Study guide for exam 2
Study guide for exam 2 PSY 332 001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vben21L on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 332 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Moyers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Review Sheet for Exam 2 Spring 2016 Sexual Disorders and Gender Identity What is a false memory? What causes a false memory? False memory is “Memories” of events that did not actually happen, often produced by highly leading and suggestive techniques. (pg. 615) A false memory is something that has been repressed and traumatic experiences can be utterly forgotten and then somehow recovered intact years later. Some have argued that repressed memories are common and are responsible for a great deal of psychopathology. (pg. 422) How does the research of Elizabeth Loftus help us to understand the notion of false memories? Researchers have pointed out it is absolutely no evidence that this statement is true. Some therapists still routinely give this book Courage to heal to their clients and those often do report “recovering” such memories. Those skeptical about recovery or repressed memories point out that even normal, unrepressed memories can be highly inaccurate and that false memories can be induced experimentally. (Pg.422) What does it mean to say that something is iatrogenic? How does this related to our class discussion of repressed memories? Iatrogenic comes from the Greek language “latros” means doctor or healer. “Gennan” means “as a result”. (By Trisha Torrey, Patient Empowerment Expert, Updated November 25 , 2014 patients.about.com) Repressed memories can come when it is least expected. It can also come while doing sessions and may take time. People who recover from these memories can be considered at high risk or the memories cannot be valid if it becomes at an unexpected time. What is gender re-assignment surgery? Does GRS result in better psychological adjustment for recipients? What concerns do you have about conclusions from these studies? Gender re-assignment surgery is when you want to become the opposite sex of your gender for example; female to male or male to female. GRS does not provide psychological adjustment for recipients. GRS provides less stress for the recipients. There is a high suicide rate among the recipients who do the GRS. Female to male seem more satisfied with their surgery. There is a 75% rate who feel improved once the surgery is done. What is paraphilia? What are the types? A paraphilia is a persistent sexual behavior patterns in which unusual sexual objects, rituals, or situations are required for full sexual satisfaction. (pg.621) People with paraphilias have recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors that generally involve (1) Non-human objects, (2) The suffering or humiliation of oneself or one’s partner, or (3) Children or other nonconsenting persons. (pg.409) The types of are: Fetishism: the individual has recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, and behaviors involving the use of some inanimate object or part of the body not typically found erotic (e.g. feet) to obtain sexual gratification. (pg. 409) Transvetic fetishim: Is a heterosexual men who experience recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors that involve cross-dressing as a female. (pg. 411) Voyeurism: Is a recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges or behaviors involving the observation of unsuspecting females who are undressing or of couples engaging in sexual activity. Voyeurism often co-occurs with exhibitionism, and it is also associated with interest in sadomasochism and cross dressing and is probably the most common illegal sexual activity. (pg. 412) Exhibionism: (indecent exposure in legal terms) is diagnosed in a person with recurrent, intense urges, fantasies, or behaviors that involve exposing genitals to others (usually strangers) in inappropriate circumstances and without their consent. (pg.412-413) Sadism: Is derived from the name of Marquis de Sade (1740-1814), who for sexual purposes, inflicted such cruelty on his victims that he was eventually committed as insane. A person must have recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors that involve inflicting psychological or physical pain on another individual. Sadistic fantasies often include themes of dominance, control and humiliation. (pg.413) Masochism: It is derived from the name of the Austrian novelist Leopold V. Sacher-Masoch (1836-1895), whose fictional characters dwelt lovingly on the sexual pleasure of pain. In sexual masochism, a person experiences sexual stimulation and gratification from the experience of pain and degradation in relating to a lover. In the DSM-5 the person must have experienced recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving the act of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer. (Pg. 414-415) Describe the symptoms of exhibitionism and masochism. How are these disorders similar and different from each other. A. The symptoms of exhibitionism is over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent intense sexual arousal from the exposure of one’s genitals to an unsuspecting person, as manifested by fantasies, urges or behaviors. B. The individual has acted on these sexual urges with nonconsenting person, or the sexual urges and fantasies cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. A. The symptoms of masochism is over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent and intense sexual arousal from the act of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer, as manifested by fantasies, urges or behaviors. B. The individual has acted on these sexual urges with nonconsenting person, or the sexual urges or fantasies cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (pg.410) They are both the same because they cause distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. They are different because exhibitionism shows their genitals to a unsuspected person and masochism they get sexual arousal by the act of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or other ways made to suffer. (pg.410) Can a person be diagnosed with