HDFS Exam 3 Study Guide
HDFS Exam 3 Study Guide HDFS 1070
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Tabacchini on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 1070 at University of Connecticut taught by Ronald Sabatelli in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Development in Human Development at University of Connecticut.
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HDFS 1070 Exam 3 Study Guide, Page 1 HDFS 1070 Exam 3 Study Guide What is the psychosocial crisis of early adolescence and the central process of it? o The psychosocial crisis of early adolescence is group identities vs alienation. o The central process of early adolescence is peer pressure. What is the psychosocial crisis of later adolescence and the central process of it? o The psychosocial crisis of later adolescence is identity vs identity confusion. o The central process of later adolescence is role experimentation. What is adolescence defined as? o It is defined as the transitional stage after childhood and before adulthood. Why are there 2 stages of adolescence instead of 1? And what are the ages for these stages? o There are 2 stages of adolescence instead of 1 because adolescence now takes longer for people. o Early Adolescence (1318 years) o Late Adolescence (1925 & rising) Why does the adolescence stage now take longer than ever before? o Because requirements for adulthood are more complex. Have to have more job skills, be more mature, have to make more money, live independently. Inflation and economic downward mobility are the major factors that contribute to this elongation. What is the identity triangle, and what are the three components of it? o The identity triangle is a continuous tension throughout adolescent years, which is composed of life style, occupation, and ideology. What is cognitive egocentrism? o It is when an individual becomes more capable of understanding other people’s points of view and become more capable of understanding the norms for conformity. What are the attitudinal manifestations of degrees of alienation? o Normlessness, meaninglessness, powerlessness, social isolation, and purposelessness. When does alienation become a problem? o If an individual has no group that they fit into. Those who are completely alienated from the peer world, their families and their teachers feel a profound sense of normlessness, meaninglessness, powerlessness, and isolation. What are the different types of reactive systems? o Family, school systems/teachers, peers, community/neighbors. What can happen if a child is alienated to the extent of fitting into no groups? o Can become more reactive and are more likely to go down the deconstructive path and become antisocial, not follow morality and ethics, and are more likely to form a collective distain to others. This could all lead to maladaptive and deconstructive ways. What are the different types of modes of adaption to alienation and what defines them? HDFS 1070 Exam 3 Study Guide, Page 2 o Rebellion: attempt to change the systems in an effort to find a better fit between them and those they are alienated from. o Self Estrangement: when they accept the alienation as a defining feature of themselves and become okay with being an outcast. There is no anger towards others. o Conformity: when they change themselves to better fit with the broader system. Those pressures overwhelm their own values and they could experience helplessness because they can’t be themselves. Can lead to depression. o Retreat: when they abandon any hope of connection to the broader system they just retreat. Feel there is no point in anything. They retreat into a world of relationships that all share a disregard for the values and attitudes of the broader system. These people engage in one or two predominant destructive ways of retreating: Selfdestructive retreats: derive one’s identity form committing behaviors and beliefs that other find objectionable but are quite harmful to themselves. Identified as a problem and have difficulties with authority. Otherdestructive retreats: become angry and commit to the destruction of other systems. Feel it is okay to harm others, disregard laws and moral codes of conduct and act out in anger towards others that they are alienated from. What is added to the identity triangle in later adolescence that is not predominant in the identity triangle of early adolescence? o Occupation What is identity confusion? o When one has the absence of a mature identity in their 20s, which results in confusion about who they are. What are manifestations of identity confusion? o Anxious identity: don’t commit to any working models. Cant settle on values, lifestyle, and a career. Seekers without a path. Perpetually in an adolescence stage of life. o Identity Foreclosure: prematurely shut down working on their identity and make decisions prematurely about their identity in an effort to protect themselves from ongoing anxiety. Have huge regrets when older because their identity choices don’t bring joy. Feel very stifled. What is a psychosocial moratorium? o Providing youth with a period of time where they are free to experiment without excessive pressures and anxieties to make decisions. A period of time to play and experiment. Ex. College What must later adolescence establish in order to develop identity? o Individuation What are the family tasks for families with adolescents? o Reworking boundaries: this is the primary task for the family. Parents have to exert less involvement with the adolescent’s life and provide greater autonomy and dependence. HDFS 1070 Exam 3 Study Guide, Page 3 o Renegotiating patterns of authority: this is the subtask for the family. They have to trust that their child will make their own decisions. Make suggestions instead of telling them what do to and trust that they will take control over their own life. What is the job of later adolescents? o To push for autonomy What is the power legitimacy continuum? o The extent to which a child feels their parents’ authority is