Micro test 3 study guide
Micro test 3 study guide Biol 2041
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Daniel Kunz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Important things to know ● Cycles ○ Carbon cycle ■ ○ Nitrogen cycle ■ ● How things are made ○ Cheese ■ ○ Yogurt ■ ○ Beverages ■ Saccharomyces cerevisiae ■ Saccharomyces carlsbergensis ○ Non Beverages ○ Bread ■ Yeast > ethanol + 2 Vocabulary ● Antibiotics ○ Broad spectrum antibiotics ■ Works on a lot of organisms ○ Narrow spectrum antibiotics ■ Works on some organisms ● Food processes ○ Lactic acid bacteria ■ aka LABs ■ Non spore forming ■ Gram positive rods ○ Strain 1 v strain 2 ■ same species just different at the genetic level ■ this is responsible for the different taste of each beer ○ Fermentable sugar ■ Sugars that break down into glucose ○ Chemostat ■ We never have to stop this reaction ○ Primary fermentation ■ product is made in Trophophase ■ ○ Secondary fermentation ■ this is common for any antibiotic ■ ■ Product is made in tdiophase ● Cycles and degradation ○ Symbiosis ■ Organisms living in close association be fiscal to one another or both ○ Mycorrhizae ■ Root hairs of plants formed by fungi to extend reach of plants ○ Vesicles ■ Smooth bodied function as storage ○ Arbuscules ■ Bush like structures found in plants ○ Endoliths ■ Must grow without oxygen and minimal nutrients ○ Xenobiotics ■ Chemicals not occurring in nature ○ Biodegradation ■ Degrades over time ○ Bioremediation ■ Microbes used to detoxify or degrade pollutants ○ Bioaugmentation ■ Addition of microbes used to degrade oil ○ Composting ■ Converts plant remains into sludge ○ Biogeochemical cycles ■ Carbon and nitrogen cycle ○ Global warming ■ Result of increased carbon dioxide ○ Nitrogen cycle ■ Used to obtain nitrogen to make proteins, nucleic acids ○ Ammonification ■ Proteingo through a process of hydrolysis and bmmonia ○ Nitrogen fixation ■ Takes nitrogen gand makes iammonia ○ Nitrification ■ Conversion oammonia to anitr and takes titriand makes it nitrate ○ Denitrification ■ Takes anitra and makes it iitri. Theitris convertednitric oxide and finallyitrogen gas ■ Occurs when the soil becomes anaerobic ■ Caused by denitrifying bacteria ○ Heterocyst ■ Cyanobacteria used to carry out anaerobic conditions for fixation ○ Root nodules ■ Fixation of nitrogen via rhizobia bacteria ○ Food pyramid ■ Identify the primary producer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer and quaternary consumer below? ■ ○ Primary producer ■ Chemoautotrophic bacteria ■ Photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms ■ Need lots of these to feed small amounts of Quaternary consumers ○ Secondary consumer ○ Tertiary consumer ○ Quaternary consumer ● Water filtration ○ Aquatic microbiology ■ Study of microorganisms and activities in natural water ○ Eutrophication ■ Passage of phosphates results in nutrient rich water ways ○ Algal blooms ■ Results of eutrophication also knred tide ○ Flocculation ■ Removal of clay and colloidal material that would remain floating in the suspension ○ Filtration ■ Passes through 24 feet of sand or crushed coal ○ Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) ■ Measure of biologically degradable material in water ○ Secondary sewage treatment ■ Reduces BOD and removes organic matter ○ Bulking ■ Floating sludge ○ Septic tank ■ Not connected to municipal water supply similar to primary treatment ● Genetics ○ Genetics ■ The science of heredity, what genes are, how information is carried, how genes are passed on, how they are expressed ○ Genome ■ The genetic information of a cell ○ Chromosomes ■ Structures containing DNA, physically carry hereditary information, contains genes ○ Genes ■ Segments of DNA that code for functional products ■ In some viruses this is RNA ○ ○ DNA ■ Made up of