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bio3400 exam 2

by: Taylor Martin

bio3400 exam 2 BIO_SC 3400 - 01

Taylor Martin
GPA 2.3

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notes for exam 2
Evolution and Ecology
Elizabeth King
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Evolution and Ecology

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Martin on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO_SC 3400 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Elizabeth King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Evolution and Ecology in Biological Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 04/04/16
Asexual    ¡ Binary fission  ¡ Budding  ¡ Vegetative reproduction in plants  ¡ Parthenogenesis    Sexual  Self­fertilization (hermaphrodites)  ¡ Cross­fertilization    Sex  creates new genetic combinations every  generation    Crossing over    creates even more combinations    Sex who is    Limited by mating success will be competitive    Sex who are    Limited by resources are choosy    Intrasexual selection    Competitive fight among male    Intersexual    Choosy females choose the most showy    Why do female preferences evolve?    Direct benefits  Good genes hypothesis (handicap hypothesis)  Runaway sexual selection    Direct benefits    Resources and good health    Good genes hypothesis (handicap hypothesis)    more attractive males are genetically superior    Runaway sexual selection    female preference for a unique trait    In many bird species, males and females form pair bonds, build  a nest, and both contribute to feeding the offspring. However, in  these species, it is also common for matings to occur outside  the pair bond (extra pair copulations). What is the best  surrogate measure of fitness for males and females in these  species?    A)For males: mating success. For females: number of offspring  fledged from the pair's nest.   B)For both males and females: mating success.    C)For both males and females: number of offspring fledged  from the pair's nest.    D)For males: number of offspring fledged from the pair's nest.  For females: mating success.    For males: mating success. For females: number of offspring fledged  from the pair's nest.    Female stickleback prefer males with brighter red coloration on  their belly. Given the results depicted in the graph below, it  appears that females that choose redder males benefit from:    A)good genes     B)sensory bias    C)direct benefits     D)nuptial gifts    Good genes    Given the tree above, the similar body shape of Icthyosaurs and  dolphins is best described as:    A)an example of convergent evolution    B)homoplasy    C)a trait that evolved independently more than once    D)all are correct    All are correct    Which of the following is true of the most recent common  ancestor of two currently living species?    A)it may still be alive    B)one of the two species can be more closely related to the  common ancestor    C)one of the two species may morphologically resemble the  common ancestor more than the other     D)all are true    one of the two species may morphologically resemble the common  ancestor more than the other    Which of the following best describes the relationship between  polar bears and grizzly bears (also called brown bears):    A)They do not hybridize in the wild or in zoos, thus polar bears  and grizzly bears fit the criteria as separate species under the  biological species concept.    B)  There are many morphological, behavioral, and genetic  synapomorphies defining the polar bear clade, thus polar bears  and grizzly bears fit the criteria as separate species under the  phylogenetic species concept.    C)Polar bears and grizzly bears have too many similarities to be  called separate species.    D)Polar bears and grizzly bears diverged from a common  ancestor around 300 million years ago, and thus are different  species as defined by the chrono species concept.    There are many morphological, behavioral, and genetic  synapomorphies defining the polar bear clade, thus polar bears and  grizzly bears fit the criteria as separate species under the phylogenetic  species concept.    The comparative method is one way to test hypotheses about  adaptation. Which of the following most accurately describes  an adaptation?    A)Any trait that is unique to a species    B)A trait that provides a fitness advantage    C)A trait that arises from random evolutionary change    D)A trait that has been inherited from a common ancestor    A trait that provides a fitness advantage    Magnificent Riflebirds (Ptiloris magnificus) occur in both  Australia and New Guinea. These populations were separated  by sea levels rising and covering of the land bridge between  Australia and New Guinea ~50,000 years ago. These  populations are now isolated from one another, because these  birds do not fly long distances over open water. Which of the  following best describes what you expect to happen to these  populations over time?    A)These two populations will remain unchanged as long as  their habitats stay the same     B)The populations in Australia and New Guinea will become  more homogeneous over time    C)The populations in Australia and New Guinea will become  more and more different from one another over time due to both  genetic drift and natural selection    D)The populations in Australia and New Guinea will become  more and more different from one another over time due to  natural selection but not due to genetic drift because the  populations are likely too small for drift to be important    E)The two populations will diverge into separate species within  a few generations    The populations in Australia and New Guinea will become more and  more different from one another over time due to both genetic drift and  natural selection    In the tree above, assume that the ancestor was an herb (not a  tree) without leaves or seeds. Given this, the evolution of a tree  habit in Lepidodendron, oak and yew is: (you may choose  multiple answers)    A)is an example of convergent evolution between  Lepidodendron and the oak­yew clade     B)is an example of convergent evolution between oak and yew    C)is a homologous trait for oak and yew    D)is an example of a reversal    A)is an example of convergent evolution between Lepidodendron and  the oak­yew clade    C)is a homologous trait for oak and yew  Male hummingbirds with large numbers of matings have ___  than males with few numbers of matings.  Female hummingbirds with larger numbers of matings have  ____ than females with lower numbers of matings.    A)Higher fitness, similar fitness    B)Lower fitness, higher fitness     C)Lower fitness, lower fitness    D)Higher fitness, higher fitness    Higher fitness, similar fitness    Sexual conflicts  traits that confer a fitness benefit on one sex but cost to the other    Monophyletic group (natural; clade)  Single common ancestor  All of it's known descendants    Paraphyletic group  Single common ancestor  Does not include all descendants   "Non­avian dinosaurs"    Homology  Any similarity between species due to inheritance from a common  ancestor    Homoplasy  Similar character states that evolved independently  Examples: loss of limbs    Reproductive isolation  The speciation  process  ¡ Requires a lack of gene flow     Keeping species  isolated    Which is true  Guppies from high predation locations will have an earlier age  at maturity and a higher reproductive allocation  Or  Guppies from high predation locations have longer lifespan  Guppies from high predation locations have longer lifespan    Organisms may regulate the number of offspring to maximize  fitness  Miscarriage  ¡ Cannibalism  ¡ Abandonmen    Why would fish lay make eggs in nice areas and female eggs in  poor areas  Male fitness and survival is more important    Organisms may regulate the sex ratio to maximize fitness  Change sex to increase species fitness   


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