legitimate. If a child feels oppressed by their parents, they will not view the parents as legitimate. o If a child views their parents as legitimate authority, this leads to the experience of intimacy. What is the key to intimacy between a parent and a child? o All around authority and autonomy dynamic. It is based around kids experiencing the parents’ control over them as being legitimate. What is the primary emotion behind all problem behavior of youth? o Anxiety What is the relationship between anxiety and reactivity? o When face with emotionevoking situations (ones that create anxiety), the tendency is for individuals to react in ways that subvert their own development. It is the reactivity to the anxiety that leads to problems! What are the different types of family dynamics that generate excessive anxiety and emotion within youth? o Expelling dynamics: when it is being communicated to an individual that they don’t matter. Can result in joining a gang to feel a sense of belonging to a family. o Binding dynamics: when family is overinvolved in an individual’s life, overly intrusive, and overly present. It is communicated to them that they are not competent enough to manage things on their own and that they need help and support because they are an underfunctioner. Develop an identity of not being competent. o Delegating dynamics: parents’ inappropriate behavior towards their child reflects the anxiety they feel themselves on mattering and competency. Bind up with the child and promote their kid’s excellence and live vicariously thought that excellence. Pushing and requiring excellence from that child creates a developmental bind in which the child feels trapped and depressed. Can also lead to narcissism in the child. What is pseudoindividuation? o Rebelling against parents by abusing drugs or alcohol. In rebelling against them, will result in him or her becoming more dependent on them in the long run. This is a false appearance of individuation because instead of becoming autonomous, they become more dependent on their parents than ever before. What is maturity defined as having? o Stabilizing of identity: done with experimentation and now acting with a purpose. Know what his or her career goals are, their values, and lifestyle (the identity triangle). HDFS 1070 Exam 3 Study Guide, Page 4 o Freeing from personal relationships: less responsive to people’s approval and disapproval of him or her. Not dependent on others for their approval and disapproval and will not run life in pursuit of approval and the avoidance of disapproval. o Deepening of interests: sharpen focus on things that really interest him or her. Pursue things that interest him or her. Balance life with things that bring joy (such as hobbies). The intention sets the foundation for them to put interest in their activities. o Expansion of caring: resolution of the anxiety around an unformed identity allows for empathy, sensitivity, and kindness towards others. Becomes more possible to care about others. What is the stagespecific anxiety of early adulthood? o Forming a life long partnership with someone What is the psychosocial crisis of early adulthood? o Intimacy vs isolation What are the manifestations of isolation? o Fusion: dependent on someone to reduce anxiety and meet needs (a co dependence) o Chronic loneliness: feel lonely all the time, even if in an intimate relationship with someone. Feeling anxious all the time and feeling like your needs will never be met. What are the relationships among our developmental legacy and sources of anxiety and the ability to express and experience intimacy? o If we have experienced a lot of developmental sources of anxiety from infancy and on, that anxiety overruns our intimate relationships and creates a fused dependent intimacy rather than a joyful one. What is interpersonal attraction? o It is a social exchange metaphor in which an individual is attracted to people who provide a higher balance of rewards than costs. There are specific conscious and unconscious attributes of people that we are uniquely rewarded by and vice versa. What are comparison levels, aka CL’s? o A subjective set of expectations derived from our personal lived experiences that factor into what we expect from relationships and people: what we deserve, what we think is important, what we think should be expected. o The more anxious a person is, the the more they settle for someone who has outweighed rewards with costs. A person who is not anxious, on the other hand, will not settle for someone who doesn’t meet their comparison level. What are comparison levels for alternatives, aka CLalt’s? o How you feel subjectively and what you believe are the rewards available to you in alternatives. Attraction to a person is base on whether or not you feel there are better alternatives. o The more anxious a person is the fewer alternatives they believe they have. Ex. Someone stays in a toxic relationship because that person believes there are no other alternatives. HDFS 1070 Exam 3 Study Guide, Page 5 What factors influence comparison levels? o Cultural orientations, family of origin experiences (attachment history developmental sources of anxiety), lived experiences and observations. How are an anxious person’s expectations different than a person who is not anxious? o If a person is anxious, they have different sets of expectations different expectations of alternatives than someone who is not anxious. For example, a person who is anxious will settle for someone just because they are giving them attention. What is the basis for commitment? o High levels of attraction and perception of reciprocity. What are secret tests and how can they strain a relationship? o When a partner asks certain questions to see if the other gives them the answer they expect. The more anxious a person is, the more testing they do. The more testing that they do, the more the other is driven away. This can create conflict. What is the basis of trust? o High levels of attraction, commitment, perception of reciprocity, and