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Quiz 9 Study Guide

by: Kate Notetaker

Quiz 9 Study Guide GEOL1005

Kate Notetaker

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Textbook notes for Quiz 9 on the Chesapeake Bay.
Historical Geology
Catherine A. Forster
Study Guide
Geology, Historical Geology
50 ?




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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL1005 at George Washington University taught by Catherine A. Forster in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Historical Geology in Geology at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 04/04/16
Quiz 9: Chesapeake Bay April 7, 2016 Pages 473-475  Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the world o Estuary  broad valley drowned by the ocean o The bay is not the drowned mouth of a single river  Several rivers converge at the bay to empty their waters into Atlantic Ocean o First 300 meters or so  ordinary sands and muds  Then pulled up about 60 meters of drill core containing rubbly deposits  Breccias containing angular clasts of many sizes and compositions  laid down about 36 million years ago o Rubbly deposits occupied a subsurface circular depression  Complex concentric configuration with a peak in the center  Similar to that of some meteorite craters on the moon  Found that the Chesapeake depression is a crater formed by the impact of an asteroid o Rebound after an impact typically produces a central peak  Abundant shocked mineral grains found in the rubble  like those at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary  Smaller, more triangular crater near the head of Toms Canyon (submarine canyon about 150 km east of Atlantic City) o Elongate shape  Cluster of small asteroids formed it o Dating of associated deposits  crater is same age as the Chesapeake crater  Asteroids that formed the Chesapeake Bay and Toms Canyon were fragments of a larger asteroid  broke apart in Earth’s atmosphere  Sea level was higher in Late Eocene than today o Toms Canyon impact must have occurred in water  500 and 700 meters deep o Resulted in a tsunami  As it spread westward and touched bottom in shallower water  crested at a height of tens or even hundreds of meters o Tsunami deposited a layer of sediment  New Jersey to North Carolina  Above this layer is a thin layer of sediment containing abundant microspherules where these grains once existed  Microspherules  beads of glass formed when melted sediment or rock later cooled and settled to Earth  Microspherules at the same stratigraphic level as the Chesapeake and Toms Canyon craters o In shallow water sediments of the Gulf Coast and in deep-sea sediments of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean  Chesapeake Bay asteroid o Between 3 and 5 kilometers in diameter o Minimum size of an impacting meteorite that will cause a global biotic crisis  between 3 and 10 km  Large rivers flowing from the Valley and Ridge and Piedmont provinces converge at the Chesapeake Bay o Largest of the rivers  Susquehanna and the Potomac o Confluence of rivers  the thick pile of sediments in and above the Eocene impact crater settled over time  Created a slight depression that attracted drainage from the uplands to the north and west o Normal faults in the sediments above the breccia indicate uneven compaction of the breccia  Geologic hazard for the Chesapeake region  future movements along them will cause earthquakes


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