Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Sociology 100
Popular in Introductory Sociology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Sociology
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Monday April 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. James Kanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Western Kentucky University.
Reviews for Exam 2 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/04/16
• What was Asch’s line experiment? o Belonging to groups puts significant pressure on members to conform • Group think: when conformity goes too far; pressure to agree overpowers individual member’s willingness to weigh alternatives • Social control: mechanisms for ensuring conformity and maintaining social order o Informal social control: reactions of peers (informal) and others that encourage conformity to rules and norms o Formal social control: official authorities enforce rules and laws often apply official sanctions to deviance • Deviance refers to behaviors, beliefs, and/or appearances that fall outside the “normal” range of social expectations o Absolute deviance: o Relative deviance: • The major data sources for crime in the U.S. are the FBI uniform crime report, and the Department of Justice national crime victimizations survey • Tennessee has the highest rate of violent crime in the country based on the population to crime ratio of that state, other states might have more crime but their population is much larger • The US population is rising while the crime rate is falling • Relation to crime rates in the U.S. o Age: young commit crimes more than old o Gender: men are more likely to commit crimes than women o Race: whites commit crimes more, but racial profiling says blacks and Hispanics are more likely to • The 4 purposes of punishment o Incarceration: primary form (the US puts more people in prison than any other country) o Rehabilitation o Deterrence o retribution • Know how functionalism explains deviance • Functions of deviance: o Promotion of conformity and unity o Clarification of moral boundaries o Jobs and services to deviants o Social change • Conflict perspective on deviance o Deviance and definitions of morality and immorality reflect power imbalances o Unethical, harmful, and/or immoral behavior exists at all levels of society, but tends to be criminalized for the less powerful o In conflicts between groups, some groups do a better job of making their “definitions of what is deviance” stick • Social differentiation: systems of ranking socially-differentiated people or groups • Social stratification: categorize or group people based on different physical or social characteristics • Three dimensions of stratification in the U.S. o Prestige: respect and admiration is attached to social status § Primarily obtained through occupation o Power § Forms of authority: Max Weber • Charismatic: power arises from leader’s personal characteristics; inherently unstable since it fades with individuals • Traditional: power rooted in custom • Legal: rational; power based on formal position of office o Economic resources § CEO is the highest compensated profession in the US § Wealth: net value of assets owned by individuals or family, real estate, net financial assets § Income: receipt of money or goods over a particular accounting period • Know the general distribution of wealth in the U.S., namely the percentage of the wealth controlled by the top 20%. • Know the trend for the distribution of income, especially the percentage going to the top 10% over the past 30 years. • How do functionalists explain stratification? • Conflict Perspective o Inequality is result of conflict for resources o Wealth flows upward § Incentives are part of explanation, but so is exploitation • Exploitation: trying to minimize the costs of labor, “the less you pay, the greater you profit” • American capitalism is a history of the struggle over wages • Social class: people who share similar economic situations • Upper class: possess significant income/wealth o For many, income is not job-related o Importance of inheritance and proper upbringing (nouvou riche vs. old money) o Highly educated at elite institutions (not necessary for employment) • Middle classes: adequate to substantial income/wealth o Income is primarily employment-based o Wealth largely held in retirement-style accounts o Education is important determinant of employment § Upper-middle class among most highly educated post- graduate § Education more likely at a state/public university o Job security with benefits (better at the top than the bottom), more likely to be salaried labor • Lower classes: o Working class: wage labor, loser job security, fewer benefits, lower education (probably high school and maybe some college) o Working poor: unskilled laborers, close to minimum wage labor, no job security, no benefits, limited education (maybe high school but probably not) o Underclass: chronically unemployed (maybe disabled), little or no education • Census bureau definition of poverty: income level is above or below this amount and takes into consideration the amount of family members and their ages, if below you are considered to be in poverty o As of 2013 the threshold of the poverty line for a family of 4 was $24,000 in a year • How age, gender, and race related to poverty rates? • Misconceptions about the Poor o They’re lazy § Most poor adults have jobs or they are too young, too old, or disabled o Welfare dependence § 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act o Most poor are chronically poor § Majority of poor are temporary poor, although many live very close to the line (<10% are poor for 3 consecutive years) • After decades of significant social mobility in the US, the past two decades have shown significant slowing and when it occurs, it tends to be slight o Importance of college education is particularly acute for people at the bottom of the class structure • Race: a socially-constructed idea that refers to people who share selected physical characteristics that are given social meaning o Race is an invented classification system; humans are 99.9% genetically identical o Race is social created; there is little to no scientific agreement on a biological basis for race; perception is key o Ideas about what racial groups are change with time and across societies • Ethnicity is based on shared cultural and social characteristics o Nationality and religion are often connected with ethnicity • How does race/ethnicity affect measures of well-being like income, life expectancy, and infant mortality? • Prejudice: negative beliefs or attitudes held about entire groups o Broadly applied, subjective, and stereotype-filled • Discrimination: any behavior that harms individuals or puts them at a disadvantage on the basis of their group membership o Maintains social hierarchy by blocking advancement of subordinate groups • Explicitly anti-black attitudes among voters increased after election of President Obama • Surveys of whites suggest that stereotypical blacks are perceived to be more criminal • Harsher punishments are found to be more acceptable when offenders are perceived to be black • Public support for voter id restrictions increases when images of non-white voters are presented • Individual discrimination: personal (race card project: Don’t Bring a Black Man Home) • Institutional or structural discrimination: embedded in social institutions (military segregation, and voting rights: blacks in 1866 and women in 1914) • Social, cultural, and economic advantages associated with membership in a particular group o Tendency to view these advantages as “the norm” for all and are therefore often not recognized as advantages • Assimilation-based relations o Anglo-conformity: immigrants are accepted as long as they conform to the host society, traditionally American institutions are maintained o Melting pot: all ethnic and racial minorities blend together o Cultural pluralism: recognizes immigrant’s desires to maintain as least a remnant of their “old” way while accommodating American values and norms o Segregation: physical and institutional separation (forced or voluntary) of dominant and minority groups § De jure segregation and de facto segregation • In 2000 Alabama finally removed ban on interracial marriage, maintains legality of racial segregation in schools o Subjugation: involuntary social separation with individual rights § Ex: slavery o Expulsion: forced removal of one population by another • Know the forms of conflict-based patterns of group co-existance. • Sex: determined by largely visible biological characteristics like primary and secondary sex characteristics (X and Y chromosomes) o Primary: very obvious physical characteristics revealing sex o Secondary: physical characteristics associated with a certain sex • Gender: socio-cultural characteristics and expectations that include ideas about masculinity and femininity • Gender roles and norms o How do women and men behave normally? § Women sit with crossed legs or ankles normally, men sit with their legs apart § Culturally based expectations associated with each gender • Gender identity: sense of self as being male or female and masculine or feminine • How do functionalists explain gender stratification? • How does conflict theory explain gender stratification? • What are the three waves of feminism and what does each represent? • What is the gender pay gap and where is it in 2012? • Why is the gender pay gap for Blacks and Hispanics less than that for whites? • How do we explain the gender pay gap? • How does a college education affect the pay gap? • What is the glass ceiling and glass escalator? >>Videos • Know the relationship between the ideal, believed, and actual distribution of wealth in America as presented in the Wealth Inequality in America video. • Know the main point from the TED lecture regarding the impact of inequality on measures of societal well-being. • How does wealth and the simulation of wealth appear to affect attitudes and behavior? (hint: Monopoly game and drivers stopping for pedestrians)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'