IS 2054 Test 3 Study Guide
IS 2054 Test 3 Study Guide IS 2054
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by windwalkerr on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IS 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Courtney Thomas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Politics in International Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 Nonstate agents What matters besides states? Organizations (EU), Institutions, Nations, Terrorist organization, NGOs, Social movements (Black lives matter), Individuals, Subnational groups/gov’ts, Religious leaders, Media, Bureaucrats at all levels, Corporations State centrism Predominant theories of IR are state centric o Realism, neorealism But although this simplifies study of IR it creates several problems o Ambiguity btw diff meanings of “state” o Lack of similarity among countries Culture, economics, political systems, population o Anarchy, states as coherent units lack of international coherence o Subnational, national, supranational, transnational loyalties Corporations Transnational corporations have branches or subsidiaries outside home country o Transnational economic actors import/export I.e. Banana republic in Bolivia o Transnational pol actors lobby gov’ts about trade TNCs diminish sovereignty o Control over trade (triangulation & indirect trade/race to bottom/extraterritoriality/global regulation) & over currency TNCs create transnational interdependence “Nonlegitimate groups” Transnational criminals can destabilize international political & ec order o Arms/drugs/human/counterfeit trafficking o Terrorists, guerillas, & national liberation movements What support do they get? What legitimacy do they have? Why? Who holds gov’ts accountable? (ICC, ICTY, ICTY etc) Need for supranational/transnational/international governance? th In the 20 century, there were more deaths as a result of subnational conflict than through international warfare. NGOs Interest groups/pressure groups/civil society o Nonprofit o Nonviolent o Not established by international treaty or national gov’t o Unions/labor movements Changing the Character of War Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 War is the continuation of politics by other means. War begins with breakdown of political discussion & peace; the deterioration of the relationships btw countries. You cannot separate diplomacy & warfare. They settle political disputes not through diplomatic channels, but through war. i.e. Pearl harbor was not the beginning for the US, it was the breakdown of discussion. War to peace Sharp decline in war since end of Cold War Democratic peace of argument: democracies will go to war but they aren’t prepared to fight against another democracy o But they WILL fight to “democratize” nondemocratic states increasing the prevalence of war? Democratic states tend to solve their differences through nonmilitary ways Called the democratic peace argument th Extra credit: Two democracies that went to war during the 20 century. You get 5 extra credit points. Must be real democracies, sovereign states, & must have fought a war during the 20 century. Look at democracy index at the time the war was fought. Modern Warfare Nationalized Opposing metanarratives & overarching ideologies Industrialized Civilians as legitimate targets Extraction: conscription & taxation Centralization/bureaucracy Governed by rules of war or engagement Total warfare You use all the resources (economic, political, etc) towards war effort Comes into discussion in 1800s Copeland & Major wars All of great powers in system are involved Wars are allout conflicts fought at highest level of intensity (“total war”) w/ full military mobilization They contain strong possibility that one or more of contending great powers could be eliminated as sovereign states Modern warfare is how US fought everything until the cold war. Napoleon was probably the transition into modern warfare. PostModern Warfare Hedley Bull: “organized violence carried on by political units against each other” o Violence is not war unless it is both executed by political unit & directed against political unit Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 o What counts as “political unit”? The sloppy use of “war” o “war on an abstract noun” Often involves outsourcing of war to private corporations Rise of nonnational identities & loyalties Possibility of “virtual warfare” Increasing prevalence of “ethnic” violence or civil warfare Rejection of international “rules of war” Importance of transnational networks Revolution in military affairs “when a nation’s military seizes an opportunity to transform its strategy, military doctrine, training, education, organization, equipment, operations, & tactics to achieve decisive military results in fundamentally new ways” o Developed after watching the impact of superior military technology during 1991 Gulf War o Conflicts would be decided by military technologies such as guided weapons & space satellites o Focus on power of information, precision, & demoralization Ethics in Warfare Different views: o Plato’s Republic: Justice is the interest of the stronger – Thrasymachus might is right o Cicero’s De Officiis War only when diplomacy fails Protection of those who surrender Man who isn’t legally a soldier