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IS 2054 Test 3 Study Guide

by: windwalkerr

IS 2054 Test 3 Study Guide IS 2054

Virginia Tech

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This is a comprehensive study guide in which I compiled all the important lecture notes for the 3rd test. I also included highlights on certain materials that I know for certain will be on the exam.
Intro to World Politics
Courtney Thomas
Study Guide
IS, International Studies, Intro to World Politics, Study Guide, World politics, political science
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by windwalkerr on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IS 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Courtney Thomas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Politics in International Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 04/04/16
Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 Non­state agents  What matters besides states?  Organizations (EU), Institutions, Nations, Terrorist organization, NGOs, Social movements  (Black lives matter), Individuals, Subnational groups/gov’ts, Religious leaders, Media,  Bureaucrats at all levels, Corporations  State centrism  Predominant theories of IR are state centric o Realism, neo­realism  But although this simplifies study of IR it creates several problems o Ambiguity btw diff meanings of “state” o Lack of similarity among countries  Culture, economics, political systems, population o Anarchy, states as coherent units lack of international coherence o Sub­national, national, supranational, transnational loyalties  Corporations  Transnational corporations have branches or subsidiaries outside home country o Transnational economic actors import/export  I.e. Banana republic in Bolivia  o Transnational pol actors lobby gov’ts about trade  TNCs diminish sovereignty  o Control over trade (triangulation & indirect trade/race to bottom/extraterritoriality/global  regulation) & over currency  TNCs create transnational interdependence  “Non­legitimate groups”  Transnational criminals can destabilize international political & ec order o Arms/drugs/human/counterfeit trafficking o Terrorists, guerillas, & national liberation movements  What support do they get? What legitimacy do they have? Why?  Who holds gov’ts accountable? (ICC, ICTY, ICTY etc)  Need for supranational/transnational/international governance?  th In the 20  century, there were more deaths as a result of subnational conflict than through international  warfare.  NGOs  Interest groups/pressure groups/civil society o Non­profit o Non­violent o Not established by international treaty or national gov’t  o Unions/labor movements  Changing the Character of War  Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 War is the continuation of politics by other means. War begins with breakdown of political discussion &  peace; the deterioration of the relationships btw countries. You cannot separate diplomacy & warfare.  They settle political disputes not through diplomatic channels, but through war. i.e. Pearl harbor was not  the beginning for the US, it was the breakdown of discussion.  War to peace  Sharp decline in war since end of Cold War  Democratic peace of argument: democracies will go to war but they aren’t prepared to fight  against another democracy o But they WILL fight to “democratize” non­democratic states­ increasing the prevalence  of war?  Democratic states tend to solve their differences through non­military ways   Called the democratic peace argument  th Extra credit: Two democracies that went to war during the 20  century. You get 5 extra credit points.   Must be real democracies, sovereign states, & must have fought a war during the 20  century. Look at  democracy index at the time the war was fought.  Modern Warfare  Nationalized  Opposing metanarratives & overarching ideologies  Industrialized  Civilians as legitimate targets  Extraction: conscription & taxation  Centralization/bureaucracy  Governed by rules of war or engagement  Total warfare  You use all the resources (economic, political, etc) towards war effort   Comes into discussion in 1800s Copeland & Major wars  All of great powers in system are involved  Wars are all­out conflicts fought at highest level of intensity (“total war”) w/ full military  mobilization  They contain strong possibility that one or more of contending great powers could be eliminated  as sovereign states  Modern warfare is how US fought everything until the cold war. Napoleon was probably the transition  into modern warfare.  Post­Modern Warfare  Hedley Bull: “organized violence carried on by political units against each other” o Violence is not war unless it is both executed by political unit & directed against political unit Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 o What counts as “political unit”?  