Study Guide for Exam 2!! Geography 104
Study Guide for Exam 2!! Geography 104 104
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GEOG 103 001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 104 at University of South Carolina taught by Roman-River in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Physical Geography in Geography at University of South Carolina.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Hannah!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Geography 104 Lecture 3: Humidity, Atmospheric Stability and Clouds : *Make sure to know if energy is released or absorbed with each phase change* Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Relative Humidity is (Actual Water Vapor in the Air)/(Max Water Vapor Possible in the Air at a Certain Temp) * 100 Saturation is 100% relative humidity, air cannot hold additional water vapor. Dew Point is temperature at which air containing water vapor becomes saturated and net condensation begins. Daily Relative Humidity Patterns : As temperature rises → relative humidity decreases Relative Humidity is highest at dawn when air temperature is lowest. Relative Humidity is lowest in the late afternoon when higher temperatures increase evaporation rises. Atmospheric stability Parcel=a body of air. Stability is the tendency of an air parcel to remain in place or change vertical position. Unstable vsStable Atmospheric Conditions Cloud formation Clouds are condensation nuclei attracting water vapor. 3 basic cloud forms are stratiform, cumuliform and cirroform. Culumous Cloud (Bright, Fluffy) Stratocumulous (Gray, Low, Indicate clearing) Cumulonimbus (Thunderstorm) Stratus Cirrus (High, Wispy) Nimbostratus Mammatus Virga Lecture 4: Air masses, lifting mechanisms and midlatitude cyclones : An Air Mass is a distinctive, homogeneous body of air that has taken on the moisture and temperature characteristics of its source region. They are classified by: Temperature (A=Arctic, P=Polar, T=Tropical, E=Equatorial) Moisture (m=Maritime, c=Continental) Air masses in North America Four types of lifting mechanisms: Convergent Lifting, Convectional Lifting, Orographic Lifting, Frontal Lifting. Convergent Lifting: Results when air flows towards an area of low pressure. Convectional Lifting: Happens when air is stimulated by local surface heating. Orographic Lifting: Occurs when air is forced over a barrier such as a mountain. A hot, dry rain shadow is created on the other side of the lift. There is more precipitation at the bottom of a hill/mountain because of orographic lifting. This causes rainfalls and shapes hills. Frontal Lifting: Occurs as air is displaced upward along the leading edge of contrasting air masses. There are cold and warm fronts. Cold Fronts are the leading edge of a cold air mass. Have greater density and are more uniform than the warmer one it displaces. Warm fronts are the leading edge of a warm air mass. Midlatitude cyclones: Migrating lowpressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes, outside the tropics. They are developed from the conflict between contrasting air masses. Example: Nor’easters. 4 Stages: Stage 1: Cyclogenesis Disturbance develops. Stage 2: Open Stage Develops a conveyor belt of warm and cold air aloft that interact to sustain the dynamic system. Stage 3: Occluded Stage Cold front advances faster than warm front and overtakes it. Stage 4: Dissolving Stage Occurs when lifting mechanisms of the cold front is completely cut off from the warm air. Violent weather : Thunderstorms are a type of turbulent weather accompanied by lightening and thunder. Vertical Wind Shear Supercells are a system producing severe thunderstorms and featuring rotating winds sustained by a prolonged updraft that may result in hail or tornadoes. Hail are ice pellets larger than 0.5cm that form within a cumulonimbus cloud. Derechos are winds produced by powerful downburst characteristics of thunderstorms. Straight line winds associated with fast moving thunderstorms. Tornadoes are violently rotating columns of air in contact with the ground. They are formed by strong winds that cause spinning, an updraft from a thunderstorm that causes tilts the air. Both of these things cause a mesocyclone to form which will cause a tornado to descend from the lower portion of the mesocyclone. Enhanced Fujita Scale is a way to rate tornadoes. It is shown below: The Tornado Ally Tropical cyclones are powerful manifestations of the earthatmosphere energy budget. They are classified according to wind speed. Tropical disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm, then Hurricanes Altlantic Basin Typhoons Western Pacific Cyclones Indian Ocean SaffirSimpson Hurricane Scale Lecture 5: Hydrologic Cycle : Worldwide Equilibrium (volume, balance and eustasy) Volume: Earth’s hydrosphere is in a steadystate equilibrium. Balance: The amount of water store in glaciers and ice sheets varies. Eustasy: Changes in global sea levels caused by changes in the volume of water in the ocean. Distribution of Water (saline vs fresh; surface vs groundwater). Hydrologic Cycle model. Pathways of precipitation Water Budget: Derived from measuring the input of precipitation and its distribution and the outputs of evapotranspiration. Components: Precipitation (P), Potential Evapotranspiration (PE), Infiltration (I), Runoff (RO), Change in Storage groundwater (GW). Water Budget Equation is Precipitation=Actual Evaporation(Potential EvapotranspirationDeficit) +Surface Runoff= SoilMoisture Utilization OR SoilMoisture Recharge Infiltration is the downward movement of water through soil. It is influenced by texture, porosity, permeability, and soil moisture. Water Resources Issues and Management : Surface Water Desources vs Groundwater Resources Surface Water Resources include reservoirs, freshwater lakes, and freshwater wetlands. Groundwater Resources include regional aquifer systems, wells, septic systems 2 main human impacts related to groundwater supply are : When pumping rates exceed recharge rates, water tables drop which results in a cone of depression and it can permanently damage aquifers by compaction or damage to structures by subsidence. Water usage Earth’s Climatic Regions : Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get. Factors Influencing Climate : Ocean currents, elevation, latitude, and proximity to water. Climate Classifications A: Tropical C: Mesothermal D: Microthermal E: Polar H: Highland B: Arid/Semiarid South Carolina is Cfa= humid subtropical C= Mesothermal f= no dry season a= hot summer Lecture 6: Longterm perspective on climate change : Climate Change Science is the interdisciplinary study of the causes and consequences of changing climate, affecting all earth systems and the sustainability of human societies. Humans burning fossil fuels and clearing and burning of land for development results in producing significant amounts of atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Keeling curve Paleoclimatology is the study of earth’s past climates. Palynology (pollen records), Dendrochronology (tree ring patterns), Oxygen isotope stages and sediment (ice cores), and Historical Documents. Recent Climate Variability: During the medieval warm period the climate got warmer and during the Little Ice Age climate got colder. Climate Changes because of changes in sun’s orbit, drifting continents, volcanic eruptions, and increasing greenhouse gases. Milankovitch Cycle Evidence of Climate Change include glacial ice in Alaska, permafrost, sea level rise, and sea level projections.
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