a paraphilia even though they themselves do not experience distress because of it? Why or why not? Yes a person can be diagnosed with paraphilia even though they themselves do no experience distress because pedophilia are widely considered pathological even if the paraphilic individual does not experience distress. For example, consider a pedophile who has molested children but does not feel guilty. Most people believe that such a man has a mental disorder. In the past, pedophilia has been diagnosed even in the absence of distress; so have frotteurism and exhibitionism, both of which typically involve nonconsenting individuals in sexual acts. Know the differences between transsexual, transvestite, transgendered What kinds of treatments do we have for sex offenders? How successful are they? The treatments for sex offenders are to correct their desires to have sex. You can minimize their desire by adjusting their sex drive. You can castrate or use chemical castration using an anti-androgenizing drug. The treatments that sex offenders get show low rates of progress. What is the most common type of sexual dysfunction for men? Women? The most common sexual dysfunction for men is climaxing too early. The most common sexual dysfunction is lack of sexual desire. What is gender dysphoria in children? Gender dysphoria has replaced gender identity disorder. Gender dysphoria is discomfort with one’s sex-relevant physical characteristics or with one’s assigned gender. Gender dysphoria in children is when boys with gender dysphoria show a marked preoccupation with traditionally feminine activities. They may prefer to dress in female clothing. They enjoy stereotypical girls’ activities such as playing with dolls and playing house. They usually avoid rough-and-tumble play and often express the desire to be a girl. Boys with gender dysphoria are often ostracized as “sissies” by their peers. Girls with gender dysphoria typically balk at parents’ attempts to dress them in traditional feminine clothes such as dresses, preferring boys’ clothing and short hair. Fantasy heroes typically include powerful male figures like Batman and Superman. They show little interest in dolls and increased interest in sports. (pgs. 416-417) Somatic and Dissociative Disorders What is illness anxiety disorder? How is it different from somatic symptom disorder? Anxiety disorder: A personality trait involving high level of belief that certain bodily symptoms may have harmful consequences. Also the patient is hypervigilant. (pg.609) Somatic symptom disorder: Is a disorder in which the patient has physical symptoms and their life unable to live a normal life because of it. Somatic disorder the patients are always at the doctor because they feel that they are always sick and anxiety disorder is usually a short term but it does return even though they have physical symptoms and are worried they either have or will get a disease. Are men or women more likely to be diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder? What are the risk factors for this disorder? Females are more likely diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder. The risk factors of this disorder are you have more than one identity. There is an inability to recall important personal information that cannot be explained by ordinary forgetting. Each identity may appear to have a different person history, self-image, and name, although there are some identities that are only partially distinct and independent from other identities. What concerns did your instructor voice concerning dissociative identity disorder (DID)? What are the theories about the etiology of DID? The theories about the etiology of DID is suggested by therapists or by the media. The research on the effectiveness of psychological treatment of DID is limited to observations of few specialized therapists. The treatment of DID generally focuses on encouraging recall of the underlying trauma. The post-traumatic model of DID assumes that DID begins in childhood as a result of severe abuse. Mood Disorders and their Treatment How is behavior explained from a behavioral perspective? How is that different from a cognitive explanation? Behavioral perspective: A theoretical viewpoint organized around the theme that learning is central in determining human behavior. (pg. 610) Describe one example of a treatment from 1) the behavioral perspective and 2) the cognitive perspective How is bipolar disorder different from depression? What is mania? What are the main symptoms? Bipolar disorder: The person experiences both manic and depressive episodes. Depression: usually involves feelings of extraordinary sadness and dejection. Mania: Often characterized by intense unrealistic feelings of excitement and euphoria. The main symptoms are manic and depressive mood states are often conceived to be at opposite ends of the mood continuum, with normal mood in the middle. Although this concept is accurate to a degree, sometimes an individual may have symptoms of mania and depression during the same time period. In these mixed-episode-cases, the person experiences rapidly alternating moods such as sadness, euphoria, and irritability, all within the same episode. (pg.212) What is learned helplessness? How is it related to depression in human beings? Are their problems applying findings in animal models to human beings? Learned helplessness: A theory that animals and people exposed to uncontrollable aversive events learn that they have no control over these events and this causes them to behave in a passive and helpless manner when later exposed to potentially controllable events. Later extended to become a theory of depression. (pg. 618) A person with major depressive disorder must experience either markedly depressed moods or marked loss of interest in pleasurable activities most of every day, nearly every day, for at least two consecutive weeks. (pg. 218) Animals as well as humans shows depressive symptoms such as; loss of appetite and weight, and changes in monoamine transmitter. After demonstrating that learned helplessness also occurs in humans. (pg. 232) What are the advantages and disadvantages of ECT for depression? Electroconvulsive therapy: Use of