The sloppy use of “war” o “war on an abstract noun”   Often involves outsourcing of war to private corporations  Rise of non­national identities & loyalties  Possibility of “virtual warfare”  Increasing prevalence of “ethnic” violence or civil warfare  Rejection of international “rules of war”  Importance of transnational networks Revolution in military affairs  “when a nation’s military seizes an opportunity to transform its strategy, military doctrine,  training, education, organization, equipment, operations, & tactics to achieve decisive military  results in fundamentally new ways” o Developed after watching the impact of superior military technology during 1991 Gulf  War o Conflicts would be decided by military technologies such as guided weapons & space  satellites o Focus on power of information, precision, & demoralization Ethics in Warfare  Different views: o Plato’s Republic:  Justice is the interest of the stronger – Thrasymachus  might is right o Cicero’s De Officiis  War only when diplomacy fails  Protection of those who surrender  Man who isn’t legally a soldier has no right to fight the enemy   Man’s natural way of resolving conflict is through discussion o St. Augustine of Hippo  First to conceptualize “just war”  A good ruler will wage wars only if they are just  Though just, still undesirable. If there were no such thing as just war,  man would be under compulsion not to wage war at all o St. Thomas Aquinas  Outlines requirements for just war in Summa Theologiae  Sovereign authority o Individuals can’t declare war, that’s what courts are for  Just cause o Make amends for wrongs afflicted   Right intention o Peace as the end  Priests & clerics aren’t allowed to fight Chivalry Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16  Originally a military code o Not always followed o Applied, in theory, to knights  Important bc it fed into & was replaced by culture of gentlemen o Influenced military through the Napoleonic wars in Europe & US Civil war, especially in the South  Codified Laws of War  Started w/ Lieber Code in 1863 o Laws of war for union troops o First law that forbade killing of POWs o No torture to extract confessions o Allowed some things now illegal  Shooting spies & guerillas  Reprisal for enemy breaking laws of war by shooting POWs o Served as basis for Hague Conventions of 1899 & 1907  Geneva Conventions – not the actual fighting of the war  o First Geneva­ 18864  Treatment of wounded & sick in field o Second­ 1906  Treatment of wounded, sick, & shipwrecked at sea  o Third­ 1929  Treatment of Prisoners of War o 4  – 1949  Treatment of Protection of Civilians  Hague Convention of 1907 – keep war as pleasant as possible o Governs declaring war, laws of land warfare, neutrality, discharging projectiles from  balloons, etc  o About 14 countries signed it­ still in effect  i.e. Pakistan & India: if they go to war, they can’t shoot at each other w/ planes  International Law  Realists say that international law doesn’t matter o In world dominated by states, international law either perpetuates power of dominant  states or is ignored completely  But states take great strides to develop international law & to follow it­ compliance is very high International Law defined  It is o A core international institution  Set of norms, rules, & practices   Created by states & other actors to facilitate diverse social goals from order &  coexistence to justice & human development  o Institutions vs organizations  Norms/rules/practices vs organizational structures  Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 **Institution vs organization – will be on the next test  Institution: a rule, a norm, a social practice. Set of expectations. Treaty. Document. An international law. Bedrock principle in international law that exists because we agree upon it. “treaty, norm, principle,  agreement, etc that defines parameters or terms of international relations”  Organization: bureaucratic body that implements an institutional framework   Constitutional institutions: primary rules & norms of international society w/o which society  among sovereign states could not exist.  o i.e. sovereignty/legitimacy (mainly external)/human rights (could be argued)/states (are a constitutional institution)  fundamental institutions: represent basic norms & practices that sovereign states employ to  facilitate coexistence & cooperation under conditions of international anarchy o i.e. trade/international travel/currency/diplomacy/embassy/consulate o these are the ones that allow states to communicate and work to achieve both their self­ interests  issue­specific institutions: sets of rules, norms, & decision­making procedures that states use to  define legitimate actors & actions o i.e. nuclear non­proliferation treaty  UN: organization that facilitates processes of institutions.  Jus ad bellum (law to go to war) vs jus in bello (law in war) Aquinas is one of the answers on the test. Just War theory­ will be on the exam ****   sovereign authority  just cause   right intention (peace)  3 Principles   military necessity o must be aimed at defeating enemy o must be against legitimate military target  distinction  o belligerents must distinguish btw combatants & civilians  proportionality  o must make sure harm to civilians or their property is not excessive in relation to the  advantage gained by an attack on legitimate target  Consent & Legal obligation  consent is treated as primary source of international legal obligation  states are bound by rules to which they have not formally consented including customary  international law Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 4 Characteristics until 1980  States were primary subjects on international law  States were primary agents of international law o Only actors empowered to formulate, enact, & enforce international law NOT community of humankind  International law was concerned w/ inter­state relations o Self­determination, non­intervention, & sovereignty  Scope of international law was confined to question of order NOT justice o Maintain peace & stability based on mutual respect for territorial integrity & sovereignty  