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CLEMSON / Landscape Architecture / LARC 1160 / What is the another name of park of the monsters?

What is the another name of park of the monsters?

What is the another name of park of the monsters?

Description

School: Clemson University
Department: Landscape Architecture
Course: History of Landscape Architecture
Professor: Nassar
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Week 9 Notes
Description: Renaissance in Italy, Mannerism and Baroque in Italy, Baroque expansion. These notes contain all material covered in class and include the half lecture expansion on Baroque. All of this material plus the Middle Ages (week 8) will be on Quiz 3.
Uploaded: 04/05/2016
8 Pages 38 Views 5 Unlocks
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History of Landscape Architecture


What is the another name of park of the monsters?



The Renaissance in Italy

Mannerism- a style of the late 16th century characterized by distortion of  elements such as scale, proportion, and perspective

Baroque- a style developed early 17th century that emphasized dramatic effect and typified by bold and curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and  overall balance of disparate parts

Environment 

- The new attitude now was not so much concerned with humans  relation to surroundings but the universe

- The world was changing: new discoveries

- Route to the east was discovered in 1486, America in 1492 - Copernicus’ theory that the Earth revolved around the sun and that the earth was round


What are the characteristics of early renaissance?



- Galileo supported this theory

- Kepler proved that the planets move in ellipses around the sun

Park of the Monsters 

- Villa Orsini at Bomarzo

- Another name is the Sacred Woods

- Ex of Mannerist Style

- Style of primitive giants and distorted figures

- A bizarre park filled with huge weird statues spread across the hills of  Bomarzo

- Architecture, the traditional symbol of balance, is thrown askew in that  building which is intentionally leaning We also discuss several other topics like Why russia invades finland?

- Some 400 years ago, Orsini wrote

“You who enter here, consider everything you see, and tell me if so  many wonders are made for deception or for art”

Boboli Gardens, Florence 


What is baroque?



- They are the gardens of Pitti Palace c. 1590

- Mixture of characteristics from Rennaissance, Baroque, and mannerism

1. The geometry and axial design of both palace and garden is  Renaissance

2. The Grotto shows the mannerist escape from reality into a distorted  grotesque world

3. The open air theater like garden was an influence of the Baroque  style

Villa Gamberaia at Settignano 

- Example of mannerist style c. 1610

- This design accepts the challenges and moods of man, translated them into physical form and coordinates them into a unified whole

Philosophy of Baroque 

- The early 17th century witnessed a transition from Renaissance to  Baroque

o Transitioned from the finite renaissance to the infinite Baroque - The finite renaissance was factual but the infinite baroque was  imaginative

- For the Baroque, the mind, and not the eye, was in charge - Therefore the baroque created imaginative spaces and movements - It was technically based on illusion

Expression of Baroque 

- In church interior, spaces (volumes) followed one another and  culminated in a painting of heavens on dome interior  We also discuss several other topics like What are the three main steps in rna processing?
We also discuss several other topics like When the western allies invaded france and the liberation of western europe?

- In architecture exteriors, parts were in constant and imaginative  movement, transformation, and metamorphosis  

Villa Garzoni at Collodi  

- Example of Baroque villa and garden

- Built in Collodi near Lucca in 1652

- Gardens are independent of the house

- Counter-reformation and garden design as a political statement

Reformation- a 16th century movement in western Europe that aimed at  reforming some doctrines and practices of the Roman Catholic Church and  resulted in the establishment of the Protestant Church

Counter Reformation- a reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church  that rose in the 16th century in response to the Protestant ReformationIf you want to learn more check out What are the features of the aggregate production function?

History of Landscape Architecture

The Renaissance in Italy

Environment 

- Renaissance landscapes developed in three main regions in Italy: o Tuscany (Florence)

o Lazio (Rome)

o Veneto (Genova to Venice) If you want to learn more check out What are evolution and natural selection?

Social History 

- Italy emerged from the middle ages as a number of independent states under princes

- The general atmosphere stabilizes and trade/commerce start to  flourish

- A wealthy merchants class in Florence lead by the Medici Family  encourages learning and appreciation of the arts

- Individual thinkers start to appear

- Under the Medici, the revival of classical literature and appreciation of  beauty was encouraged

Philosophy/Characteristics of the Renaissance 

- 1300 to 1400 was a transition period from the Middle ages into the  modern world

- Religious fatalisms was substituted by intellectualism If you want to learn more check out Who is at risk of insensitive parenting?

