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UNT / Biology / BIOL 2041 / What are broad spectrum antibiotics target?

What are broad spectrum antibiotics target?

What are broad spectrum antibiotics target?

Description

School: University of North Texas
Department: Biology
Course: Microbiology
Professor: Daniel kunz
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Microbiology
Cost: 50
Name: Micro test 3 study guide
Description: this is a study guide for test three
Uploaded: 04/05/2016
13 Pages 42 Views 5 Unlocks
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Important things to know ● Cycles


What are broad spectrum antibiotics target?



○ Carbon cycle

○ Nitrogen cycle


What is included in the lab lactic acid bacteria group?



We also discuss several other topics like What is cs and ucs in psychology?

● How things are made ○ Cheese


Where does fermentation produce?



We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of analytic geometry?

○ Yogurt

○ Beverages

■ Saccharomyces cerevisiae

■ Saccharomyces carlsbergensis

○ Non Beverages

○ Bread

■ Yeast ­­> ethanol + CO2 

Vocabulary

● Antibiotics

○ Broad spectrum antibiotics

■ Works on a lot of organisms

○ Narrow spectrum antibiotics

■ Works on some organisms

● Food processes

○ Lactic acid bacteria Don't forget about the age old question of What are membrane-enclosed organelles?

■ aka LABs

■ Non spore forming

■ Gram positive rods

○ Strain 1 v strain 2

■ same species just different at the genetic level ■ this is responsible for the different taste of each beer ○ Fermentable sugar

■ Sugars that break down into glucose

○ Chemostat

■ We never have to stop this reaction

○ Primary fermentation

■ product is made in the Trophophase If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of behavioral medicine?

○ Secondary fermentation

■ this is common for any antibiotic

■ ■ Product is made in the idiophase

● Cycles and degradation

○ Symbiosis

■ Organisms living in close association be fiscal to one another or both ○ Mycorrhizae If you want to learn more check out What are the main characteristics of the lifespan perspective?

■ Root hairs of plants formed by fungi to extend reach of plants

○ Vesicles

■ Smooth bodied function as storage

○ Arbuscules

■ Bush like structures found in plants

○ Endoliths

■ Must grow without oxygen and minimal nutrients

○ Xenobiotics

■ Chemicals not occurring in nature

○ Biodegradation

■ Degrades over time

○ Bioremediation

■ Microbes used to detoxify or degrade pollutants

○ Bioaugmentation

■ Addition of microbes used to degrade oil

○ Composting

■ Converts plant remains into sludge

○ Biogeochemical cycles

■ Carbon and nitrogen cycle

○ Global warming

■ Result of increased carbon dioxide

○ Nitrogen cycle

■ Used to obtain nitrogen to make proteins, nucleic acids

○ Ammonification

■ Proteins go through a process of hydrolysis and become ammonia ○ Nitrogen fixation

■ Takes nitrogen gas and makes it ammonia If you want to learn more check out What is malingering, how do you detect it?

○ Nitrification

■ Conversion of ammonia to a nitrite and takes the nitrite and makes it nitrate 

○ Denitrification

■ Takes a nitrate and makes it into nitrite. The nitrite is converted to nitric oxide and finally into nitrogen gas 

■ Occurs when the soil becomes anaerobic

■ Caused by denitrifying bacteria

○ Heterocyst

■ Cyanobacteria used to carry out anaerobic conditions for fixation ○ Root nodules

■ Fixation of nitrogen via rhizobia bacteria

○ Food pyramid

■ Identify the primary producer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer and quaternary consumer below?

○ Primary producer

■ Chemoautotrophic bacteria

■ Photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms

■ Need lots of these to feed small amounts of Quaternary consumers ○ Secondary consumer

○ Tertiary consumer

○ Quaternary consumer

● Water filtration

○ Aquatic microbiology

■ Study of microorganisms and activities in natural water

○ Eutrophication

■ Passage of phosphates results in nutrient rich water ways

○ Algal blooms

■ Results of eutrophication also know as red tide

○ Flocculation

■ Removal of clay and colloidal material that would remain floating in the suspension

○ Filtration

■ Passes through 2­4 feet of sand or crushed coal

○ Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

■ Measure of biologically degradable material in water

○ Secondary sewage treatment

■ Reduces BOD and removes organic matter

○ Bulking

■ Floating sludge

○ Septic tank

■ Not connected to municipal water supply similar to primary treatment ● Genetics