equity and fairness. How is love experienced? What kind of emotion is it? o Love is experienced in the presence of attraction, arousal, commitment, reciprocity, emerging trust and is a secondary emotion. o Love is either experienced as joy or anxiety. There is a tension between joy and anxiety. How is it that functional family environments help form joyful relationships? o Functional family environments leave people open to experiencing more joy in relationships. The more anxious people are developmentally, the more dependent they are on other people to meet their needs they say they love their partner because they are dependent on them to reduce their anxiety! How does joy based love differ from anxiety based love? o Joy based love: Passion Joy Commitment o Anxiety based love: Passion Fears Commitment What is a lifetime partnership? o A lifetime partnership is defined as partnering with someone where the expectation of the relationship will be permanent, sexually exclusive, and enduring. What are the differences between sliding and deciding? o Deciding: a conscious, deliberate, intentional decision that people make to live the rest of their lives together. It is the conventional pathway into a lifetime partnership. o Sliding: has a lot less intentionality than deciding. These people enter a lifetime partnership only because it is convenient, expedient, and makes sense given what the alternatives are. Have higher divorce and dissolution rates than deciding. HDFS 1070 Exam 3 Study Guide, Page 6 This is a new phenomenon which ahs to do with our heightened economic standards. How can ordinary difficulties become a problem? How can this be o Ordinary difficulties can become a problem when they are ignored and/or overreacted to. What are the different kinds of identity tasks? o Conjugal themes and conjugal roles. What are conjugal themes? o Conjugal themes (aka lifetime relationship/marital themes) is the merging of themes between partners that have to be negotiated. These themes are determined by resources such as time, money, energy, and hobbies/interests. Ex. Have a relationship organized around the importance of music. What are conjugal roles? And what are the expectations that come along with them? o A conjugal role is how one should act as a partner in a partnered lifetime relationship. There are expectations that are associated with a conjugal role. Each partner has a set of expectations about what they should do, are expected to do, and are required to do. This is a negotiation process because you are simultaneously establishing expectations for yourself while the expectations you have for yourself are simultaneously imposing the expectations on your partner. This creates opportunities for conflict these codependent identities are likely to mismatch. The absence of negotiation can create conflict and problems. What are conjugal identities? o Conjugal identities are the identities that partners assign to one another. These can be critical images. Ex. “The one who isn’t responsible.” o Critical image identities can cerate tension between them if they aren’t necessarily true. This needs to be negotiated. What are the external boundary tasks of couples? o The external boundary tasks include: family vs partner and friends vs partner. Have to put the partner before family and friends. What are the internal boundary tasks of couples? o The internal boundary tasks include: balancing separateness vs connectedness, maintenance tasks, and nurturance tasks. How do primary loyalties and triangulation relate to one another? o Primary loyalty should be to one’s partner, to their family of origin. If their primary loyalty is to one of their parents rather than their partner, this can create problems in their relationship. A person needs to establish individuation from their family before they can change their primary loyalty to their lifetime partner. o If a person fails to individuate from their family of origin, this can lead to loyalty triangulation because they are compromised by their sense of obligation to their family of origin. Loyalty triangulation leads to intergenerational conflict and marital conflict. HDFS 1070 Exam 3 Study Guide, Page 7 Intimacy, rather than conflict, can be established if both partners are individuated from their families and not oppressed form their parents’ power and authority. What is separateness vs connectedness? o Lifetime partnerships need to establish and create a balance of separateness and connectedness. They need to figure out how much time they will spend together, apart, and how much time they will have to do things alone. o Wanting time alone can create tension ordinary conflict and difficulty. When this is ignored, it can become a problem. What are housework roles? o When you live with someone there has to be plans for how the household manages tasks, cleaning, etc. Women are always comprising their expectations because men hold out that they don’t have to share the tasks, only help out when they feel like it. This creates a counterrole. What is the relationship between communication and intimacy? o Communication patterns must be developed in order for the development of intimacy. Proper communication between couples creates a positive emotional climate that promotes intimacy. Why is the management of conflict so important? o Because you become mindful of your conflicts and negotiate them. Which partner controls the frequency of sex? o The partner who is least interested in having sex controls the frequency. This often has to be negotiated between partners. How do men and women differ in terms of relationship satisfaction? o Men: sexual satisfaction leads to relationship satisfaction. o Women: relationship satisfaction leads to sexual satisfaction. From a lifespan perspective, what factors are greatly associated with life satisfaction? o The quality of your family, the quality of your personal relationships, and your intimate relationships. o Life satisfaction is not depicted by your career and how much money you