electricity to produce convulsions and unconsciousness; usually unconscious and reality distorting. Also called defense mechanism. (pg. 614) The treatments, which induce seizures, are delivered under general anesthesia and with muscle relaxants. The most common immediate side effect is confusion, although there are is some evidence for lasting adverse effects on cognition, such as amnesia and slowed response time. The majority of severely depressed patients can be vastly better in 2 to 4 weeks. (pg. 249) What are second generation antidepressant drugs? What are their side effects? Give an example of the Grain of Truth Technique described by your instructor for coping with toxic thoughts Is lithium an effective treatment for bipolar disorder? What are the odds a person will improve if they take lithium for bipolar disorder? What is the difference between dysthymia and major depression? Describe the difference in the symptoms and course of these two disorders. What are the major findings of the Caspi study discussed in class? Does this study show that depression is caused by genes? Is it caused by childhood trauma? Why or why not? What is learned helplessness? How does it related to human depression? Eating Disorders What type of thinking differentiates eating disorders from a normal desire to be fit? Eating disorders are characterized by a persistent disturbance in eating behavior. However, disordered eating is not their only striking feature. At the heart of both disorders is an intense fear of becoming overweight and fat and an accompanying pursuit of thinness. This pursuit is relentless and sometimes deadly. (pg. 294) What is Body Mass Index? Is it an accurate way to describe a person’s tendency toward obesity? Body mass index (BMI): An estimation of total body fat calculated as body weight in kilograms divided by height (in meters) squared. (pg.610) Having a BMI above 40 or being more than 100 pounds overweight is called morbid obesity. This is the point at which excess weight begins to interfere with basic activities such as walking and creates many health problems. Poverty plays a big part because of the quality of life and the diet as well as how much exercise you do plays a big part in becoming obese. (pg.316) How are men and women different in their view of their ideal and actual weight? Women are more interested in what they look like then men. Men have a better perspective of what their actual weight should be compared to the way women look at weight. What is morbid obesity? How is it defined? What are the complications of morbid obesity?\ Morbid: Unhealthy, pathological. (pg. 620) Morbid obesity: Having a BMI above 40 or being more than 100 pounds overweight is called morbid obesity. This is the point at which begins to interfere with basic activities such as walking and creates many health problems. (pg. 316) Is bariatric surgery a success for most people? Are complications likely? The success rate for bariatric surgery is at about 15%. Yes there are complications with this surgery the rate is 15-20% of serious complications happens with this surgery. Describe the eating characteristics of anorexic and bolemic patients. Which are more likely to recover completely? The term anorexia nervosa literally mean “lack of appetite induced by nervousness.” This definition is something of a misnomer, however, as a lack of appetite is neither the core difficulty nor necessarily true. At the heart of anorexia nervosa is an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, combined with behaviors that result in a significantly low body weight. (pg. 295) Bulimia nervosa is characterized by uncontrollable binge eating and efforts to prevent resulting weight gain by inappropriate behaviors such as self-induced vomiting and excessive exercise. The word bulimia comes from the Greek bous (which means “ox”), and limos (“hunger”). It is meant to denote a hunger of such proportions that the person “could eat an ox”. (pg. 297) There is a greater rate for mortality rate associated with anorexia nervosa than with bulimia nervosa. (pg. 298) Substance Use and Misuse Describe the withdrawal syndromes for alcohol and methamphetamine. What makes alcohol withdrawal more dangerous than withdrawal from stimulants? What is the advantage of using benzodiazepines in the detoxification of alcohol dependent individuals? What are the characteristics of the “alcoholic” personality? Is denial one of them? The terms alcoholic and alcoholism have been subject to some controversy and have been used differently by various groups in the past. The World Health Organization no longer recommends the term alcoholism but prefers the term alcohol dependence syndrome-“a state, psychic and usually also physical, resulting from taking alcohol, characterized by behavioral or others responses that always include compulsion to take alcohol on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its psychic effects, and sometimes to avoid the discomfort of its absence; tolerance may or may not be present”. (pg.369) Yes denial is one of the alcoholic traits. What are the major risk factors for adolescent substance use? The major risk factors for adolescent substance use is behavior patterns vary markedly depending on the type, amount, and duration of drug use; on the physiological and psychological makeup of the individual; and, in some instances, on the social setting in which the drug experience occurs. (pg.387) What are the three elements of the public health model when describing substance misuse? Name one intervention for each of the elements. What causes Wernicke’s Korsakoff disease? What is fetal alcohol syndrome? What is the best way to prevent it? Fetal alcohol syndrome is heavy drinking by expectant mothers can affect the health of unborn babies, particularly binge drinking and heavy drinking during the early days of pregnancy. (pg.373) The best way to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome is the surgeon general and many medical experts have concurred that pregnant women should abstain from using alcohol as the “safest course” until the safest amount of alcohol consumption can be determined. (Pg. 373)
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