- Thinkers such as Albert proclaimed the supremacy of the human  intellect, thus the renaissance began

- Church authority was replaced by the intellectual order

- Fascination and revival of classical art and literature

- Ancient Greek and Roman literature was rediscovered, translated, and  enjoyed

Characteristics of the Renaissance Design 

- use of formal designs, based on simple geometric shapes such as circles  and squares for their geometrical purity and perfection of form

- Artists, including Brunell, sought symmetry, balance, order, and stability -Lorenzo de Medici adopted the Renaissance philosophy

-change in ideology is usually accomplished by a transitional phase Lunette of Villa Medici at Cafaggiolo

- Villa Urbana

- Garden extended itself out in the open air but…

- villa was still a Medieval fortified house

- garden was still composed of compartmentalize spaces Early Renaissance: Villa at Fiesole 

- built by Michelozzi (1458) in Fiesole, a suburb of Florence - built on a hillside with open view towards Florence

- unlike the Middle Ages, the house is built on a ridge projecting in the  air (not heavily fortified)

- extrovert design

- outwards views towards the countryside became part of the design  (replacing the walled off gardens and artificial views of the Middle Ages

Characteristics of Early Renaissance  

- individual terraces were geometrically designed, but terraced gardens  did not have the same axis

- house and gardens did not have the same axis

- use of clipped hedges and geometrical box parterres

High Renaissance: Villa D’Este at Tivoli 

- built in 1550 by Pirro Ligorio for Cardinal D’Este

- site is on a hillside overlooking the countryside

- villa and garden are brought together in one axial line

- geometrical design, balance, order, and symmetry  

- site is directed towards Rome

- Villa Urbana

Some water features used during the era include:

- Fountains (Rometta, Oval, Dianna)

- Reflecting pools (Fish ponds)

- Water organs

- Terrace of the hundred fountains

- Aqua jokes

Design Characteristics 

- Axial and symmetrical design

- Order and geometrical form

- Elaborate box parterres

- Axial views

- Terraces

- Incorporation of water features, fountains, and aqua jokes Villa Lante at Bagnaia

- Designed by Vignola (1566) at Bagnaia

- To maintain strong mirror symmetry, the house was divided into two  parts

- Gardens were on different levels (terraces)

- Strong geometrical design and mirror symmetry

- Water table- perfect mirror symmetry used in fountains - Water chains- use of water as a decorative element was influenced by  Moorish gardens of Spain

o Believed to have evolved from the original water steps of the  Generalife in Alhambra

Villa Rotanda at Vicenza 

- Built by Palladio c. 1550

- It is called Villa (Capra) Rotunda because of its square symmetrical  plan with 4 loggias and a central circular half

- The symmetrical architecture of the villa was placed asymmetrically in  the landscape with no relation to the surroundings

- Palladio was more concerned with architecture (the use of pure form)  than landscape architecture

-Vignola lifted landscape design in to the sublime, ignoring architecture (Villa  Lante)

- Palladio focused on his perfect architecture eliminating the garden (Villa  Rotunda)  

Conclusion 

- The exaggeration prepared the way to new style in search of harmony  of

o Geometry and natural form

o Architecture and landscape

- The climax of renaissance perfection of proportions, form, and  geometry was eventually the reason of the growth of mannerism in  search for a break from this perfection

History of Landscape Architecture

Expansion on Baroque

Baroque 

- Style was found throughout Europe from early 17th to middle 18th century

- It was associated with intellectual and religious upheavals precipitated  by

1. Rise of the Protestant Church in Northern Europe

2. Rise of absolute monarchies and elaborate artistic rituals 3. Rise of modern science cemented by Copernicus and Keplers  discoveries

- The intellectual and religious upheavals resulted in…

1. In Religion, it resulted in the counter-movement and caused the  Catholic church to patronize church and urban designs in a n  attempt to regain confidence of worshippers

2. In design, urban spaces and plazas were set off major religious  institutions such as churches

3. Gardens became social theatrical spaces devoted to pleasure  activities such as firework displays, plays, dances, poetry readings,  etc.

Design Characteristics 

- Highly theatrical garden spaces

- Use of curved forms in architecture

- Employment of sophisticated axial organization

- Use of new design elements; allee- a straight avenue of trees - Urban spaces set off churches and religious places

- Baroque gardens using spatial unified compositions containing radial  networks of avenues

- Villas directing their lines of sight towards the Dome of St. Peter in  Rome (ex. Villas of Franscati)

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