have. What is the general definition of communication? o Communication is the exchange of information in the form of messages (content level and behavioral level). Does communication lead to intimacy? o Yes. Every interaction that we have with our partner contains information that contributes to the emotional climate. Does intimacy inform the communication process? o Yes. How we communicate with someone is depicted by with how we feel about them. Our feelings about our partners and the feelings about our life over into these transactional patterns of the communication process. Is ignoring someone considered to be communication? o Yes. All behavior is communication. All communication provides information simultaneously about the self, others, and the relationship. When you HDFS 1070 Exam 3 Study Guide, Page 8 communicate with someone, you are sending information about how you see yourself, them, and how you define your relationship. What is a message defined as? o A message is the content that we use when we speak with someone. What is a metamessage? o A metamessage is information conveyed through how you talk to someone. Behavioral information leaks the true message more so than verbal. What are the different types of metamessages? o Qualifying: whether the person really means what they are saying and whether the person really wants what they are saying. o Identity: information sent to people about whether they are valued, respected, a source of joy, are competent, etc. This is ongoing. o Relationship: how someone talks to another, which is primary way in which they are communicated to about how they are seen and how the other person sees their relationship What is framing? o Framing is how a person interprets the metalevel information that they’re receiving; their interpretation of the other person’s communication toward them. What are factors that influence framing? o Selfesteem, views of self, history of relationships, and family of origin relationships. What can be done to reverse miscommunication from framing? o Redundancy can be introduced into communication so the other person is made sure that they understand exactly what they mean. This can overwhelm the framing. What are the different kinds of feedback? o Confirmation: I value you, I respect you, and you matter. o Rejection: You did something that bothers me. There is something about you that’s annoying me still. I still acknowledge that you are an important person in my life, though. o Disconfirmation: You don’t exist. Ex. Giving someone the silent treatment. What kind of communication is used a huge percentage of the time to provide feedback? o Transactional. What are self disclosures? o Self disclosures are patterns of communication in which a partner reveals private information about themselves. Self disclosures are metamessages that convey to the person receiving them that they are valued and trusted. What is the rule of reciprocity? o In intimate relationships, in order to heighten intimacy, partners must match each other’s disclosures. This means that if one of them tells the other something revealing, that partner should reveal something as well. If this doesn’t occur, it could create a possible dilemma because there could be a barrier to intimacy. How are women and men different in terms of self disclosures? HDFS 1070 Exam 3 Study Guide, Page 9 o Women are more comfortable than men are. Men become anxious about self disclosures because they are seen as a feminine behavior. A woman may misinterpret a man’s lack of reciprocity as him not being as committed and as invested in their relationship. What is a bid? o Bids are primary messages which are constant, numerous, microlevel exchanges that are found in every day exchanges. These make or break relationships because they establish a certain kind of emotional climate. What are examples of different transaction managements? o Responding to bids: Ex. Turning towards partner (should do this most of the time) Ex. Turning away from partner Ex. Turning against What is situational adaptability? o Situational adaptability is a subset of transactional management. It is when and where people decide to have private and person conversations/arguments. o Talking about private things in inappropriate places, such as in public, operates against intimacy because it complicates the dynamic. Does the presence of conflict mean there is an absence of satisfaction? o No. Conflict is inevitable and leads to better understanding the reduction of conflict, which promotes intimacy. What are the different sources of conflict? o Misunderstandings: comes from a disconnect between what one person intended to say on a metalevel/transactional level and how that message was framed by the person who received the message. These occur all the time and have to be repaired before it snowballs out of control. A lot of misunderstanding are really about connection and control. Can also be between gender conversational styles. o Role conflict/Identity Disruption: every day conflict that occurs that is about how various role tasks should be done and who should do them. When there is a lot of emotion invested in fighting about who or how a task should be done it is seen as an identity disruption. Tension around separateness vs connectedness: when and how much time partners spend together and apart. Equity/Fairness complaints: each partner has a tolerance level for injustice and things not being fair. When that tolerance level exceeds, conflict can occur. What is metacommunication? o Metacommunication is communication about communication. How can the different ways in which men and women converse lead to misunderstanding? o Masculine individuals think that the way to respond to a bid is about problem solving, giving solutions, giving suggestions, and being masterful. This leaves the HDFS 1070 Exam 3 Study Guide, Page 10 masculine individual feeling misunderstood because feminine individuals expect to talk about feelings and emotion.
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