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Psych 100 Chap 10-12 Study Guide

by: Amy Lipinski

Psych 100 Chap 10-12 Study Guide 100

Marketplace > Psychlogy > 100 > Psych 100 Chap 10 12 Study Guide
Amy Lipinski
GPA 3.5
John Bickford

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About this Document

Psych 100 Cheat Sheet for Test on Chap 10-12
John Bickford
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Lipinski on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at a university taught by John Bickford in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 232 views.


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Date Created: 02/01/15
Psych Cheat Sheet Chap 8 10 11 12 8 Cognition 0 Higher mental processes by which we understand the world process info make judgmentsdecisions communicate knowledge to others thinking memory intelligence creativity Deductive Reasoning o drawing conclusions from set of premises all humans are vertebrates GB is human GB is vertebrate Logical fallacies outcome is not true ex my dog is a human 0 set of rules that have inevitable produces a solution math problems Heuristics 0 Rule of thumb or mental shortcuts that may leave to solution Enhance likelihood of nding solution do not ensure one save time may produce errors 0 making judgments based on similarity to known concept if walks like a duck amp uacks like duck o judging likely hood of an event by considering the ease examples can be recalled fear air travel over auto l base rate fallacy False Consensus Effect overestimate degree to which others share out believes attitudes attribute believing everyone drinks Wanting af rmation from others selective recall selection effect sudden awareness of relationship wout deduction Impediments to Problem Solving Functional Fixedness unusual uses amp Mental Set using established solutions even if wrong 10 Motivation gt Factors that direct amp energize behavior 0 Sustaining behavior source of energyarousal o Explaining variations in behavior over time between people 0 Describing goals explaining why people do what they do 0 Biological social cognitive aspects 0 Instinct born to be motivated motivational tensionarousal 0 Drive Reduction satisfying our needs Impel Behavior needs have 0 maintain steady internal state w feedback direction toward food away pain loops seek satisfaction Primary biological need Secondary achievement need 0 Arousal beyond drive reductions try to maintain certain levels of stimulus o Incentive motivation s pull 0 award 0 Motivation stems from desire to obtain valued external goal money grades affection 0 Works w drive reduction 0 Cognitive thoughts behind motivation o involving oneself for enjoyment more common 0 involving oneself for tangible reward o Maslow s Hierarchy ordering motivational needs Motives between need amp behavior 0 Cognition w emotional overtones organized around preferred experiences amp goals 0 Pushed by needs but pulled by environment incentive o Hunger drives motive to eat so does food 0 If only need for food any food should do Need for Achievement Stable learned characteristic in which satisfaction is obtained by striving for and attaining level of excellence l channeled through motives Individual sdifferences People high in need for achievement are moderate risk takers Need for Power Interest in controllingin uencing others Need for Af liation Interest in establishing maintaining relationship w others WW 1 Self Report Tests a Clear direct speci c b Assumptions people know themselves reveal info readily assess themselves objectively 2 Projective Test a Thematic apperception test Hun er amp Eatm MOVIe masculinity Violent Women as objects Obesity BMI gt 30 gt Some species are unlikely to become obese Factor changes of chemical composition of blood Eating Disorders 0 Change in level of glucose regulate hunger Anorexia nervosa refuse to eat 0 body stores excess sugar in blood as fats amp Bunmia binges amp purgevomit carbs communicates to brain feeling 0t hunger Emotion feelings w physiological amp cognitive monitors glucose levels food intake nlnmnnfc gt Lateral Hypothalamus starve to death gt Ventromedial Hypothalamus extreme overeating Weight set point internal weight thermostat gt hormone protects body against weight loss gt Fat cells are inherited at and early age rate at which food is converted to energy 11 Gender amp Sexl sexual anatomybehavior BIOLOGICAL Male or female in one39s sense PSYCHOLOGICAL Gender roles set of expectations to indicate appropriate behavior for men amp women gt judging individuals on basis of whole group 0 negative attitudes behaviors toward a person based on gender gt quotGlass ceilingquot unstated barriers within an organization preventing women to be promoted bc of gender discrimination gt Sexual harassment l unwanted sexual attention powergtsex Comparing individuals v general Men aggressive higher self esteem Women evaluate selves more harshly Eagly amp Wood biosocial approach important sources of gender difference is difference in physical capabilities Biological amp evolutionary factors may underlie gender differences is an unanswered amp highly controversial question 0 process by which individual learn rules and norms of appropriate behavior from society 0 Process of social learning theory taught amp rewarded for appropriate behavior 0 mental framework organizing guiding a child s understanding info of gender Male testes produces androgen male sex hormone gt Secondary sex characteristics body hair deep voice sex drive high sex drive than women Female ovaries produce estrogen amp progesterone female sex hormones 0 Greatest output of these hormones ovulation egg is released from ovaries making fertilization possible Erogenous zones areas of body w many nerve receptors Sexual Responses 1 Excitement arousing stimulus preparing for intercourse MaSturbationi seXuai self StirnUiation erection Heterosexuality attraction to opposite sex 2 Plateau max level of arousal Double Standard view that premarital sex is ok 3 Orgasm peak of sexual excitement for males not females 4 Resolution body returns to unaroused state DPermissiveness w Affection sex is ok w love 3 Refractory Stage in rnen cannot develop erection Extramarital sex sex w married person outside Develo ment person i StUdy 0f patterns 0f 9r0Wth Change Homosexual sexual attraction to same sex throughout life mum L LL 4 L L Mu Nature V Nurture Hereditary environmental gt Both interact to produce speci c behaviors interactionism Identical twins genetically identical 0 Display different patterns of development must be due to environment 0 compares different ages at same point in time studies assess differences of people 0 Limitations we cannot be sure that IQ scores are due to age not education quotCohortquot people who grow up at similar timeplacecondition 0 Longitudinal Research investigates behavior as age studies assess change in behavior over time 0 Limitations takes a long time o Sequential Research combo of cross section amp longitudinal examining number of different age groups at points in time genetic 23 pairs of XX female XY male 0 Rod shaped structure containing all basic hereditary info 0 Genes small units to transmit genetic info produce particular characteristic Gene therapy genes injected into patients bloodstream to correct particular diseases Zygote new cell Embryo developed zygote heart brain organs l Fetus 8 weeks of development Age of Viability 22wk able to be born prematurely Neonate new born gt Born w re exes rooting sucking gag startle Babinski decrease in response to a repeated stimulus Attachment positive emotional bond w child amp particular individual gt Lorenz discovered goslings followed him bc he was the rst thing seen after hatching imprinting gt Harlow s monkeys 1 wire money w milk 2 cloth monkey winnerprovided comfort Cognitive Development Piaget process by which a child s understanding of world changes Information Processing way people take in use store info Metacognition awareness of one39s own cognitive processes gt Planning monitoring revising cognitive strategies Adolescence developmental stages between child amp adult Puberty maturation of sex organs birthDZyrs Motor skills object permeance objects exist independently of oneself 27yrs Development of language egocentrism inability to take another perspective animism realism centration 2D single classi cation 712yrs Conservation 3D deductive reasoning 12j15yrs Abstract ideas counterfactual thoughts alt


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