Psychology Exam 3 Studyguide
Psychology Exam 3 Studyguide Psyc 2010
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Silseth on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Seth A Gitter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Psychology Exam 3 Study guide 1.The initial reaction you have to a stimulus is known as _______. A.Emotion B. Affect C. Valence D. Mood 2.Smiling when you’re happy is an example of which of the following? A.Behavioral response B. Emotional response C. Both A&B D. Neither A or B 3.Which lasts longer Affect or Mood? A.Affect B. Mood C. They last the same amount 4.How you’re feeling is based of off ________. A.Emotion B. Mood C. subjective evaluation D. cognitive interpretation 5.Who believed “We are sad because we are crying” (physical experience leads to emotion” A.James-Lange B. Cannon-Barred C. Freud D. All of the above 6.By studying various cultures psychologists have found that emotions [are/aren’t] biological. 7.Arousal/Affect and Cognition are the 2components that make up which psychological theory? A.James-Lange B. Freudian C. Schachter-2-Factor D. Cannon-Barred 8.[True/False] emotions don’t have specific physical experiences/arousal. 9.[True/False] the universal emotions (Happy, Sad, Disgusted, angry, fearful, and surprised) vary from culture to culture. Answers 1.B 2.B 3.B 4.D 5.A 6.Are 7.C 8.True 9.False Questions from his review 10. What are the different attachment styles? How do we assess for these attachment styles? How do they develop and how do they reflect themselves in a child/adult’s behavior? There are Insecure and anxious/ambivalent attachment styles. We can assess for these styles by performing Ainsworth’s strange situation test. Insecure children have extreme distress without their parents and is indifferent upon the return. Secure children show a little distress when their caregiver leaves, and upon return they seek contact and are calmed. In adults, avoidant attachment means they don’t form close relationships where the anxious/ambivalent adults become possessive and jealous. 11. What did Harry and Margaret Harlow’s research on primate attachment influence our understanding of human attachment? They observed that a baby monkey prefers a cloth monkey to create contact and attachment with rather than a wire mother that has food. When they stressed the baby monkey with the wire mother, it stayed stressed; however, when they tried this with the cloth monkey the baby found security with the cloth mother. 12. What are Piaget’s stages of development? When do we expect individuals to start showing these different examples of cognitive development? What are the typical ways that children think (or typical problems children have) during these stages? Sensorimotor (0-2 years) children explore and sense, object permanence is starting. Preoperational stage (2-7 years) words and symbols represent objects, understand “bad” words, thinking is one dimensional, Develop theory of mind, start the reduction of egocentricism. Concrete Operational State (7-12 years) understand basic math rules, can grasp logical rules in experience and reality. Formal Operational Stage (12-Adult) can reason abstractly, evaluate logical propositions. 13. What are the two ways in which children modify their schemas about the world? Assimilation (take new information in terms of existing information) and Accommodation (adjusting current schemas by adapting & expanding or creating new ones) 14. What are Kohlberg’s stages of moral development? How do children of varying ages differ in their understanding of moral and ethical questions? Level 1 - Pre-conventional morality, 2 Conventional Morality, 3 Post-conventional morality. He said cognitive development leads to moral development and has children describe what they’d do in a moral dilemma. 15. What do we mean by Theory of Mind? Why is that important for understanding childhood developmental processes? Theory of mind is developed at around 4 years old, it is understanding that other peoples’ minds are different from our own, allows empathy to develop. 16. How are social, cognitive, and moral development related? They all impact the capability to make decisions. Chapter 10 and Motivation and Emotion Lectures 17. What are the differences between Affect, Mood, and Emotion? Affect is a good/bad initial response and has a rapid/immediate on-set and lasts 15-45 minutes, Mood on the other hand lasts days and is less intense, and emotion is started by affect but is the physiological response to feelings. 