Exam 2 Review
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Kennedy on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 21001 at Kent State University taught by Devon M. Hawkins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
© Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 1 Exam 2 Review Philosopher Ethical What we How to Circumstance Moral value Frequency theory are trying to achieve our s of our of an action of moral achieve goal actions affect comes actions (goal) their morality from… Foot Smart Kant Hobbes Ross Aristotle 1. Explain the difference: a. A priori vs. a posteriori b. Ends vs. means c. Necessary vs. sufficient d. Rights vs. duties 2. Foot © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 2 a. Define and describe natural goodness b. Define and describe secondary goodness c. List and describe the two important disclaimers about natural goodness d. Explain how we assess/determine natural goodness e. Explain and describe the Aristotelian categorical f. What requirements does the Aristotelian categorical have and how do these requirements fit into assessing natural goodness g. Describe how Foot things about happiness as the soul end in life h. Explain the following two quotes: Quote Description “natural goodness…is attributable only to living things themselves and…it depends directly on… the life form of its species” (pg 67) © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 3 “thus, evaluation of an individual living thing in its own right…is possible where there is intersection of 2 types of propositions: Aristotelian categoricals…and propositions about particular individuals” (pg 71) 3. Smart a. What is Smart’s definition of utilitarianism? b. Define and describe extreme (act) utilitarianism c. Define and describe restricted (rule) utilitarianism d. Explain the difference between particular actions vs. classes of actions (which type of utilitarianism supports each) e. Explain the difference between one supreme moral principle vs. multiple (lesser/smaller) moral principles (which type of utilitarianism supports each) f. Describe what rules of thumb are g. Explain when extreme utilitarianism might use rules of thumb h. Explain when restricted utilitarians do not use smaller moral rules/principles i. Describe what kind of utilitarianism smart prefers and explain why © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 4 j. Describe the Hitler example and evaluate it from each type of utilitarianism k. Explain the difference between the utility of an action vs. utility of praising or condemning an action l. Describe whether or not smart things everyone should be an extreme utilitarian m. Explain the following 4 quotes Quote Description “To put it shortly, rules do not matter, save per accidens as rules of thumb and as de facto social institutions with which the utilitarian has to reckon when estimating consequences” (pg 78) “Broadly, then, actions are to be tested by rules and rules by consequences” (pg 79) “We must never forget that an extreme utilitarian may praise action which he knows to be wrong” (pg 79) “Knowledge of the rule enables us to predict their behavior and to harmonize our own actions with theirs. The rule…is not a logical reason for action but an anthropological datum for planning © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 5 actions.” (pg 85) 4. Kant a. Describe what deontology is b. Describe the rational realm c. Describe the bodily realm d. Explain what Kant thinks makes us equal e. Explain what Kant things is the only intrinsically valuable thing f. Describe what Kant things about character and happiness g. Why is a good will “good”—what makes it good? h. Describe how we measure goodness of the will i. Describe actions contrary to duty j. Describe actions in accordance to duty k. Describe actions from duty © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 6 l. Define and give examples of perfect duties m. Define and give examples of imperfect duties n. Explain the difference between hypothetical vs. categorical o. Define imperative p. Define and describe the categorical imperative q. Define and describe the universal law formulation r. Give the general form of the universal law formulation s. Run an example through the general form of the universal law formulation t. Define and describe the endinitself formulation u. Give the general form of the endinitself formulation v. Run an example through the endinitself formulation © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 7 w. Describe common critiques of intentionbased ethical theories x. Describe some common critiques of the categorical imperative y. Explain the following 4 quotes Quote Description “It is impossible to thing of anything at all in the world, or indeed even beyond it, that could be considered good without limitation except a good will.” (pg 88) “A good will is not good because of what it effects of accomplishes, because of its fitness to attain some proposed end, but only because of it volition” (pg 89) “I ought never to act except in such a way that I could also will that my maxim should become a universal law” (pg 91) “It has to do not with the matter of the action and what is to result from it, but with the form and the principle from which the action itself follow; this imperative may be called the imperative of morality” (pg 93) 5. Hobbes a. Describe what ethical egoism is b. Define state of nature and describe its characteristics © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 8 c. Explain why we fight in the state of nature/war (3 things) d. Define law of nature and list the first 4 foundational laws e. Describe the right of nature f. Define social contract and describe what it requires to be able to be formed g. Define covenant and describe how it is enacted h. Explain why only a fool would break the social contract i. Give Hobbes’ definition of justice j. Describe how the social contract relates to morality (for Hobbes) k. Explain the following 4 quotes Quote Description “Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war as is every man against every man” (pg 102) “In such condition, there is not place for… © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 9 society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” (pg 103) “So that the nature of justice consisteth in keeping of valid covenants, but the validity of covenants begins with the constitution of civil power sufficient to compel men to keep them” (pg 107) “Justice therefore, that is to say, keeping of covenant, is a rule of reason which we are forbidden to do anything destructive to our life, and consequently a law of nature” (pg 109) 6. Ross a. Describe what is wrong with Kantianism according to ross b. Describe what is wrong with ideal utilitarianism according to ross c. Explain the difference between ideal utilitarianism vs utilitarianism d. Define pluralism e. Explain the difference between prime facie duties vs. duties proper f. Explain how we learn what our prime facie duties are © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 10 g. Do we ever know for sure that our actions are right, even when guided by prime facie duties? h. Give the 7 prime facie duties i. Give the objection j. Give Ross’s response to the objection k. Explain the following 3 quotes Quote Description “When I am in a situation, as perhaps I always am, in which more than one of these prime facie duties is incumbent on me..then I am bound to thing that to do this prime facie duty is my duty sans phrase in the situation” (pg 114) “ We have to distinguish from the characteristic of being our duty that of tending to be our duty…in virtue of being the breaking of a promise, for instance, it tends to be wrong; in virtue of being an instance of relieving distress it tends to be right” (pg 117) “There is therefore much truth in the description of the right act as a fortunate act…this consideration doesn’t, however, make the doing of our duty a mere matter of chance” (pg 189) © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 11 7. Aristotle a. What is the Lyceum? b. Explain the difference between intellectual virtue vs. moral virtue c. Describe the genus and differentia of moral virtue d. Explain how we become virtuous e. Describe what we must do to act virtuously f. Explain why virtuous actions are difficult g. Do all actions admit of a mean? Will the mean always be half way between excess and defect? h. Explain why virtue is both a mean and an excess i. Explain the following 3 quotes Quote Description “matters concerned with conduct and questions of what is good for us have no fixity..” (pg 125) “for moral excellence is concerned with the pleasures and pains… Hence we ought to have been brought up…so as both to delight in and to © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 12 be pained by the things that we ought; this is the right education” (pg 126). “virtue, then, is a state of character concerned with choice, lying in a mean, i.e. the mean relative to us, this being determined by a rational principle and by that principle by which the man of practical wisdom would determine it” 9pg 129)
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