A new approach   Beyond international order to global governance? o Individuals, groups & organizations are increasingly recognized as subjects of  international law o Non state actors are important agents in international legal processes   Shaping normative environment, providing information, drafting treaties &  conventions o Increasingly focused on global rather than international regulation  Trade law, environmental law, human rights law o Rules, norms, & principles are no longer focused solely on   Humanitarian order, human rights law  UN Failure of League of Nations  League of nations was established after WWI to make future wars impossible but it lacked  effective power o Both bodies­ League Assembly & League Council­ could make recommendations but not binding resolutions o All recommendations had to be unanimous  o Lack of participation by Great Power (US) United Nations  Established in aftermath of WWII  Legitimacy derived from universal membership  Mandate includes o Security o Economic & social development o Protection of human rights o Environmental sustainability UN Charter  UN charter is treaty ratified by all member states  Established 4 purposes: o To maintain international peace & security Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 o To develop friendly relations among nations (states) o To cooperate in solving international problems & in promoting respect for human rights o To be center for harmonizing actions of nations (states)  Primary Challenge  UN is institution comprised of sovereign independent states o Tension btw state sovereignty & individual rights has been subject of constant debate &  disagreement o Sovereignty often limits UN actions o Article 2(7): nothing contained in present charter shall authorize UN to intervene in  matters which are essentially w/in domestic jurisdiction of any state  Sovereignty will win over intervention in the name of preventing war  UN Organs: **will need to match these on the test** Security Council  Designed to promote international peace & security  15 members at all times  o 5 permanent members w/ veto power: US, France, GB, Russia, China o Called the P5 o Many calls for reform!  Add new permanent members w/ veto power  Eliminate veto power and/or permanent membership  10 non­permanent members  o Measures are binding & must be passed by 9 vote majority  Range of options o Principles for settlement o Mediation o Peacekeeping mission o Economic sanctions/arms embargo General Assembly  “Parliament of nations”  Each state has one vote o 2/3 majority required for major recommendations (admission of new members/budget)  o Majority required for most recommendations  Opinion leader in international relations/world politics  o Very good at drafting issues to discuss  o Put treaties out that many countries choose to jump on Secretariat  Led by secretary general  Administrative/executive body of the UN  Can “bring situations that are likely to lead to breakdown of international peace & security” to  attention of Security Council  Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 Economic & Security Council  Coordinates work of UN agencies w/ Secretariat relative to economic & social work  Consults w/ NGOs  Oversees UN system UN organizations   UN is comprised of number of specialized organizations, programs, & funds including o International Labor Organization (ILO) o Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) o World Health Organization (WHO) o United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) o United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Trusteeship Council  Created in early 1950s to provide international supervision for 11 trust territories administered by 7 member states  Goal: to transition to independence & self­gov’t   Members: US, France, GB, China, Russia International Court of Justice  15 judges elected by General Assembly & Security Council  Participation is voluntary but once a state agrees to participate it is bound by court’s decisions  Provides advisory opinions to UN agencies upon request  Terrorism UN Peacekeeping  UN can send a UN peacekeeping force under UN command to stand btw parties to dispute after  ceasefire o Can only use its weapons in self defense o Established w/ consent at host state  UN can also send peace enforcement designed to achieve humanitarian ends o Deployed when order has collapsed w/in states (civil war) & international conflicts  o i.e. massive earthquake in a capital city and normal response team was unavailable.  UN can send peace squad until civilian establishment can surface   UN peacekeeping force was not in Rwanda to stop a genocide.  o Their instructions:  Act as escorts for diplomatic groups  Facilitate repatriation   But when killings started, they were powerless.   UN wouldn’t let them, and refused over and over to change its peacekeeping  rules.    When one important guy was killed, mission changed under Romeo Dallaire:  Evacuate some people (French, German, British, US citizens from  country), and then get the UN out of Rwanda.  Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16  60 days later, a million people are dead.  