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HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan
EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
∙ WORLD WAR II CONTINUED
∙ Almost all big events in the 20th century had ties to WWII. By 1940, Hitler dominated the continent of Europe (excluding Britain). The United States was trying to stick to their policy of isolationism (a policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of other groups, especially the political affairs of other countries), however President Roosevelt was sending supplies to Britain for months before actually joining the war.
∙ June 1941 – Germany attacked the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics [aka Russia]), and Stalin was not prepared because he ignored all the warning signs Britain provided him. After the first attack Stalin was very demoralized. Words cannot describe the magnitude of the Eastern Front. Don't forget about the age old question of What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
o Germany led a force of 3 million men into Russia, and Russia began to collapse with huge numbers of casualties.
o December 1941 – the Germans were on Moscow, Russia’s doorstep.
∙ Stalin finally composed himself. He moved his western citizens far west and packed up/moved factories to the east. Still, in Leningrad, the Germans laid siege for 16 months. 3 million Russians starved to death. The Russians needed an act from God, and that is exactly what they got.
o The worst recorded winter in the past 140 years set in. Temperatures down to 60 degrees were reached, and the Germans were not prepared whatsoever. However, the Russians were very used to this weather; so Stalin set forth on a counterattack.
∙ Battle of Stalingrad – (1942) this was the single largest battle in world history and the worst battle in human history, it was fought in Stalingrad, Russia We also discuss several other topics like prokaryotic cells can actively exchange genetic material by a process called __________________.
o After months of fighting, the Stalin and the Russians were finally able to push the German army back.
∙ After this war, Stalin joined Britain and the United States in the war effort.
o Grand Alliance: Russia, Britain, and the United States
o The plan was to pinch Hitler and squeeze him back into Germany.
∙ Operation Overlord (DDay): on June 6, 1944 British, American, and Canadian troops landed on the coast of Normandy, France to take on the Germans, this was an airborne assault followed by an amphibious assault o On day one, 90,000 troops made in ashore. By the end of it, over 2 million troops had made it ashore. The trek over was awful. Soldiers were crammed in small boats and rafts, and once they made it to the shore they had to storm the beach with all their heavy equipment while being shot at by German troops. Although this was an emotional assault, it was very successful. If you want to learn more check out university of colorado denver chemistry
∙ Within months the allies had liberated France, however, Germany was not giving up that easy. The Germans launched a counteroffense.
o Battle of the Bulge – (1944) German attack on the Western Front to try and catch the allies off guard, the Americans suffered many causalities
o However, at the same time the Russians stormed across Eastern Europe. From 19421945, the allied forces dropped bombs on German cities to try and destroy the German will to fight. There was so much destruction and so many lost lives that German officers began to turn on Hitler. A failed assassination attempt proved that Hitler no longer had complete control.
The worst of the bombings was in Dresden. It is estimated that 50100 thousand people died in just a few days.
∙ WAR IN THE PACIFIC
∙ This war was fought between the Western Allies and the Japanese. It was sparked by the fact that, one, Japan occupied many countries and, two, the United States quit trading with Japan. In retaliation, the Japanese attacked the United States.
o Pearl Harbor – (December 7, 1941) Japanese planes attacked the United States Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the bombing killed more than 2,300 Americans (this was an awful side of WWII, many people would have rather fought Hitler than the Japanese) We also discuss several other topics like what submicroscopic particles are the building blocks of matter?
∙ The American’s new plan was to defeat Hitler then destroy Japan. Thus, the object was to hold the Japanese off just long enough until they could punish them. When the time came, the Americans dropped firebombs
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on major Japanese cities, but the Japanese refused to stand down. The Americans were forced to take drastic measures.
o The Atomic Bomb – the Americans, with the help of German scientists, were able to create the Atomic Bomb, they knew how devastating it was and they decided to drop it on the Japanese Nagasaki and Hiroshima – the locations that the Atomic Bombs devastated, many Japanese died and finally Japan surrendered a few days later
∙ Loss of life – there were many, many lives lost throughout the course of WWII
o Over 50 million people died during WWII (example: Russia lost 20 million and China lost 15 million)
∙ The economic effect devastated many countries, however, the United States’ economy actually thrived in prosperity and growth. Don't forget about the age old question of viscosity and imf
o By 1950, the Germans and Japanese were back on their feet.
∙ Many people were misplaced during the war as well. The prisoners of war and other citizens had nowhere to go.
∙ On the other hand, the war led to many advances in technology. Don't forget about the age old question of purdue ma 161
∙ Lastly, colonial empires were dismantled giving some countries a little more freedom. Although not all countries were given freedom, they would eventually break free in the following years. ∙ THE COLD WAR
∙ This was a 45yearlong struggle between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies. It ultimately results in the major arsenals of weapons (including nuclear weapons). It sees much of the world drawn into alliance systems. The U.S. and Russia sought out new relations and allies all over the world. It became Capitalism versus Communism.
