will surface in relationship with neutral therapist Treatment Process Goals Recover information about quottrue underlying unconscious causes of problems 0 Free association 0 Projective tests 0 Dream analysis 0 Hypnosis Nurture insight 0 Repeated confrontation D observe patterns 0 Patterns interpret hidden meaning drive quotWork throughquot the problems Psychoanalysis Transference Transference 0 Analyst presents neutral face to analysand 0 Strong feelings develop toward analyst during treatment transference o Feelings therefore must represent unconscious life 0 Psychoanalysis quotanalysis of transferencequot Positive vs negative transference 0 Positive allows acceptance of parentlike support 0 Negative hostility resistance of interpretations Analyst39s countertransference knowing what39s going on within yourself Psychoanalysis Procedural Development Some key features 0 Training analysis of psychoanalysts in training 0 Time for analysis Classical psychoanalysis o Posture Lying downnot facing analyst regression 0 Talking mostly by analysand minimal by analyst 0 Techniques tap into primitive unconscious life 0 Focus uncovering unconscious con icts esp childhood sexualaggressive roots 0 Modern 0 Posture sitting up angled facing therapist 0 Focus Discussion of support of coping by ego than roots of id based con icts Thoughts feelings customs culture can give rise to abnormal behavior An Alternative Psychogenic Perspective Humanistic Approaches Contrary to quotPessimismquot of Freud Focus Unique Aspects of human life 0 Humans gtgt con ict Freedom choice and personal growth and biological urges Mechanistic views of behaviorists Human health and potential rather o Humans gtgt stimulus than pathology response history Subjective values and experiences vs external events biology or other outer or impersonal in uences Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow 19081970 5 Levels of Needs Basic D Advanced 1 quotSelf actualizationquot 2 Esteem from self and others 3 Belongingness and low 4 Safety security order stability 5 Physiological ex food water More basic needs must be at least partly satis ed before moving up Failure to live up to potential due to 1 Failure to get more basic needs met 2 Lack of couragefear that growth will lead to situations the individual will be unable to handle SelfActualizing Peonle o Are 0 Open direct spontaneous playful creative 0 Independent amp nonconforming o In touch with their spirituality and in harmony with life 0 Peak experiences transcendent times when quoteverything falls into placequot 0 Able to establish deep intimate relationships 0 Concerned with the problems of others and society based on highlydeveloped ethical sensibility o Are NOT 0 Perfect 0 Just very comfortable with selves D sense of wellbeing 0 Finished growing MLK developed sense of what39s right and what39s wrong Concerned with the needs of others Put himself on the line in order to do this Gandhi Concerned with other people leads movement that liberates India from the colonization of Great Britain Nonviolence Oprah Giving back to others and raising consciousness to issues by setting up schools contributes to AIDS research talking about issues on her show and creating her own network Overcame experiences as a child Drew Brees Using his fame to promote the development of other kids donating money to facilities at Purdue gurehead for helping to rebuild after hurricane Katrina stayed there in New Orleans Believes God calls him to do this He39s gured out what he39s good at and he can do it If you gure out what you39re good at and you do that well That is when you are selfactualized Prototypical Humanistic Clinical Approach Some Basic Rogerian Concepts Humans who are quotFREEquot 0 Do not need to quotdistortquot information from environment 0 THEREFORE Make goodoptimal choices Behave effectively Actualizing Tendencv Basic tendency of all organisms to maintain and enhance themselves Selfactualizing Tendency As organism begins differentiating its own phenomenological existence from rest of the world o It becomes a true quotSELFquotquotlquot o The actualizing tendency focuses on that quotSELFquotquotlquot Rogers PhenomenologicalExperiential Differentiation of the Self In the Presence of Unconditional Positive Regard D Congruence with Experiences and Reality l Accurate selfconcept l fully functioning life amp quotselfquot quotSelf Actualizationquot In the Presence of Conditional Positive Regard l lncongruence with Experience and Reality D Selective SelfConcept D Protection of poorly explored self continuing search for positive regard D distress General Contributions of Humanistic Approaches Emphasize importance of individuals39 SUBJECTIVE views 0 Esp values and selfconcept amp choices 0 Client as expert on own issues not therapist Views of HEALTHY human personality 0 Basis for current quotPositive Psychologyquot ideas Empirical validation of importance of therapist values amp competence to provide 0 Unconditional positive regard o Accurate empathy o Genuineness General Criticism of Humanistic Approaches Many major constructs and processes