has no right to fight the enemy Man’s natural way of resolving conflict is through discussion o St. Augustine of Hippo First to conceptualize “just war” A good ruler will wage wars only if they are just Though just, still undesirable. If there were no such thing as just war, man would be under compulsion not to wage war at all o St. Thomas Aquinas Outlines requirements for just war in Summa Theologiae Sovereign authority o Individuals can’t declare war, that’s what courts are for Just cause o Make amends for wrongs afflicted Right intention o Peace as the end Priests & clerics aren’t allowed to fight Chivalry Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 Originally a military code o Not always followed o Applied, in theory, to knights Important bc it fed into & was replaced by culture of gentlemen o Influenced military through the Napoleonic wars in Europe & US Civil war, especially in the South Codified Laws of War Started w/ Lieber Code in 1863 o Laws of war for union troops o First law that forbade killing of POWs o No torture to extract confessions o Allowed some things now illegal Shooting spies & guerillas Reprisal for enemy breaking laws of war by shooting POWs o Served as basis for Hague Conventions of 1899 & 1907 Geneva Conventions – not the actual fighting of the war o First Geneva 18864 Treatment of wounded & sick in field o Second 1906 Treatment of wounded, sick, & shipwrecked at sea o Third 1929 Treatment of Prisoners of War o 4 – 1949 Treatment of Protection of Civilians Hague Convention of 1907 – keep war as pleasant as possible o Governs declaring war, laws of land warfare, neutrality, discharging projectiles from balloons, etc o About 14 countries signed it still in effect i.e. Pakistan & India: if they go to war, they can’t shoot at each other w/ planes International Law Realists say that international law doesn’t matter o In world dominated by states, international law either perpetuates power of dominant states or is ignored completely But states take great strides to develop international law & to follow it compliance is very high International Law defined It is o A core international institution Set of norms, rules, & practices Created by states & other actors to facilitate diverse social goals from order & coexistence to justice & human development o Institutions vs organizations Norms/rules/practices vs organizational structures Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 **Institution vs organization – will be on the next test Institution: a rule, a norm, a social practice. Set of expectations. Treaty. Document. An international law. Bedrock principle in international law that exists because we agree upon it. “treaty, norm, principle, agreement, etc that defines parameters or terms of international relations” Organization: bureaucratic body that implements an institutional framework Constitutional institutions: primary rules & norms of international society w/o which society among sovereign states could not exist. o i.e. sovereignty/legitimacy (mainly external)/human rights (could be argued)/states (are a constitutional institution) fundamental institutions: represent basic norms & practices that sovereign states employ to facilitate coexistence & cooperation under conditions of international anarchy o i.e. trade/international travel/currency/diplomacy/embassy/consulate o these are the ones that allow states to communicate and work to achieve both their self interests issuespecific institutions: sets of rules, norms, & decisionmaking procedures that states use to define legitimate actors & actions o i.e. nuclear nonproliferation treaty UN: organization that facilitates processes of institutions. Jus ad bellum (law to go to war) vs jus in bello (law in war) Aquinas is one of the answers on the test. Just War theory will be on the exam **** sovereign authority just cause right intention (peace) 3 Principles military necessity o must be aimed at defeating enemy o must be against legitimate military target distinction o belligerents must distinguish btw combatants & civilians proportionality o must make sure harm to civilians or their property is not excessive in relation to the advantage gained by an attack on legitimate target Consent & Legal obligation consent is treated as primary source of international legal obligation states are bound by rules to which they have not formally consented including customary international law Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 4 Characteristics until 1980 States were primary subjects on international law States were primary agents of international law o Only actors empowered to formulate, enact, & enforce international law NOT community of humankind International law was concerned w/ interstate relations o Selfdetermination, nonintervention, & sovereignty Scope of international law was confined to question of order NOT justice o Maintain peace & stability based on mutual respect for territorial integrity & sovereignty A new approach Beyond international order to global governance? o Individuals, groups & organizations are increasingly recognized as subjects of international law o Non state actors are important agents in international legal processes Shaping normative environment, providing information, drafting treaties & conventions o