Romeo Dallaire helped create R2P o Responsibility to protect Events W/in States  UN increasingly responds to events w/in sovereign states o Political & civil rights o Food, water, health care, shelter o Ethnic cleansing/genocide o Civil war or unrest  Justification: lack of internal justice endangers international order o Hotly contested  Threatens peace   Statehood & sovereignty: If you violate the rules, you lose both  o UN’s primary mission is still to defer to sovereignty of independent states o BUT is statehood conditional upon respect for human rights? Global Problem  Environmental destruction is a global problem requiring global solutions o Not an international problem o Closely associated w/ globalization, development, & races to the bottom of regulatory  frameworks   Threatens environmental principles  o Relocation of industry o Better standards of living o Increased access to income o Increased waste & pollution o Threat of neo­liberal policies re: resources o Strain on farmland, water resources, air quality, etc  The other side  Yet globalization also offers some potential solutions o Economic development & population control o Incentives to price externalities into cost of goods o Innovative approaches to environmental sustainability o Growth of the “think globally”  Tragedy of the Commons  Resources that are held in common in absence of governance, regulation & conservation are often abused & exploited o Oceans, space, air, atmosphere  No global gov’t but global GOVERNANCE Policy Frameworks  Prior to 1972: a few international conventions but primarily at periphery of politics Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16  1972 forward: o UN conference on the Human environment & UN Environment Program  o Establishment of environmental agencies by numerous national gov’ts o Explosion of environmental NGOs o Increased attention of TNCs (Bhopal) Sustainable development  During 90s & 2000s poverty eradication became global priority o But clean water, sanitation, agricultural improvements & development often brought  concerned about environmental sustainability   How would global community eradicate poverty while promoting environmental sustainability o Two approaches: bottom­up & top­down  Capacity building: one of most important ways to see the developing world get better at  sustainability.   European countries recognize these needs, most do  o The US is the outlier. They are the only country that have refused to sign on to basic  environmental regulations.  State sanctioned/sponsored terror Terrorism Defined  The use of violence by sub­state groups to inspire fear by attacking civilians and/or symbolic  targets for purposes such as drawing widespread attention to a grievance, provoking a severe  response, or wearing down their opponent’s moral resolve to affect political change  o It is not just violence; it is political  Whose Terrorist?  Terrorism is a strategy undertaken by structurally weak minorities against structurally more  powerful political agents & institutions  o Often in name of extremist ideology  Groups resort to terrorism rather than other forms of political violence because their objectives  lack broad appeal  Goal is some form of political change  Terrorists often disregard the ‘rules” warfare & conflict o Use of violence against non­combatants & “soft” targets o Washington during the Revolutionary war  Legitimacy   Often considered more legitimate if tactics conform to rules of “just war” tradition  Challenges notion of state’s monopoly on violence  But groups that use terrorist tactics reject legitimacy of state or its gov’t & claim that their efforts  are morally justified  Are their goals democratic or nondemocratic?  Are targets domestic or international?  Sub­national to Global Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16  Terrorism has been around for centuries  Early terrorists operated against domestic targets o Their impact was limited to single state  Transnational terrorism emerged in mid­1900s o Expansion of commercial air travel o Availability of televised new coverage  o Broad political & ideological interests among extremists that intersected around a  common cause Linkages to Globalization  Technologies associated w/ globalization are also associated w/ terrorism o Communication o Organization o Propaganda o Transportation o Banking & finance  Role of Air Travel  Air travel allowed terrorists from one country to attack in another o Lack of airport security measures  Hijacking was both effective & relatively easy o States acquiesced to demands ­> encouraged tactic o Often demanded money release of prisoners, etc o Learned from one another  Led to implementation of numerous security measures o Decades before we’d see similar measures in the US o These people are not messing around­ portacaths & teddy bears  Pan Am Flight 103  Crashed in Lockerbie Scotland in 1988 killing 270 people  Role of Libya  Bombing that brought terrorism into American living rooms  o First time that international terrorism became a reality for a lot of Americans  Role of Television  Television provided much broader audience for terrorists  Increased awareness of terrorist motivations & objectives Decade of Terrorism: 1980­1990  Suicide bombings  Hijackings  3 trends o Fewer attacks that were more deadly & more indiscriminate o Increasing sophistication of attacks  Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 Types of Terrorist Groups  Left wing  Right wing  Ethno­nationalist/separatist  o In many cases, terrorist wing of this group has a lot of legitimacy  Legitimate concerns & grievances   Religious/sacred  Ethno­nationalist: Tamil tigers  Ethno­nationalist movement in Sri lanka that used terror to fight against the gov’t  Recognized as terrorists by many gov’ts but as liberation movement by many others  Tactics used by gov’t against tigers