World History II: Exam 3 Study Guide
World History II: Exam 3 Study Guide HIST 1020 -012
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Holt on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Exam III Study Guide 1. DDay: June 6, 1944; the Normandy landings, when the Allies invaded Western Europe and the tides of the war (WWII) started to turn in their favor. 2. Eisenhower: U.S. General during WWII (particularly DDay). 3. Yalta: Identified as beginning of Cold War; Big 3 (Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill) met on the island of Yalta to discuss what they were going to do when the war ended. 4. Iron Curtain: Truman, in 1946, had Winston Churchill come to a small college in America and there, he gave the Iron Curtain speech, where he spoke about how the Soviet Union controlled all of Eastern Europe (which would last until 1989). East and West Europe were separated by an “Iron Curtain”. The effect was powerful. Turned the tide in support for Truman’s policies. 5. Marshall Plan: Truman had his secretary, George Marshal, announce the Marshal plan. The U.S. would give huge amounts of money (150 billion in today’s money) to 16 nations to help them recover from the war. Economic miracle; by 1951, all of the countries had almost fully recovered, only four years after the plan went into effect. 6. NATO: Alliance between America and most of Europe 7. Truman Doctrine: (1947) Doctrine created by Truman that was designed to make places less susceptible to communism. Started with Greece and Turkey. Gave a great deal of foreign aid. 8. Containment: Western attitude toward communism. Were not inclined to attack the Soviet Union directly to get rid of communism, but took every action to prevent the spread of communism by any means. 9. Berlin Airlift: People started flooding from East to West Germany by getting into West Berlin and, from there, escaping to West Germany. In retaliation, the soviets closed off Berlin, sealing it off from everything. In reaction, Britain and the U.S. organized the Berlin Airlift. For 10 ½ months, they flew in planes from the outside with food and other basic materials. Western allies saved Berlin. Showed Berlin that the western allies were on their side. Allied victory without open military conflict. 10. Korean War: In WWII, Korea was occupied by Japan. After the war, it was divided into zones of occupation. North Korea was controlled by the Soviet Union, while South Korea was controlled by America and her allies. Both halves wanted to be united again, but they hated each other and didn’t want the other to be the one that united them. For this reason, in 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea. Because North Korea was communist, America, along with other members of the United Nations, decided to get involved on the side of South Korea. Eventually, the war ended in a stalemate in 1951, when finally an armistice was signed and Korea was divided permanently. 11. Douglas MacArthur: Tried to use the Korean War to invade China; was eventually fired for disobeying orders. 12. Yalu River: Border between North Korea and China. 13. McCarthyism: A paranoia among the American people that there were communist spies inside the country who were working to destroy capitalism and the American way of life; began when McCarthy gave a speech where he said that he had a list of 205 names of communist subversives in the state department that the government knew about but had done nothing to stop. Led to investigations in which anyone whose political views were too leftwardleaning (liberal) were investigated, many of them losing their jobs and/or having their names dragged through the dirt. Included everyone from politicians to Hollywood directors. 14. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg: Americans executed as Soviet spies for turning over the secret to the atomic bomb. 15. Los Alamos: Where the first atomic bomb was created. 16. Sputnik: The first satellite sent into space (sent by the Soviet Union) 17. Yuri Gagarin: The first man in space. Soviet astronaut who orbited the earth on the first ever trip to space. 18. NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration; American space department. 19. Alan Shepard: First American to reach space 20. John Glenn: First American to orbit the earth 21. Bay of Pigs: Attempt to overthrow the communist Cuban government. 100 Cuban refugees in America were trained and sent to the Bay of Pigs. Failed pretty epically. 22. Cuban Missile Crisis: (October 1962) U.S. learned the Soviet Union was setting up missile sites in Cuba. Kennedy set up a naval blockade around Cuba to turn back Soviet ships. Eventually the soviets backed off, and nuclear war was averted. 23. Berlin Wall: Wall built between East Berlin and West Berlin to prevent Germans from fleeing East Germany through West Berlin. 24. Kennedy: Became president in 1961; averted the Cuban missile crisis, funded the space race 25. Khrushchev: Led the Soviet Union at the height of the Cold War. 26. Gandhi: leader of the nationalist movement in India. 27. Indian National congress: goal was to modernize India and to try to achieve a degree of selfrule in India. 28. Muhammad Ali Jinnah: leader of the Muslim League, a representation of the sizeable Muslim minority in India. 29. Dr. Sun Yatsen: regarded as one of the creators of modern China. Leader of the Chinese Nationalist movement 30. Chaing Kaishek: succeeded Sun Yatsen as the leader of the Chinese Nationalist movement. Extremely anticommunist. 31. Kuomindong (KMT): formed in response to the government of Yuan Shikai (expected to be democratic, but turned out to be very authoritarian). 32. Li Dazhao: taught Mao Zedong; preached the idea that communism could be based on peasantry, that they didn’t need their own middle class because they were fighting against the western Bourgeoisie 33. Mao Zedong: influenced by Li Dazhao; Communist leader of China 34. Long March: (1934) Communists had a power base in the Southeastern part of Chia, and knew they needed to spread if they were going to gain power. 100,000 communists set out across China, across rugged terrain towards the north, almost entirely on food, all the while fighting off the KMT in small skirmishes. Only 8,000 or so made it to the North, and they became the leadership of the communist movement in China. Validated the communist party and won them more supporters. 35. Great Leap Forward: economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China; attempt to modernize China’s economy 36. Cultural Revolution: Mao’s attempt to reassert his beliefs in China 37. Pragmatists: consider thought an instrument or tool for prediction, problem solving, and action, and that philosophical topics are best viewed in terms of their practical uses and successes. Emphasizes practical application of ideas. 