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Exam 2 Review

by: Hannah Kennedy

Exam 2 Review 21001

Hannah Kennedy
GPA 3.98

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About this Document

This study guide is a comprehensive and detailed document on everything that will be covered on exam 2 regarding Normative Ethics.
Intro to Ethics
Devon M. Hawkins
Study Guide
Into to Ethics, ethics, philosophy, into to philosophy, foot, smart, Kant, Hobbes, Aristotle, Ross, Normative Ethics
50 ?




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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Kennedy on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 21001 at Kent State University taught by Devon M. Hawkins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 04/04/16
© Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 1 Exam 2 Review Philosopher Ethical  What we  How to  Circumstance Moral value Frequency  theory are trying to achieve our  s of our  of an action  of moral  achieve  goal actions  affect  comes  actions (goal) their morality from… Foot Smart Kant Hobbes Ross Aristotle 1. Explain the difference: a. A priori vs. a posteriori b. Ends vs. means c. Necessary vs. sufficient d. Rights vs. duties 2. Foot © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 2 a. Define and describe natural goodness b. Define and describe secondary goodness c. List and describe the two important disclaimers about natural goodness d. Explain how we assess/determine natural goodness e. Explain and describe the Aristotelian categorical f. What requirements does the Aristotelian categorical have and how do these requirements  fit into assessing natural goodness g. Describe how Foot things about happiness as the soul end in life h. Explain the following two quotes: Quote Description “natural goodness…is attributable only to living  things themselves and…it depends directly on… the life form of its species” (pg 67) © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 3 “thus, evaluation of an individual living thing in its own right…is possible where there is intersection  of 2 types of propositions: Aristotelian  categoricals…and propositions about particular  individuals” (pg 71) 3. Smart a. What is Smart’s definition of utilitarianism? b. Define and describe extreme (act) utilitarianism c. Define and describe restricted (rule) utilitarianism d. Explain the difference between particular actions vs. classes of actions (which type of  utilitarianism supports each) e. Explain the difference between one supreme moral principle vs. multiple (lesser/smaller)  moral principles (which type of utilitarianism supports each) f. Describe what rules of thumb are g. Explain when extreme utilitarianism might use rules of thumb h. Explain when restricted utilitarians do not use smaller moral rules/principles i. Describe what kind of utilitarianism smart prefers and explain why © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 4 j. Describe the Hitler example and evaluate it from each type of utilitarianism k. Explain the difference between the utility of an action vs. utility of praising or condemning  an action l. Describe whether or not smart things everyone should be an extreme utilitarian m. Explain the following 4 quotes Quote Description “To put it shortly, rules do not matter, save per  accidens as rules of thumb and as de facto social  institutions with which the utilitarian has to  reckon when estimating consequences” (pg 78) “Broadly, then, actions are to be tested by rules  and rules by consequences” (pg 79) “We must never forget that an extreme utilitarian  may praise action which he knows to be wrong” (pg 79) “Knowledge of the rule enables us to predict their  behavior and to harmonize our own actions with  theirs. The rule…is not a logical reason for action  but an anthropological datum for planning  © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 5 actions.” (pg 85) 4. Kant a. Describe what deontology is b. Describe the rational realm c. Describe the bodily realm d. Explain what Kant thinks makes us equal e. Explain what Kant things is the only intrinsically valuable thing f. Describe what Kant things about character and happiness g. Why is a good will “good”—what makes it good? h. Describe how we measure goodness of the will i. Describe actions contrary to duty j. Describe actions in accordance to duty k. Describe actions from duty © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 6 l. Define and give examples of perfect duties m. Define and give examples of imperfect duties n. Explain the difference between hypothetical vs. categorical o. Define imperative p. Define and describe the categorical imperative q. Define and describe the universal law formulation r. Give the general form of the universal law formulation s. Run an example through the general form of the universal law formulation t. Define and describe the end­in­itself formulation u. Give the general form of the end­in­itself formulation v. Run an example through