○ Genetics

■ The science of heredity, what genes are, how information is carried, how genes are passed on, how they are expressed

○ Genome

■ The genetic information of a cell

○ Chromosomes

■ Structures containing DNA, physically carry hereditary information, contains genes

○ Genes

■ Segments of DNA that code for functional products

■ In some viruses this is RNA

○ DNA

■ Made up of nucleotides, complementary due to the base pair relationship ○ Nucleotides

■ Consists of a nucleobase, deoxyribose, and a phosphate group ○ Nucleobase

■ Purines and pyrimidines

○ Purines

■ Adenine

■ Guanine

○ Pyrimidines

■ Thymine

■ Cytosine

■ Uracil

○ Base pairs

■ Are always bonded adenine​to thymine​; cytosine​to guanine ■ Remember A​pples on T​rees and G​as in C​ars

○ Short tandem repeats (STRs)

■ Noncoding region of genome consists of 2­5 base sequences ○ DNA polymerase

■ Synthesizes DNA, proofreads and repairs DNA strand Joins newly added nucleotides to growing DNA strand

○ Replication fork

■ The point at which replication occurs

○ Semiconservative replication

■ One original strand is conserved and a new strand is made by the process of replication

○ Bidirectionally

■ Goes around the chromosome, two replication forks move in opposite directions away from origin of replication

○ Transcription

■ Synthesis of the complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template ○ Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

■ Part of the cell's machinery to synthesize proteins

○ Messenger RNA (mRNA)

■ Carries coded information for making protein from DNA to ribosomes where the protein is synthesized

○ Promoter

■ Where RNA polymerase binds to on the DNA to begin transcription ○ Terminator

■ RNA synthesis occurs unity RNA polymerase reaches this point on the DNA strand

○ Translation

■ Protein synthesis turning nucleic acid codes into the codes for proteins ○ Codons

■ Groups of three nucleotides

○ Degeneracy

■ Has multiple codes for one amino acid

○ Sense codon

○ Nonsense codon

○ Transfer RNA (tRNA)

○ Anticodon

○ Exons

○ Introns

○ Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs)

○ Repression

○ Repressor

○ Induction

○ Inducer

○ Operator

○ Operon

○ Repressor

○ Inducible operon

○ Repressible operons

○ Corepressor

○ Cyclic AMP (cAMP)

○ Catabolic activator protein (CAP)

○ Alarmone

○ Catabolite repression (glucose effect)

○ Epigenetic inheritance

○ microRNAs (miRNAs)

○ Genomics

■ Sequencing and molecular characterization of genomes

○ Genetic code

■ Set of rules that determines how a nucleotide sequence is converted into an amino acid sequence of a protein

○ Genotype

■ Is the genetic make up, the information that codes for all particular instrument

○ Phenotype

■ The expressed properties of an organism, this is a manifestation of the genotype

● Mutations

○ Mutation

■ Permanent change to the base sequence of DNA

○ Base substitution (point mutation)

■ When a single base is changed in the DNA

○ Missense mutation

■ When base substitution results in an amino acid substitution in the synthesis of a protein

○ Nonsense mutation

■ A base substitution resulting in a nonsense codon

○ Frameshift mutation

■ Result of a base pair mutation where a few nucleotide pairs are added or deleted

○ Spontaneous mutation

■ Occur in the absence of any mutation causing agents

○ Mutagens

■ Agents in the environment that directly or indirectly bring about mutation ○ Chemical mutagen

■ Chemicals that directly or indirectly bring about mutation

○ Nucleoside analog

■ Another type of chemical mutagen, similar to nitrogenous bases and cause problems for the DNA

○ Photolyases

■ Light repair enzymes repair the damage caused by visible light

○ Nucleotide excision repair

■ Can repair mutations caused by other mutagens

○ Methylases

■ Discovered by hamilton smith

○ Mutation rate

■ The rate at which mutations occur

○ Positive (direct) selection

■ Directly selects the mutation by rejection of the unmutated parent cells

○ Negative (indirect) selection

■ Identifies mutants in other kinds of genes

○ Replica plating

■ How to perform indirect selection

○ Auxotroph

■ Any mutant microorganism having a nutrient requirement not found in the parent

○ Carcinogens

○ Ames test

● Genetic recombination

○ Genetic recombination

○ Crossing over

○ Vertical gene transfer

○ Horizontal gene transfer

○ Donor cell

○ Recipient cell

○ Transformation

○ Competence

○ Conjugation

○ F factor (fertility factor)