38. Deng Xiaoping: Chinese communist leader from the late 1970s to his death in 1997 39. Tiananmen Square: site of a Chinese student revolt in 1989 at which Communists imposed martial law and arrested, injured, or killed hundreds of students. 40. Ho Chi Minh: Communist nationalist leader of Vietnam 41. Dienbienphu: major battle; said to be a turning point in world history. French are defeated by Minh and his followers. Inspirational for nationalistic countries. 42. Ngo Dinh Diem: controlled South Vietnam; gave staff positions to his friends and family members, meaning the catholic landowning minority was highly favored over the Buddhist majority. Refused the free elections that were meant to bring North and South Vietnam together because he was afraid of losing his power. Very unpopular. 43. Nguyen van Thieu: Replaced Diem after his assassination in 1963 44. Gulf of Tonkin: 16,000 Americans were stationed in South Vietnam as advisors by John F. Kennedy. After Kennedy was assassinated, he was succeeded by vice president Lyndon B. Johnson. There were rumors of (missed exactly what she said, bad things by the North Vietnamese or National Liberation Front/Viet Cong); Johnson used this as an excuse to go to Congress and request to expand American presence in Vietnam. His request was granted. 45. Tet Offensive: series of fierce attacks by North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces. Eroded support for the war effort in America. Fomented rebellion among the South Vietnamese population 46. Kent State: Most famous of the colleges where students and teacher alike staged protests against the Vietnam War. Were particularly angered by the draft, as many of the students faced the possibility of being drafted against their will. 47. Douglas MacArthur: Head of the occupation of Japan after WWII. 48. Emperor Hirohito: Emperor of Japan during WWII. During the postwar era, he is stripped of power and left as a symbolic figurehead. 49. Japanese Miracle: The miraculous economic recover of Japan after WWII, influenced by government policies, education reforms, foreign policies, labor policies, and technology. 50. Hyundai: South Korean company; huge influence on economic growth. Builds cars, ships, and a variety of civil engineering projects in South Korea. Geography: 1. Japan 2. Philippines 3. Australia 4. Tokyo 5. Hiroshima 6. Nagasaki 7. Beijing 8. North Korea 9. South Korea 10. North Vietnam 11. South Vietnam 12. Cambodia 13. Thailand 14. Pakistan 15. India 16. Afghanistan 17. Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 18. Bombay 19. Calcutta 20. Islamabad 21. Karachi 22. Madras 23. New Delhi Japan and the Pacific Rim I. Japan A. Economic Development in the early 20 century: Goes all the way back to the Meiji th Restoration at the end of the 19 century, when a group of samurai overthrew the government and modernized Japan, particularly the economy. Did this by dispatching embassies to the West to find which methods worked best so those methods could be used in Japan. Result was rapid economic development. By the 1920s, Japan had more electrical power than any other nation in the world. They had gone from way behind to actually being ahead economically. B. Rise of Military: became prominent in the 1920s and 30s. Officers were groomed from childhood, so they were very different than the rest of their society. By the 1920s they had begun to view themselves as special and as the guardians of Japan. Military became so prominent in government circles, they began to encourage military expansion, particularly in the Great Depression, as a method of economic recovery. Eventually pulled off a coup, murdering the Prime Minister so that the higher level officers were in charge. Encouraged Japanese expansion in the Pacific. By 1938 they had expanded into Korea, Manchuria, and other parts of China. Leads to Japan’s involvement in WWII. C. Postwar economy: In 1945, there is a huge amount of destruction in Japan, even ignoring the damage done by the atomic bombs. Further, without the war to fuel it, the economy began failing as well. D. Occupation: Americans occupied Japan 19451951. Occupation was headed by General Douglas MacArthur. Had 2 goals; demilitarization and democratization. Demilitarization was straightforward; Japan was stripped of its military. U.S. assumed the role of defending Japan, which continues to some degree to present day. Democratization was not quite so easy. A new constitution was written that attempted democratization by giving women the right to vote and stripping the emperor of power (making his role in government entirely symbolic), giving that power over to a Parliament and cabinet of ministers (including a prime minister). Education was reformed to create a more democratic way of thinking. Japanese people embraced their new constitution wholeheartedly. II. Japan’s Economic Recovery and Miracle A. Government Policy: Favorable for business, made economic development a priority. Not laissezfaire, but still very capitalistic. B. Education: Japan embraced their new education system, leading to a better educated population and, as a result, a better economy. Particular emphasis on science, math, and engineering. C. Foreign Policies: Military defense was paid for by America, meaning that money was freed up to go into industry, technology, etc. D. Labor Policies: Very different from American systems. CEOs don’t make the enormous salaries American CEOs make, meaning that money goes back into the company. Also brings management and laborers closer together because it’s easier for them to relate to each other. Typically laborers make less money in Japan than they would in America, but more of their needs are taken care of by the corporation they work for. Often laborers work for the same company their entire careers, unlike in America where it’s common to be laid off at any moment. E. Savings: When people save money, economies grow. It’s best to have a balance between consumption and savings. F. Role of Technology: Because of the changes in education, Japan put an emphasis on the development of technology. As early as the 1960s people started to associate technology with Japan. By the 1970s, Americans were importing cars and electronics from Japan because Japanesemade things were more efficient, reliable, and wellmade. III. Other Pacific Rim States A. South Korea: Experienced their own dramatic economic miracle, though it was delayed by the Korean War. In the 60’s it really kickstarts. Hyundai was a big part of it; founded by Chung Ju Yung, Hyundai is known in America for cars, but in South Korea also have a big part in shipbuilding and engineering projects. Economic superpower.
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