Soc 100, exam 3 study guide
Soc 100, exam 3 study guide SOC 100
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 100 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr. Black in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Intro to Sociology Exam 3 study guide This study guide is based off of what Dr. Black gave us in class with all of the answers. 1. Optional readings from ebook: Chapter 12 (gender) and chapter 14 (marriage and family) 2. The reading material/videos “When Girls Will Be Boys” (article) This article is about transgender students at colleges and universities. The main story in the article is about a boy named Rey who started at a women’s college as a young woman but made the transition to a man his freshman year of college. He came out at 17 and changed his name to Rey. Rey is just one example of transgender students on hundreds of campuses. A large argument in the article is about single-sex schools and whether they should accept transgender students. It represents a challenge to liberal ideas about gender equality. Gender is seen as fluid and variable to many of the students. Barnard, where Rey went, is like many other women’s colleges and only admits “legal” women. “Prostitution: Facts and Fiction” (article) A growing number of scholars regard prostitution, pornography, and stripping as “sex work” and it’s considered an occupation. There are two types of prostitution discussed in this article: street and indoor. Street prostitution is what people typically think of when they hear prostitution. It’s when women are abused, there’s victimization, and the women do it because they feel like they don’t have a choice. Indoor prostitution is in venues like bars, brothels, massage parlors, and sex services. Indoor prostitutes have lower rates of former child abuse, start at an older age, have more education, and are less drug dependent. These women are in good physical health, have high self esteem, and a quality social network. Research suggests that, under the right conditions, legal prostitution can be organized in a way that increases workers’ health, safety, and job satisfaction. There hasn’t really ever been a debate/consideration to make prostitution legal in the US. Recently, prostitution policy has become a hot topic in America, and many people are working to criminalize it. “Is Hooking Up Bad for Young Women” (essay) This essay is based on data and studies of youth sexual practices over time to counter claims that hooking up represents a sudden and alarming change in youth sexual culture. Research shows that sexual trends in young women have not changed all that much since the baby boomer generation. One reason that they report for hookups being bad is that there are sexual double standards involved with hookups. According to the article, sex in relationships, rather than hookups, is far better for women both physically and emotionally. However, they also found that relationships are hard for women in college, who often just want to be free and do what they want. The best thing would be if there was gender equality in both hookups and relationships. “For Some in Transgender Community, it’s never too late to make a change” (article) This article is about Sheela-Marie Pedgett who is a 57 year old former dance for the NYC Ballet. She recently completed gender reassignment surgery. She has lived her whole life feeling like her desire to be a woman would go away, but over time it only got stronger. She decided to make the transition, and although it hasn’t been easy, she’s extremely happy to finally be the person she felt she was meant to be. “Pornography: A user’s manual” (article) This article is about pornography and gives a lot of statistics about the Internet and the searches people make dealing with porn. When Hugh Hefner launched Playboy that’s when porn became a mass market. In recent years, there has become a “porn panic”. It’s so easily available to everyone and can be viewed anywhere. This availability has caused unrealistic expectations in young adolescent minds and is having negative effects on them. Some believe that early teens are addicted to porn, but it’s hard to do research on this topic. Whether porn really does cause addictions and create unrealistic expectations is hard to study. “Pornography: Naked Capitalism” (article) This article is about pornography and the industry that it has become. Porn used to be expensive and hard to get, but nowadays it’s often free and so readily available for anyone to get. The number of porn studios in the United States has dropped from over 200 to 20. The number of porn sites on the Internet, and the use of them, has exploded in recent years. The revenues of porn producers may never return to the high amount that they used to be at. But whether or not such innovations bear fruit, the industry is once again offering other media and online businesses a glimpse of the future. “Down or Out” (article) This article is about black women and the marriage rates among blacks. In recent years, the amount of marriage among blacks has been declining and two in three black marriages fail. Research has found that for every 2 black women who graduate college, only one black male graduates from college. There has become an imbalance between black men and