Increasingly focused on global rather than international regulation Trade law, environmental law, human rights law o Rules, norms, & principles are no longer focused solely on Humanitarian order, human rights law UN Failure of League of Nations League of nations was established after WWI to make future wars impossible but it lacked effective power o Both bodies League Assembly & League Council could make recommendations but not binding resolutions o All recommendations had to be unanimous o Lack of participation by Great Power (US) United Nations Established in aftermath of WWII Legitimacy derived from universal membership Mandate includes o Security o Economic & social development o Protection of human rights o Environmental sustainability UN Charter UN charter is treaty ratified by all member states Established 4 purposes: o To maintain international peace & security Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 o To develop friendly relations among nations (states) o To cooperate in solving international problems & in promoting respect for human rights o To be center for harmonizing actions of nations (states) Primary Challenge UN is institution comprised of sovereign independent states o Tension btw state sovereignty & individual rights has been subject of constant debate & disagreement o Sovereignty often limits UN actions o Article 2(7): nothing contained in present charter shall authorize UN to intervene in matters which are essentially w/in domestic jurisdiction of any state Sovereignty will win over intervention in the name of preventing war UN Organs: **will need to match these on the test** Security Council Designed to promote international peace & security 15 members at all times o 5 permanent members w/ veto power: US, France, GB, Russia, China o Called the P5 o Many calls for reform! Add new permanent members w/ veto power Eliminate veto power and/or permanent membership 10 nonpermanent members o Measures are binding & must be passed by 9 vote majority Range of options o Principles for settlement o Mediation o Peacekeeping mission o Economic sanctions/arms embargo General Assembly “Parliament of nations” Each state has one vote o 2/3 majority required for major recommendations (admission of new members/budget) o Majority required for most recommendations Opinion leader in international relations/world politics o Very good at drafting issues to discuss o Put treaties out that many countries choose to jump on Secretariat Led by secretary general Administrative/executive body of the UN Can “bring situations that are likely to lead to breakdown of international peace & security” to attention of Security Council Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 Economic & Security Council Coordinates work of UN agencies w/ Secretariat relative to economic & social work Consults w/ NGOs Oversees UN system UN organizations UN is comprised of number of specialized organizations, programs, & funds including o International Labor Organization (ILO) o Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) o World Health Organization (WHO) o United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) o United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Trusteeship Council Created in early 1950s to provide international supervision for 11 trust territories administered by 7 member states Goal: to transition to independence & selfgov’t Members: US, France, GB, China, Russia International Court of Justice 15 judges elected by General Assembly & Security Council Participation is voluntary but once a state agrees to participate it is bound by court’s decisions Provides advisory opinions to UN agencies upon request Terrorism UN Peacekeeping UN can send a UN peacekeeping force under UN command to stand btw parties to dispute after ceasefire o Can only use its weapons in self defense o Established w/ consent at host state UN can also send peace enforcement designed to achieve humanitarian ends o Deployed when order has collapsed w/in states (civil war) & international conflicts o i.e. massive earthquake in a capital city and normal response team was unavailable. UN can send peace squad until civilian establishment can surface UN peacekeeping force was not in Rwanda to stop a genocide. o Their instructions: Act as escorts for diplomatic groups Facilitate repatriation But when killings started, they were powerless. UN wouldn’t let them, and refused over and over to change its peacekeeping rules. When one important guy was killed, mission changed under Romeo Dallaire: Evacuate some people (French, German, British, US citizens from country), and then get the UN out of Rwanda. Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 60 days later, a million people are dead. Romeo Dallaire helped create R2P o Responsibility to protect Events W/in States UN increasingly responds to events w/in sovereign states o Political & civil rights o Food, water, health care, shelter o Ethnic cleansing/genocide o Civil war or unrest Justification: lack of internal justice endangers international order o Hotly contested Threatens peace Statehood & sovereignty: If you violate the rules, you lose both o UN’s primary mission is still to defer to sovereignty of independent states o BUT is statehood conditional upon respect for human rights? Global Problem Environmental destruction is a global problem requiring global solutions o Not an international problem o Closely associated w/ globalization, development, & races to the bottom of regulatory frameworks Threatens environmental principles o Relocation of industry o Better standards of living o Increased access to income o Increased waste & pollution o Threat of neoliberal policies re: resources o Strain on farmland, water resources, air quality, etc The other side Yet globalization also offers some potential solutions o Economic development & population control o Incentives to price externalities into cost of goods o Innovative approaches to environmental sustainability o Growth of the “think globally” Tragedy of the Commons Resources that are held in common in absence of governance, regulation & conservation are often abused & exploited o Oceans, space, air, atmosphere No global gov’t but global GOVERNANCE Policy Frameworks Prior to 1972: a few international conventions but primarily at periphery of politics Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 1972 forward: o UN conference on the Human environment & UN Environment Program o Establishment of environmental agencies by numerous national gov’ts o Explosion of environmental NGOs o Increased attention of TNCs (Bhopal) Sustainable development During 90s & 2000s poverty eradication became global priority o But clean water, sanitation, agricultural improvements & development often brought concerned about environmental sustainability How would global community eradicate poverty while promoting environmental sustainability o Two approaches: bottomup & topdown Capacity building: one of most important ways to see the developing world get better at sustainability. European countries recognize these needs, most do o The US is the outlier. They are the only country that have refused to sign on to basic environmental regulations. State sanctioned/sponsored terror Terrorism Defined The use of violence by substate groups to inspire fear by attacking civilians and/or symbolic targets for purposes such as drawing widespread attention to a grievance, provoking a severe response, or wearing down their opponent’s moral resolve to affect political change o It is not just violence; it is political Whose Terrorist? Terrorism is a strategy undertaken by structurally weak minorities against structurally more powerful political agents & institutions o Often in name of extremist ideology Groups resort to terrorism rather than other forms of political violence because their objectives lack broad appeal Goal is some form of political change Terrorists often disregard the ‘rules” warfare & conflict o Use of violence against noncombatants & “soft” targets o Washington during the Revolutionary war Legitimacy Often considered more legitimate if tactics conform to rules of “just war” tradition Challenges notion of state’s monopoly on violence But groups that use terrorist tactics reject legitimacy of state or its gov’t & claim that their efforts are morally justified Are their goals democratic or nondemocratic? Are targets domestic or international? Subnational to Global Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 Terrorism has been around for centuries Early terrorists operated against domestic targets o Their impact was limited to single state Transnational terrorism emerged in mid1900s o Expansion of commercial air travel o Availability of televised new coverage o Broad political & ideological interests among extremists that intersected around a common cause Linkages to Globalization Technologies associated w/ globalization are also associated w/ terrorism o Communication o Organization o Propaganda o Transportation o Banking & finance Role of Air Travel Air travel allowed terrorists from one country to attack in another o Lack of airport security measures Hijacking was both effective & relatively easy o States acquiesced to demands > encouraged tactic o Often demanded money release of prisoners, etc o Learned from one another Led to implementation of numerous security measures o Decades before we’d see similar measures in the US o These people are not messing around portacaths & teddy bears Pan Am Flight 103 Crashed in Lockerbie Scotland in 1988 killing 270 people Role of Libya Bombing that brought terrorism into American living rooms o First time that international terrorism became a reality for a lot of Americans Role of Television Television provided much broader audience for terrorists Increased awareness of terrorist motivations & objectives Decade of Terrorism: 19801990 Suicide bombings Hijackings 3 trends o Fewer attacks that were more deadly & more indiscriminate o Increasing sophistication of attacks Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 Types of Terrorist Groups Left wing Right wing Ethnonationalist/separatist o In many cases, terrorist wing of this group has a lot of legitimacy Legitimate concerns & grievances Religious/sacred Ethnonationalist: Tamil tigers Ethnonationalist movement in Sri lanka that used terror to fight against the gov’t Recognized as terrorists by many gov’ts but as liberation movement by many others Tactics used by gov’t against tigers gave movement more legitimacy Pioneers in suicide bombings Accused of ethnic cleansing, use of