18. What are the differences between the James- Lange, Cannon-Bard, and Schachter-Singer (Schachter Two Factor) theories of emotion? What predictions do they make about emotion? James-Lange and Cannon-Bard believed Physical experience leads to emotion, but C-B believed that the arousal state and emotional experience are separate. Schachter-Singer believed people could misidentify emotions. J-L believe “you see a tiger, it causes fear arousal, it causes you to be scared” (emotions are physiologically based), C- B believed the physical change (smiling) caused you to be aware of the emotion (happy). S-S say you feel an emotion (happy) and then you use your memory to identify what’s making you feel it (smiling). 19. What are the universal emotions? Why do we think they are universal? Happy, Sad, Surprised, Disgusted, Angry and Fearful. They can be seen across every culture. 20. What role do emotions play in decision making? How do we cope with negative emotionality? Emotions are tools for cognitive functioning and help us with positive/negative affect. We try to cancel out the emotions by either experiencing a positive emotion or dealing directly with the problem. 21. How do emotions motivate us? What is motivation? How do Needs and Drives influence our motivation? What is Drive-Reduction Theory? What do we mean when we say the goal of DRT is homeostasis? Motivation: factors that energize and direct behavior, emotions trigger motivation, needs cause drives that cause us to maintain homeostasis. D-R-T is a way for us to always meet our needs and have balance (ex: you need food which causes you to be hungry so you eat). DRT is to keep us balanced, it keeps our levels (hunger, sleep, etc.) in check. 22. Why do psychologists focus more on negative than positive emotions? Because “Negative is stronger”, we feel negative emotions longer and deeper than positive. Negative emotions need correction whereas positive emotions don’t. Chapter 13 and Personality Lectures 23. How do we define personality? Personality is an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. 24. How did Freud explain personality? What’s the difference between the Id, Ego, & SuperEgo? How do they work together to influence our outward behavior? Freud used the psychoanalytic theory which states the mind is like an iceberg with the conscious mind being very small and the pre-& un-conscious minds being very large. The Id is the unconscious mind where your desires and wants are, the Ego is the preconscious and balances the ID and superego, The superego is your moral understanding of rules, laws, and expectations of society. 25. What are the different defense mechanisms? Reaction formation, Repression, and Rationalization 26. What are the criticisms of the psychoanalytic perspective of personality? How did humanistic perspectives on personality differ from the psychoanalytic perspective? No specific experimentation, how do you study the subconscious, and the sample studied were mainly wealthy females. Humanistic perspective focused on mentally healthy people 27. What is the Person-centered approach? What is self-actualization? What is Unconditional positive regard? It sees human beings as having an innate tendency to develop towards their full potential. Self-Actualization allows us to be creative and solve problems. Unconditional positive regard is helping someone find what they love to do and pursue it instead of forcing them to do something you want them to do (ex: major in college, the child chooses instead of the parent). 28. What are the criticisms of the humanistic perspective? Not scientific, vague, believes people are fundamentally good. 29. What is the difference between an idiographic approach and a nomothetic approach? Which personality theories fit under each of these different approaches? Idiographic: each person is completely different from another, Nomothetic: compares people, Trait theory. 30. What is a trait? What do we mean when we say they exist along a continuum? Enduring? Traits are stable characteristic patterns of behavior. Extroverts act similar to other extroverts, and introverts act similar to other introverts, which allows us to study consistent behaviors along the continuum, they also generally last your entire life, rarely change. 31. What are the Big Five personality traits? What would it mean to say that someone is low/high on each these traits? Conscientiousness: High = organized, Low= disorganized. Extraversion/Introversion= Extro= outgoing, Intro= shy. Neuroticism: high= worried, Low= calm. Agreeableness: high= trusting, low= suspicious. Openness: High= independent, low= comforting. 32. What are the criticisms of trait theory? How do person X situation approaches to personality attempt to explain our behavior? People can act differently across situations, there th could be a 6 trait. Ex) introverts can come out of their shell. 33. What’s the difference between a strong and weak situation? How will that influence behavior? Strong= high rule situations, not likely to behave as normal. Weak= Not many rules, can act like yourself.
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