not empirically testable Truly selfactualized individuals probably rare quotNaivetequot about quotnatural goodnessquot of human nature 0 More like a philosophy than a psychology Humanistic Approaches to Treatment Rogers Clientcentered therapy aka Person Centered Therapy 0 Emphasizes unique individual qualities 0 Therapist39s role create conditions for growth less emphasis on quottechniquequot or speci c sx Genuineness and congruence transparent real Unconditional positive regard quotNonpossessive warmthquot Accurate empathy appreciation without getting lost 0 Therapist39s approach since client is expert on own needs and unique potential therapist is quotfacilitatorquot o Nondirective o Re ective Note utility when focus on values not sxbeha viors Psychogenic Models of Abnormal Behavior Three Major Behavioral Approaches 1 Classical Conditioning a Neutral stimuli come to elicit conditioned responses by informational pairing with unconditional stimuli EX Pa vov s dog Little Albert 2 Operant Conditioning a Reinforcement history in uences the probabilities of later behavior EX puzzle box superstition 3 Modeling a Observing the behavior of others may produce learning by imitation EX TV violence copy cat crime Basics of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus l Unconditioned Response UCS Food UR Salivation Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Plus I Conditioned Stimulus UCS food CS sound UR Salivation Conditioned Stimulus l Conditioned Response CS Sound CR Salivation Some Factors that Limit and Control Classical Conditioning Processes Acquisition early pairings of the CS and UCS must be 0 quotTemporally contiguous close enough in time to each other to be related 0 Informational CS should quotsignalquot approach of UCS Extinction loss of ability of CS to elicit CR due to disruption of pairing or information associated with CS Stimulus Generalization capacity of stimuli similar to the original CS to bring about the CR 0 Discrimination process by which organism learns to emit the CR 0 In the presence of speci c CS but 0 NOT to other similar stimuli John B Watson Behaviorism Apply Pavlov s ndings to make psychology a true natural science Term rst used Psychology as the Behaviorists Views It 1913 Watson 1920 thinking as nothing more than subvocal speech though retracted 1929 Watson and Rayner 1920 Little Albert demonstration of how basic emotions rage fear love could be conditioned l model for phobia compare name to Little Hans Mary CoverJones 1924 behavioral treatment of Little Peter s fear through exposure Main Idea 0 The individual as tabula rasa blank slate 0 Focus on observable behavior not unconscious or otherwise inaccessible internal processes 0 Environmental determinism like Freud but unlike Rogers no free will 0 Learning by conditioning as primary process of human psychological development ls Classical Conditioning quotenoughquot to Account for all Major Learning Limitations 0 Finding unconditioned responses 0 Sometimes Response Stimulus rather than the other way around Thorndike s Puzzle Box Skinner s pigeons pecking a key Learning to swim Some application issues 0 Classroom arrangements to facilitate learning A demonstration 0 Hot and Cold game 0 Try to get them to write their names on the board only by saying hot or cold Changing Response Probabilities quotShapingquot via Operant Conditioning Stimulus Provided to Organism Action Positive Negative ADD Positive Punishment Reinforcement Goal Increase desired Decrease undesired behavior behavior REMOVE Extinction Negative Response Cost Reinforcement Goa Decrease undesired Increase desired behavior behavior Several Key Factors in Operant Conditioning Reinforcement History 0 Affects likelihood a behavior will be emitted 0 Does not cause behavior Most learned behavior is quotshapedquot by successive approximations Punishment can change behavior effectively but can backfire if excessive Speed and strength of learned behavior is a function of schedule of reinforcement o Passage of time 0 Frequency of correct behaviors emitted Some Mediators of the Effects of Modeling Perceived SIMILARITY of model and learner Perceived CONSEQUENCES for model Translation of model s behavior into PATTERNS THAT CAN BE IMITATED Some Contributions of Behavioral Approaches Useful precision specifying quotabnormal behaviorquot 0 Behavior IS the problem 0 What conditions maintain it En vironmenta determinism Minimal speculation re unobservable processes 0 EX Watson and Rayner 1920 conditioned fear in quotLittle Albert Basis for highly successful treatments for speci c disorders and clear strategies for management of maladaptive behavior 0 EX Mary Co verjones 1924 exposure treatment of quotLittle Peter Key Dif culties with Behavioral Approaches Insuf cient explanation for origins of some learned abnormal behavior 0 Ex classical conditioning theory of phobias Do not alone describe or prescribe treatments for abnormal behavior patterns that cannot be speci ed in terms of overt behavior or reinforcement contingencies 0 Ex behavioral treatments can reduce dating anxiety but not resolve