child soldiers, arms dealing, piracy, & other atrocities/criminal acts Winners write history: Tigers were defeated in 2009 o Subjective to reeducation projects o Sri Lankan gov’t has sent in army to kill entire villages Right Wing: OK City 1995 domestic terrorist attack in US killing 168 Right wing terrorist attack on gov’t of US Questioned legitimacy of US gov’t Ruby Ridge & Waco Role of the Turner Diaries o Blueprint for 2 American revolution Threshold of violence; deaths of children o Represents when you go too far o If you cross threshold, you lose your supporters o The bomber lost his support because he killed so many children Left wing: Ecoterrorism: #1 domestic terrorist threat in the US per FBI Leftwing movement Doesn’t usually target civilians, but it targets property Goal: target as much property as possible in order to cause mass damage & stop research on animals Many different groups Animal Liberation Front, Earth Liberation Front, etc Violence and/or sabotage committed in support of ecological, environmental, or animal rights causes Primarily property damage Often against corporations Tree spiking, arson, bombing animal release, etc Eye of the beholder? Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 Fighting Terrorism National measures o Airport security o Antiterror laws o Special counterterrorism task forces & LEOs International measures o International civil aviation organization o Interpol: Public safety & terrorism subdirectorate o War on Terror (Coalition of the Willing) o Human Rights Watch (terrorists & states that fight terrorism) Nuclear States China, France, Russia, UK, & the US are acknowledged nuclear powers by the Treaty on Non proliferation of Nuclear Weapons o In 1998 India & Pakistan joined the nuclear club Vertical vs Horizontal Proliferation **will be on test** o Horizontal: When a country that didn’t previously have nukes announces that they have them o Vertical: when an acknowledged nuclear states improves & increases its stockpiles & nuclear capacities (deepening nuclear tried, adding first & second strike capabilities) Trends are now regional o Nuclearization (acquisition): North Korea? Iran? o Denuclearization (removal of existing weapons): former soviet states o Nuclear weapon free zones: Latin America, Africa, etc From the Ashes of WWII Nuclear weapons have been controversial since their first inception Truman’s regrets Nuclear weapons changed dynamics of warfare & international politics Early Concerns US nuclear capacity was destabilizing in absence of second nuclear state During cold war 2 concerns emerged o First, US & the USSR were going to blow the world to hell & back again o Second, nuclear accidents (Chernobyl in 1986) represented secondary but no less terrifying threat Global Governance 1946: UN Atomic Energy Commission o Made proposals for elimination of nuclear weapons & use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes under international control o Proposals never implemented 1953 Atoms for Peace o Not disarmament but an initiative to open benefits of nuclear energy to global community o International atomic energy agency Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16 Cold War Treaties Nuclear weapons were centerpiece of international relations during cold war o Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Moratorium on testing & calls for disarmament Never passed bc states couldn’t agree on verification o 1963: Partial Test Ban Treaty prohibiting nuclear testing in atmosphere, in outer space & underwater Still under negotiation but how to hold states accountable? o Strategic arms reduction treaties o Nuclear nonproliferation treaties o Missile technology control regime To limit risks of nuclear proliferation by controlling transfers of technology that could make a contribution nuclear weapons delivery systems other than manned aircraft o Proposals for Hague Code of Conduct regarding technology transfer regarding missile technologies Postcold war The fall of Soviet Union created additional problems o Many of the soviet weapons were stored in states that became independent & sovereign o And by extension became immediate members of an otherwise very exclusive club Many former soviet states have practiced denuclearization o But approximately 23% of the Soviet nuclear arsenal went missing in the process o 900 nuclear weapons that cannot be accounted for aftermath of the Soviet disintegration Spread & proliferation Nonnuclear powers (state & nonstate alike) can get nuclear weapons by purchase or theft or by acquisition of necessary technological infrastructure o Espionage has always been at forefront of state nuclear programs o Infrastructural, human, technological, & scientific capital necessary can be developed over time o Used to be limited to state actors but of increasing concern is capacity of nonstate actors to undertake similar programs Nonproliferation Regime Unilateral, bilateral, multilateral, & global measures Nuclear supplier agreements Problems Security dilemma drives nuclear weapon acquisition Existing treaties require that US, Russia, UK, France, & China pursue disarmament in good faith but all other parties must forego acquisition of nuclear weapons all together Test 3 Study Guide 4.4.16
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