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Aliya CookCLAS 202 04/04/2016Classics Roman Life and CultureEarly DatesC. 1000 BCE earliest signs of settlement on the Capitoline; earliest known tombs in forum valleyC. 900 BCE beginning of permanent settlement on the palatine753 BCE Trad. “Founding” by RomulusC. 600 Etruscan dominationThe EtruscansOccupied the area north of the T. riverAn indigenous Italian people related to the VillanovansArt, architecture, shows Greek and Phoenician influenceThought to have come from LibyansUrns for ashes shaped like houses: Villanova hut urnEtruscan is related to neither Latin nor GreekOnly language somewhat related to is a preGreek dialectAbout 9,000 epigraphic texts: some are bilingual with greek at Delphi, with Punic at Pyrgi in ItalyA linen book preserved in the binding of Egyptian mummyPyrgi Tablets: details the dedication of a king to a goddessLoanwords from Latin and Greek to EtruscanSome Etruscan words are theatrical: words that mean stage (scaena), actor (histrio), and character (persona)Our knowledge of the Etruscans comes from material culture, mostly tombsCaere, modern Cerveteri: NecropolisMausoleum of Augustus: Rome c. 28 BCEA strong interest in the afterlife, comes from the various forms of art in their tombsSarcophagi designed in ways that express the actual people, i.e. a man and a woman sitting at a banquet, a man lounging on a bed eating something from a bowl with inscriptions along the edge of the sarcophagiThreedimensional sarcophagiA socially lively afterlife, some married women kept their own names; very progressive/aggressive women in Liby
Wealthy community, especially in 800500 BCE; rich in mineral resources, i.e. iron and silver; agricultural fertilitySuccessful trade, considerable trade with gold and gems in these areas. Women lived quite highlyMonteleone Chariot c. 530, found around 1902, Metropolitan Museum of Art, very small,bronze work of people fightingTomb paintings, people hunting and netting birds, as well as fishing on a boatAchilles ambushing a Trojan warriorBucchero Pottery: red plate, fired with a kiln hot enough to stop up all the holes and deprive the atmosphere of oxygen, which drew out the iron and left the pottery blackArchitecture with three rooms behind pillars, no steps on the sidePantheon: Rome—has a porch with a dome, pillars not all the way around like in Greek architectureMakes a big use of the archEtruscan insignia, used by the consulsi.Toga Praetextaii.Sella Curulisiii.Fasces Places where fasces were in accordance to Mussolini have been gouged outFor Americans fasces are much more liberating imagesSeven Kings of RomeRomulusNuma PompiliusTullus HostiliusAncus MarciusL. Tarquinius Priscius (Tarquin the First)i.Comes from Tarquinni in the northii.Livy carefully says that Lucumo is on the Janiculum when the omen appears Wife claims this is a good omeniii.Lucumo must enter the city by the Ponsiv.Livy also notes his entering into the cityv.Demaratus of Corinth (father) A refugee from a political upheaval “happens to settle in a town called Tarquinii Marries into a local familyServius TullusL. Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud)
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