issues of whom to date relationship changes Behavioral treatments may ne ineffective if applied 0 quotMechanisticallyquot 0 Without attention to emotional interpersonal andor cultural dimensions of therapy Implications of Behavioral Approaches for Intervention Abnormal behavior l learning and reinforcement o Maladaptive behavior Radical behavior5m unconscious processes and architecture do not exist Maladaptive thinking 0 Thoughts true or distorted mediate behavior Beliefsexpectationsvalues re events consequences Selfrelevant beliefs 0 Thoughts patterns can be conditioned quotToolsquot classical operant social learning 0 Change stimulienvironment andor responses 0 Relationship With therapist 5 environmental Beyond Behaviorism CognitiveBehavioral Approach Behavior connected to o Cognitions o Emotions Implications for treatment 0 Mutual in uence multiple intervention points Possible to change one thoughts to change another behavior Emotion domain less amendable to direct intervention ineffectiveness of just telling someone to quotfeel better 0 Work with distress not just l overt behavior Against Strict Environmental Determinism Bandura39s Reciprocal Determinism Thoughts A1 worry quotdriving on the interstate is very dangerousquot B3 quoteveryone is looking at me I m having a panick attackquot Feelings Actions A2 scared nervous A3 drive timidly Bl sweat heart pounds BZ completely stop what you are Feel dizzy see spots doing l focus on own body s response Individuals will vary Where sequence begins How much of each element they experience How prior experience in uences contexts they seek CognitiveBehavioral Example Fear CBT explanation 0 Fear an emotion is driven by our appraisal or thoughts of the situation Ex physical and emotional responses to the situation are in uenced by thoughts CognitiveBehavioral Therapy CBT Objectives 1 Identify maladaptive patterns of responses a Often shortterm rewards gt longterm problems b Frequent responses l habits over time 2 Describe and understand maladaptive patterns a Response triggers frequency timing etc b Conditions that maintain response over time 3 Change maladaptive patterns a Behavior adaptive or maladaptive can be learned unlearned b Limit severityscope of maladaptive behavior c Replace maladaptive with adaptive responses CognitiveBehavioral Therapy CBT Strategies Change thoughts and behaviors change feelings Thoughtchanging techniques 0 Identify problem thinking patterns 0 Cognitive restructuring Treat thoughts as hypotheses Examine thoughts for distortions or errors Cognitive Therapy treatment process 0 About 16 sessions 0 Problemfocused Behaviorchanging techniques 0 Use classical operant and modeling Changing Thoughts Cognitive Distortions and Thinking Errors Blackandwhite thinking 0 quotlfl score lt98100 its as good as an Fquot Overgeneralization 0 quotMarie dumped me I must be unlovable quotShouldquot statements 0 quotTo be a good son I must go home every weekendquot Magni cation o quotMichele mentioned another guy is funny she must be getting bored of mequot Minimization o quotI get good grades mainly because I m lucky Changing Thoughts Homework phase 1 0 Need to identify patterns in daily life 0 Clients describetrack relevant signi cant events using quotABCsquot of irrational thinking 0 A activating event 0 B beliefsthoughts o C consequence I Targets for intervention Example Ice 5 case A activating B beliefsthoughts C consequence him Joe s girlfriend of 3 years broke up with event I heard a loud noise Someone is in my Become nervous and at night house scared I m being robbed Joe is depressed I m unlovable Changing Thoughts Homework Phase 2 Once cognitive distortionsthinking errors identi ed l practice ways to 0 Question and challenge maladaptive assumptions 0 Generate more adaptive healthy responses Activating Event Automatic Disputations Rational Alternative Thoughts and challenges Response asked a question in class People Does Lots of people today and stuttered when I thought I was stuttering stutter doesn t spoke stupid stupid mean stupidity sounded Will people Many people likely awful even didn t notice or I should remember care andor will never talk next week forget by next class again in class what I said Changing Behavior Some major techniques NB Use of conditioning and reinforcement Exposure to feared objectcontext o Imaginal o In vivo 0 Virtual Token economies Pleasant activity scheduling Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Speci c Phobia example What are the behavioral elements 0 Why does the therapist encourage a fullblown panick attack 0 Why does the therapist Prevent her from escaping the elevator What are the cognitive elements Coping mechanisms caffeinated water to increase panic attack to become comfortable with her anxiety 0 What are the client s fears What preparation does she undergo before exposure What OTHER elements must be in place for client to be willing to go through with this Therapist preventing client s reactions to fear escaping would have reduced her anxiety stop her reinforcement


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