○ Hfr cell

○ Transduction

○ Bacteriophage (phage)

○ Generalized transduction

○ Specialized transduction

○ Conjugative plasmid

○ Dissimilation plasmid

○ Bacteriocins

○ Resistance factor (R factor)

○ Resistance transfer factor (RTF)

○ R­determinant

○ Transposons

○ Insertion sequences (IS)

● Viruses

○ Obligatory intracellular parasites

■ Require living host cells in order to multiply

○ Viruses

■ Contains either DNA or RNA

■ Has a protein coat

■ Multiplies inside living cells

■ Synthesis specialised structure that can transfer viral nucleic acid into other cells

○ Host range

■ The amount of cells that a virus can infect

○ Phage (bacteriophage)

■ Viruses that infect bacteria

○ Viron

■ Fully developed, infectious viral particle composed of nucleic acid surrounded by protein coat

○ Capsid

■ Protein coat around virus

○ Capsomers

■ Subunit of the capsid

○ Envelope

■ Consist of a combination of lipids,proteins and carbohydrates surrounds the capsid

○ Spikes

■ Carbohydrate­protein complexes that project from surface of envelope ○ Noneveloped viruses

■ Viruses that are not covered by an envelope

○ Complex viruses

■ Complicated virus structures

○ Viral species

■ A group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche (host range)

○ Plaques

■ Produced number of clearing due to virus induced lysis

○ Plaque forming units (PFU)

■ Concentration of viral suspension measured by the number of plaques ○ Cell cultures

■ Are preferred method of growth instead of egg suspensions ○ Cytopathic effect (CPE)

■ Cell deterioration

○ Primary cell lines

■ Die after a few generations

○ Diploid cell lines

■ Developed from human cell lines can last a 100 generations used to culture viruses that need a human host

○ HeLa cells

■ Isolated from cancer of Henrietta Lacks who died in 1951

○ One­growth curve

○ Lysogenic cycle

■ The host cell stays alive

○ Lytic cycle

■ Ends with lysis and death of host cell

○ Phage lysozymes

■ Breaks down a portion of the bacterial cell wall

○ Eclipse period

■ When viral multiplication is complete but infective virions are not yet present

○ Lysis

■ When the plasma membrane breaks open

○ Lysogeny

■ They phage remains inactive

○ Prophage

○ Phage conversion

■ Host exhibits new properties

○ Specialized transduction

○ Receptor­mediated endocytosis

■ How viruses enter eukaryotic cells

○ Fusion

■ How enveloped viruses enter eukaryotic cells

○ Uncoating

■ Separation of the viral nucleic acid from its protein coat once virion is in the vesicle

○ Reverse transcriptase

■ Uses viral RNA as a template to prides complementary DNA strand ○ Provirus

■ The viral DNA is integrated into host DNA

○ Budding

■ The formation of a capsid around and envelope

○ Sarcoma

■ Cancer connective tissue

○ Adenocarcinomas

■ Cancer of the glandular epithelial tissue

○ Oncogenes

■ Cancer Causing viruses

○ Transformation

■ Changes to the cell that do not harm the rate of growth or infect other uninfected cells

○ T antigen

○ Latent infection

■ A virus that can be dormant for years but then come teactivated due to immunosuppression can cause death

○ Chronic viral infection

■ Occurs gradually over a long period of time can cause death ○ Prion

■ Viruses that infect proteins

○ Viriod

■ Short pieces of RNA with no protein coat

Timeline

○ First virus discovered tobacco mosaic virus TMV by Ivanowski in Russia (1892) and Beijerinck in holland (1899)

■ First one to infect plants

○ Second virus discovered foot in mouth disease hoeffler and Frosch 1898 ■ First one to infect animals

○ Third virus discovered yellow fever discovered by Walter Reed (1900) ■ Infects humans

○ Discovery of prions 1982 Stanley Prusiner

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