Test 2 Notes Part 2 of 2
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kirsten Notetaker on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Lewis University taught by Dr. Greenwood in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Lewis University.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Social Psychology 3/30 - Social influence The mere presence of others Triplet – social facilitation people preform certain tasks better when they are not alone, like cyclists have faster times when riding together than alone, o Zajonc – arousal effects – dominant response older behavior that is not very useful and we’re under control and we’re pressed enough, we result to our old behaviors, others’ presence = arousal = strengthens dominant responses = 1. Enhancing easy behavior or 2. Impairing difficult behavior o Yerkes – Dodson effect when you’re bored you don’t act clearly or effectively, as your attention and arousal increases your performance will increase, if you continue to be aroused the by presence of more and more people watching you, you lose control and become more erratic, some people cope with crowds and arousal better than others, curvi-linear effect of arousal and performance Crowed effects – arousal +/- behavior you don’t want to be thrown out of a group, shunned, no one wants to be judged negatively o Evaluation apprehension concern for how others are evaluating us o Distraction makes you unable to think clearly, increases the impact, the more aroused you are, the more distractible you are Many hands make diminished responsibility you don’t want to take responsibility, more people = less desire or responsibility to take action Social loafing productivity per person when working in a group goes down when there is more people o Evaluation apprehension/anonymity people are likely to do better when their individual efforts can be recognized, assembly- line workers produced 16% more product when their individual output was recorded Diffusion of responsibility/free riding Cross-cultural validity this concept occurs all around the world, private farm plots consist of 1% of the Soviet, yet are responsible for 27% of farm output, in Hungary private plots account for 13% of farmland and are responsible for producing 1/3 of output Individualistic/collective culture people in collective cultures exhibit less social loafing than do people in individualistic cultures, loyalty to family and groups runs string in collective cultures Gender women are less individualistic than men and exhibit less social loafing o Motivation/task qualities/incentives sometimes the goal is so compelling that maximum output from everyone is so essential that team spirit maintains and intensifies effort, think of the Olympics Cohesiveness/superordinate goals groups loaf less when their members are friends or they feel identified with or indispensable to their group Doing together what we would not do alone the group gives you the confidence to do what you would not do on your own Deindividuation physiological process of losing yourself, the sense of yourself, under pressure, high arousal, your executive control of who you are and what you should do is diminished, and you begin to go along with the group, no longer thinking clearly as an individual, when you do things you would not do alone o Group arousal/anonymity/diffusion of responsibility diffusion of responsibility is when there are more people there you feel less responsible, everyone else is doing it, so I can do it, think of speeding on the highway – everyone is doing it, Stimulus control/distraction noise increases arousal, which causes you to think less clearly Reduced explicit/increased implicit cognition ? when we see others act as we are acting, we think they feel as we do, which reinforces our own feelings Low self awareness – norms/conscience low self awareness, low focus on norms or conscience, helps if you’re in the dark, no one can see you, acting on anger or from fear, Disinhibition of desired actions things you want to do, you do, you are not longer inhibited, your behavior is not controlled, the restraints are lifted External attribution (ego-defense) people infer that a person’s behavior is due to situational forces rather than some internal characteristic o Dehumanization/violence (phys./psych.) we take away the humanity of the people we want to attack, this makes it easier for the rules to not apply, and to make it easier for us to kill, natural tendency to treat strangers dangerously can hurt us, a psychological process of releasing your inhibitions against those you place outside your group, allows us to act in violence, more likely when we are physiologically aroused, more likely when we paint them in a negative light Risky shift (group shift) individuals who are asked by themselves to take a position, they make a more moderate position, however when 2 the people are discussing in a group they shift to a more radical position, after discussing it, people were more willing to take risk, an example of polarization o Polarization (group) group-produced enhancement of members’ pre-existing tendencies; a strengthening of the members’ average tendency, not a split within the group o Arguments/leaders/disinhibition you can take the position you want to take because you are not alone, when there is a clear value, then the polarization processes, especially when there is a confident leader, it doesn’t matter if they are right, they just need to be confident, emergence of leaders and different arguments can make people behave differently than you would expect Group think strong leaders with a clear position o Normative influence, strong leader, mind guard, isolation when you know what the leader wants, and the norm is to cooperate, then you hold your peace, mind guard to protect the leader and make sure every one else stays in line, you’re frozen out if you don’t take the “right” position, the group is usually isolated, that makes you unaware of other opinions, there needs to be a norm of encouraging descent to make sure that things are being run fairly/efficiently/people are speaking their minds allowing for an open and clear discussion, in any group you need some body who is willing to call other opinions into question the Selective choices of information, if we choose to only listen to people who agree with us, we only get one point of view and we do not question what we think, the middle is gone, we only listen to who we think is right, when we try to be more logical and maybe try to make some sort of compromise or meet in the middle, it is rejected 3
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