the end­in­itself formulation © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 7 w. Describe common critiques of intention­based ethical theories x. Describe some common critiques of the categorical imperative y. Explain the following 4 quotes Quote Description “It is impossible to thing of anything at all in the  world, or indeed even beyond it, that could be  considered good without limitation except a good  will.” (pg 88) “A good will is not good because of what it effects  of accomplishes, because of its fitness to attain  some proposed end, but only because of it volition”  (pg 89) “I ought never to act except in such a way that I  could also will that my maxim should become a  universal law” (pg 91) “It has to do not with the matter of the action and  what is to result from it, but with the form and the principle from which the action itself follow; this  imperative may be called the imperative of  morality” (pg 93) 5. Hobbes a. Describe what ethical egoism is b. Define state of nature and describe its characteristics © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 8 c. Explain why we fight in the state of nature/war (3 things) d. Define law of nature and list the first 4 foundational laws e. Describe the right of nature f. Define social contract and describe what it requires to be able to be formed g. Define covenant and describe how it is enacted h. Explain why only a fool would break the social contract i. Give Hobbes’ definition of justice j. Describe how the social contract relates to morality (for Hobbes) k. Explain the following 4 quotes Quote Description “Hereby it is manifest that during the time  men live without a common power to keep  them all in awe, they are in that condition  which is called war; and such a war as is  every man against every man” (pg 102) “In such condition, there is not place for… © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 9 society; and which is worst of all, continual  fear, and danger of violent death; and the  life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,  and short.” (pg 103) “So that the nature of justice consisteth in  keeping of valid covenants, but the validity  of covenants begins with the constitution of civil power sufficient to compel men to keep them” (pg 107) “Justice therefore, that is to say, keeping of  covenant, is a rule of reason which we are  forbidden to do anything destructive to our  life, and consequently a law of nature” (pg  109) 6. Ross a. Describe what is wrong with Kantianism according to ross b. Describe what is wrong with ideal utilitarianism according to ross c. Explain the difference between ideal utilitarianism vs utilitarianism d. Define pluralism e. Explain the difference between prime facie duties vs. duties proper f. Explain how we learn what our prime facie duties are © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 10 g. Do we ever know for sure that our actions are right, even when guided by prime facie  duties? h. Give the 7 prime facie duties  i. Give the objection  j. Give Ross’s response to the objection k. Explain the following 3 quotes Quote Description “When I am in a situation, as perhaps I always  am, in which more than one of these prime facie  duties is incumbent on me..then I am bound to  thing that to do this prime facie duty is my duty  sans phrase in the situation” (pg 114) “ We have to distinguish from the characteristic of  being our duty that of tending to be our duty…in  virtue of being the breaking of a promise, for  instance, it tends to be wrong; in virtue of being an instance of relieving distress it tends to be right”  (pg 117) “There is therefore much truth in the description  of the right act as a fortunate act…this  consideration doesn’t, however, make the doing of  our duty a mere matter of chance” (pg 189) © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 11 7. Aristotle a. What is the Lyceum? b. Explain the difference between intellectual virtue vs. moral virtue c. Describe the genus and differentia of moral virtue d. Explain how we become virtuous e. Describe what we must do to act virtuously f. Explain why virtuous actions are difficult g. Do all actions admit of a mean? Will the mean always be half way between excess and  defect? h. Explain why virtue is both a mean and an excess i. Explain the following 3 quotes Quote Description “matters concerned with conduct and questions of  what is good for us have no fixity..” (pg 125) “for moral excellence is concerned with the  pleasures and pains… Hence we ought to have  been brought up…so as both to delight in and to  © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 12 be pained by the things that we ought; this is the  right education” (pg 126). “virtue, then, is a state of character concerned  with choice, lying in a mean, i.e. the mean relative to us, this being determined by a rational principle and by that principle by which the man of  practical wisdom would determine it” 9pg 129)


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