nucleotides, complementary due to the base pair relationship ○ Nucleotides ■ Consists of a nucleobase, deoxyribose, and a phosphate group ○ Nucleobase ■ Purines and pyrimidines ○ Purines ■ Adenine ■ Guanine ○ Pyrimidines ■ Thymine ■ Cytosine ■ Uracil ○ Base pairs ■ Are always bondedeni tothymine;cytosintoguanine ■ Remember ples orees anGas iCars ○ Short tandem repeats (STRs) ■ Noncoding region of genome consists of 25 base sequences ○ DNA polymerase ■ Synthesizes DNA, proofreads and repairs DNA strand Joins newly added nucleotides to growing DNA strand ○ Replication fork ■ The point at which replication occurs ○ Semiconservative replication ■ One original strand is conserved and a new strand is made by the process of replication ○ Bidirectionally ■ Goes around the chromosome, two replication forks move in opposite directions away from origin of replication ○ Transcription ■ Synthesis of the complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template ○ Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) ■ Part of the cell's machinery to synthesize proteins ○ Messenger RNA (mRNA) ■ Carries coded information for making protein from DNA to ribosomes where the protein is synthesized ○ Promoter ■ Where RNA polymerase binds to on the DNA to begin transcription ○ Terminator ■ RNA synthesis occurs unity RNA polymerase reaches this point on the DNA strand ○ Translation ■ Protein synthesis turning nucleic acid codes into the codes for proteins ○ Codons ■ Groups of three nucleotides ○ Degeneracy ■ Has multiple codes for one amino acid ○ Sense codon ○ Nonsense codon ○ Transfer RNA (tRNA) ○ Anticodon ○ Exons ○ Introns ○ Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) ○ Repression ○ Repressor ○ Induction ○ Inducer ○ Operator ○ Operon ○ Repressor ○ Inducible operon ○ Repressible operons ○ Corepressor ○ Cyclic AMP (cAMP) ○ Catabolic activator protein (CAP) ○ Alarmone ○ Catabolite repression (glucose effect) ○ Epigenetic inheritance ○ microRNAs (miRNAs) ○ Genomics ■ Sequencing and molecular characterization of genomes ○ Genetic code ■ Set of rules that determines how a nucleotide sequence is converted into an amino acid sequence of a protein ○ Genotype ■ Is the genetic make up, the information that codes for all particular instrument ○ Phenotype ■ The expressed properties of an organism, this is a manifestation of the genotype ● Mutations ○ Mutation ■ Permanent change to the base sequence of DNA ○ Base substitution (point mutation) ■ When a single base is changed in the DNA ○ Missense mutation ■ When base substitution results in an amino acid substitution in the synthesis of a protein ○ Nonsense mutation ■ A base substitution resulting in a nonsense codon ○ Frameshift mutation ■ Result of a base pair mutation where a few nucleotide pairs are added or deleted ○ Spontaneous mutation ■ Occur in the absence of any mutation causing agents ○ Mutagens ■ Agents in the environment that directly or indirectly bring about mutation ○ Chemical mutagen ■ Chemicals that directly or indirectly bring about mutation ○ Nucleoside analog ■ Another type of chemical mutagen, similar to nitrogenous bases and cause problems for the DNA ○ Photolyases ■ Light repair enzymes repair the damage caused by visible light ○ Nucleotide excision repair ■ Can repair mutations caused by other mutagens ○ Methylases ■ Discovered by hamilton smith ○ Mutation rate ■ The rate at which mutations occur ○ Positive (direct) selection ■ Directly selects the mutation by rejection of the unmutated parent cells ○ Negative (indirect) selection ■ Identifies mutants in other kinds of genes ○ Replica plating ■ How to perform indirect selection ○ Auxotroph ■ Any mutant microorganism having a nutrient requirement not found in the parent ○ Carcinogens ○ Ames test ● Genetic recombination ○ Genetic recombination ○ Crossing over ○ Vertical gene transfer ○ Horizontal gene transfer ○ Donor cell ○ Recipient cell ○ Transformation ○ Competence ○ Conjugation ○ F factor (fertility factor) ○ Hfr cell ○ Transduction ○ Bacteriophage (phage) ○ Generalized transduction ○ Specialized transduction ○ Conjugative plasmid ○ Dissimilation plasmid ○ Bacteriocins ○ Resistance factor (R factor) ○ Resistance transfer factor (RTF) ○ Rdeterminant ○ Transposons ○ Insertion sequences (IS) ● Viruses ○ Obligatory intracellular parasites ■ Require living host cells in order to multiply ○ Viruses ■ Contains either DNA or RNA ■ Has a protein coat ■ Multiplies inside living cells ■ Synthesis specialised structure that can transfer viral nucleic acid into other cells ○ Host range ■ The amount of cells that a virus can infect ○ Phage (bacteriophage) ■ Viruses that infect bacteria ○ Viron ■ Fully developed, infectious viral particle composed of nucleic acid surrounded by protein coat ○ Capsid ■ Protein coat around virus ○ Capsomers ■ Subunit of the capsid ○ Envelope ■ Consist of a combination of lipids,proteins and carbohydrates surrounds the capsid ○ Spikes ■ Carbohydrateprotein complexes that project from surface of envelope ○ Noneveloped viruses ■ Viruses that are not covered by an envelope ○ Complex viruses ■ Complicated virus structures ○ Viral species ■ A group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche (host range) ○ Plaques ■ Produced number of clearing due to virus induced lysis ○ Plaque forming units (PFU) ■ Concentration of viral suspension measured by the number of plaques ○ Cell cultures ■ Are preferred method of growth instead of egg suspensions ○ Cytopathic effect (CPE) ■ Cell deterioration ○ Primary cell lines ■ Die after a few generations ○ Diploid cell lines ■ Developed from human cell lines can last a 100 generations used to culture viruses that need a human host ○ HeLa cells ■ Isolated from cancer of Henrietta Lacks who died in 1951 ○ Onegrowth curve ○ Lysogenic cycle ■ The host cell stays alive ○ Lytic cycle ■ Ends with lysis and death of host cell ○ Phage lysozymes ■ Breaks down a portion of the bacterial cell wall ○ Eclipse period ■ When viral multiplication is complete but infective virions are not yet present ○ Lysis ■ When the plasma membrane breaks open ○ Lysogeny ■ They phage remains inactive ○ Prophage ○ Phage conversion ■ Host exhibits new properties ○ Specialized transduction ○ Receptormediated endocytosis ■ How viruses enter eukaryotic cells ○ Fusion ■ How enveloped viruses enter eukaryotic cells ○ Uncoating ■ Separation of the viral nucleic acid from its protein coat once virion is in the vesicle ○ Reverse transcriptase ■ Uses viral RNA as a template to prides complementary DNA strand ○ Provirus ■ The viral DNA is integrated into host DNA ○ Budding ■ The formation of a capsid around and envelope ○ Sarcoma ■ Cancer connective tissue ○ Adenocarcinomas ■ Cancer of the glandular epithelial tissue ○ Oncogenes ■ Cancer Causing viruses ○ Transformation ■ Changes to the cell that do not harm the rate of growth or infect other uninfected cells ○ T antigen ○ Latent infection ■ A virus that can be dormant for years but then come teactivated due to immunosuppression can cause death ○ Chronic viral infection ■ Occurs gradually over a long period of time can cause death ○ Prion ■ Viruses that infect proteins ○ Viriod ■ Short pieces of RNA with no protein coat Timeline ○ First virus discovered tobacco mosaic virus TMV by Ivanowski in Russia (1892) and Beijerinck in holland (1899) ■ First one to infect plants ○ Second virus discovered foot in mouth disease hoeffler and Frosch 1898 ■ First one to infect animals ○ Third virus discovered yellow fever discovered by Walter Reed (1900) ■ Infects humans ○ Discovery of prions 1982 Stanley Prusiner
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