gave movement more legitimacy  Pioneers in suicide bombings   Accused of ethnic cleansing, use of child soldiers, arms dealing, piracy, & other  atrocities/criminal acts  Winners write history: Tigers were defeated in 2009 o Subjective to reeducation projects o Sri Lankan gov’t has sent in army to kill entire villages Right Wing: OK City  1995 domestic terrorist attack in US killing 168  Right wing terrorist attack on gov’t of US  Questioned legitimacy of US gov’t  Ruby Ridge & Waco  Role of the Turner Diaries o Blueprint for 2  American revolution   Threshold of violence; deaths of children  o Represents when you go too far o If you cross threshold, you lose your supporters  o The bomber lost his support because he killed so many children  Left wing: Ecoterrorism: #1 domestic terrorist threat in the US per FBI   Left­wing movement  Doesn’t usually target civilians, but it targets property  Goal: target as much property as possible in order to cause mass damage & stop research on  animals   Many different groups  Animal Liberation Front, Earth Liberation Front, etc  Violence and/or sabotage committed in support of ecological, environmental, or animal rights  causes  Primarily property damage  Often against corporations  Tree spiking, arson, bombing animal release, etc  Eye of the beholder?  Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 Fighting Terrorism  National measures o Airport security o Anti­terror laws o Special counter­terrorism task forces & LEOs  International measures o International civil aviation organization o Interpol: Public safety & terrorism sub­directorate o War on Terror (Coalition of the Willing) o Human Rights Watch (terrorists & states that fight terrorism)  Nuclear States  China, France, Russia, UK, & the US are acknowledged nuclear powers by the Treaty on Non­ proliferation of Nuclear Weapons  o In 1998 India & Pakistan joined the nuclear club  Vertical vs Horizontal Proliferation **will be on test**  o Horizontal: When a country that didn’t previously have nukes announces that they have  them  o Vertical: when an acknowledged nuclear states improves & increases its stockpiles &  nuclear capacities (deepening nuclear tried, adding first & second strike capabilities)   Trends are now regional o Nuclearization (acquisition): North Korea? Iran? o Denuclearization (removal of existing weapons): former soviet states o Nuclear weapon free zones: Latin America, Africa, etc   From the Ashes of WWII  Nuclear weapons have been controversial since their first inception  Truman’s regrets  Nuclear weapons changed dynamics of warfare & international politics  Early Concerns  US nuclear capacity was destabilizing in absence of second nuclear state  During cold war 2 concerns emerged o First, US & the USSR were going to blow the world to hell & back again o Second, nuclear accidents (Chernobyl in 1986) represented secondary but no less  terrifying threat  Global Governance  1946: UN Atomic Energy Commission o Made proposals for elimination of nuclear weapons & use of nuclear energy for peaceful  purposes under international control o Proposals never implemented  1953 Atoms for Peace o Not disarmament but an initiative to open benefits of nuclear energy to global community o International atomic energy agency Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 Cold War Treaties  Nuclear weapons were centerpiece of international relations during cold war o Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  Moratorium on testing & calls for disarmament  Never passed bc states couldn’t agree on verification o 1963: Partial Test Ban Treaty prohibiting nuclear testing in atmosphere, in outer space &  underwater  Still under negotiation but how to hold states accountable? o Strategic arms reduction treaties o Nuclear non­proliferation treaties o Missile technology control regime  To limit risks of nuclear proliferation by controlling transfers of technology that  could make a contribution nuclear weapons delivery systems other than manned  aircraft  o Proposals for Hague Code of Conduct regarding technology transfer regarding missile  technologies  Post­cold war  The fall of Soviet Union created additional problems o Many of the soviet weapons were stored in states that became independent & sovereign o And by extension became immediate members of an otherwise very exclusive club  Many former soviet states have practiced denuclearization o But approximately 2­3% of the Soviet nuclear arsenal went missing in the process o 900 nuclear weapons that cannot be accounted for aftermath of the Soviet disintegration Spread & proliferation  Non­nuclear powers (state & non­state alike) can get nuclear weapons by purchase or theft or by  acquisition of necessary technological infrastructure o Espionage has always been at forefront of state nuclear programs  o Infrastructural, human, technological, & scientific capital necessary can be developed  over time o Used to be limited to state actors but of increasing concern is capacity of non­state actors  to undertake similar programs  Non­proliferation Regime  Unilateral, bilateral, multilateral, & global measures  Nuclear supplier agreements Problems  Security dilemma drives nuclear weapon acquisition  Existing treaties require that US, Russia, UK, France, & China pursue disarmament in good faith  but all other parties must forego acquisition of nuclear weapons all together  Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16


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