women, and it’s causing a problem for marriages. A solution would be for black women to intermarriage, but 1 in 10 don’t want to. “1.5 Million Missing Black Men” (article) This article is similar to the article above in that it discusses the difference in numbers between black men and women who are available to be married. The reason that these men are missing is either early death or they’re behind bars. Black men die earlier than any other and they’re also the largest group who is in jail. There are charts and graphs on the website that shows these divisions. “Equality of Marriage Grows, and So Does Class Divides” (article) This article is about marriage and class in America. With more marriages of equals, reflecting deep changes in American families and society at large, the country is becoming more segregated by class. These changes are due to the rise of women’s education and their involvement in the work force. The marriage pay gap varies by education, profession and class. “Dr. Schwartz, the sociologist from the University of Wisconsin, said: “People who are married tend to be more advantaged, and on top of that, more advantaged people are marrying people like themselves, so those people tend to be doubly advantaged.”” “End of China’s One-Child Policy Sting Its ‘Loneliest Generation’” China’s one-child policy has led to a large gap in the number of men compared to women. Because many parents preferred having baby boys to girls, there is a generation in which the men outnumber the women and it’s having negative effects on them. So many men are unable to find women to marry because of the sex ratio imbalance which is why they are now caused the “loneliest generation”. 3. Theoretical Perspectives Symbolic Interaction: The family itself is a symbol, but it differs among family. For some it includes a mom, dad, and children. There are also aunts, uncles, and grandparents. All of these are symbols that are important to a family. A negative symbolic interaction is how people give derogatory names to homosexual people and place a taboo on it. We treat people based on our feelings. Functionalism: With marriage and family, functionalists uphold the notion that families are an important social institution and play a key role in society. The typical conception is that the nuclear family has a husband, wife, and kids. It’s often viewed as a dysfunction when a family isn’t like this nuclear family. Parents teach their children gender roles and this affects society. An example is that it’s a dysfunction how people that they extramarital sex is wrong, but so many people do it. Conflict Theory: Conflict theorists are quick to point out that American families have been defined as private entities, the consequence of which has been to leave family matters to only those within the family. It causes a conflict when people use marriage for reasons like tax breaks, inheritance, and exploit power and inequalities. 4. Sex denotes the presence of physical/anatomical characteristics. It is the biological features of the body that denote male and female. Gender distinguishes between men and women. It is socially constructed and refers to social or cultural distinctions of behaviors that are considered male or female. Sex and gender are not interchangeable because they don’t always correspond for a person. 5. The 5 sex categories are male, female, true hermaphrodites, male pseudehermaphrodite, and female pseudohermaphrodite. Males and females are different anatomically/biologically in a couple of ways. Females have 2 X (XX) chromosomes while males have 1 X and 1 Y (XY). Females have estrogen, ovaries, and a vagina, and males have testosterone, testes, and a penis. 6. Sexual orientation is a person’s emotional and sexual attraction to a particular sex (male or female). The four classifications of sexual orientation are heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, and asexuality. Heterosexuality is the attraction to individuals of the opposite sex, while homosexuality is the attraction to individuals of one’s own sex. Bisexuality is the attraction to individuals of either sex, and asexuality is having no attraction to either sex. 7. Socialization is the process by which people pass on social norms. The four main mechanisms of socialization are family, education, peer groups, and mass media. 8. In a matrilineal society, inheritance and family ties are traced to women. Oppositely, inheritance and family ties are traced to men in a patrilineal society. Depending on the type of society, a family is either in a patrilocal and matrilocal residence system, which determines whose family a couple will live with. 9. The four functions of the family are sexual, reproductive, educational, and economic. 10. The different forms of marriage are monogamy and polygamy. Monogamy is when someone is married to one person at a time. Polygamy is being married to more than one person at a time. While many societies accept polygamy, most do not practice it. Polygamy is broken into two parts: polygyny and polyandry. Polygyny is more common than polyandry and is when one man is married to more than one woman at the same time. Polyandry is the opposite; one woman is married to more than one man at the same time.
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