∙ The origins of the Cold War are in the last months of WWII:
o Yalta – Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin (Big Three) met here to discuss how they were going to wrap up WWII; the Soviets went into this meeting with the “upper hand” because they were very close to meeting their military goals (Soviets would come from the East and close in on the Germans as the Americans and British came in from the West [converge on Germany in Berlin]); at this meeting Stalin had already met his military objective, but the U.S. and Britain had not even crossed the Rhine River yet (they had a set back at the Battle of the Bugle); at this meeting they decided how to set up/run Europe after Hitler was taken out; Stalin wanted a buffer between Germany and Russia, he wanted something “ProSoviet;” this is the bone of contention that starts the Cold War (free elections does not mean “ProSoviet” and Stalin wasn’t okay with that); another decree was that Russia could take reparations from the Germans for the war
o Fall of Berlin – war comes to an end in April/May of 1945 when the allies pressed in and ended the Third Reich
o Issue of Free Elections – the war is still going on in the Pacific at this time; this issue is what leads to the Cold War (Harry Truman is the new President of the U.S. and he hammers the idea of free elections in Europe)
Potsdam – they met here again in July of 1945
o Containment – Truman argues that he is going to “get tough” with the Soviets and he states that his objective is to stop the spread of Communism
o Truman Doctrine – (1947) first applied to the countries of Greece and Turkey; Truman says he is going to hold the Communists back by preventing them by giving foreign aid; Truman said he would help European countries recover to avoid the spread of Communism
o Marshall Plan – Secretary of State (General George Marshall) announced this famous plan, which was one of the most important things to happen during the Cold War; it said that the U.S. would give about 13 billion (130 billion today) dollars to 16 nations in Europe to help them rebuild after WWII; it was successful, but Truman wanted more support from his own people
Iron Curtain Speech – Truman brought Churchill over to speak to the Americans who adored him; he said an Iron Curtain had fallen between Eastern and Western European countries; it was a very effective speech, he was able to inspire both the British and the Americans
o NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization; military alliance between western democracies and the U.S.
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∙ Cold War conflicts – it was mostly a war of words, but there were times when it heated up o Berlin Airlift – the division of Berlin became highly problematic; the West didn’t suffer as much as the East; the currency reforms of the Western zones worked; there was a huge problem with refugees because people were leaving East Berlin to move to the West; they decided to eventually seal off Berlin to avoid this movement; West Berlin became a peephole and an escape; they shut off roads and railways into both East and West Berlin; Britain and the United States organized the Berlin Airlift, and for about 10 and a half months they flew in supplies from the outside world; this became a showdown between the Soviets and the Western allies; Berlin is a super hot spot; the Western allies “won” and saved Berlin and the Soviets were forced to move out (this was never an actual “war,” there was no military conflict in this instance)
o Korean War – this incident was an actual “war;” the Northern zone was Soviet occupation with a Communist government and the Southern zone was U.S. occupation with an antiCommunist government (the split was at the 38th parallel line); in 1958 North Korea invaded South Korea in hopes of uniting all of Korea; Truman appealed to the United Nations and gained support and troops to fight North Korea and force them out of South Korea (stop the spread of Communism); MacArthur led the effort against North Korea; they were able to push the Soviets out of South Korea and even push past the 38th parallel line; MacArthur pushed towards the Yalu River (divided China and North Korea); he and Truman got in an argument because Truman wanted to keep the war in Korea and didn’t want to expand this war into China because it would become a much larger issue than it needed to be (MacArthur was fired); the war becomes a sort of stalemate with much of the conflict around the 38th parallel
∙ McCarthyism – was referring to the junior Senator (Joseph McCarthy); he played on the idea of Soviet subversion; there were Communist spies; the U.S. had created the atomic bomb at Los Alamos, Mexico; we used the atomic bomb in 1945, and from 19451949 the U.S. was the only nation with an atomic bomb, this gave the Americans the advantage; but in 1949 the Soviets developed an atomic bomb; so people felt secrets were passed to the Soviets; there was a growing sense of paranoia; Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were arrested and executed for believing to be spies for the Soviets
o McCarthy had a speech that he was to deliver to a woman’s club – he said he had a list of 205 names of known Communist subversives in the State Department; this explodes, there was no list and it was a lie, but it is what set off McCarthyism; Congress set up committees to investigate; it was a domestic byproduct of the Cold War
∙ There were changing attitudes during the 1950s – there is a little bit of relaxation between the U.S. and Russia:
o Russia – there were things that would help Russia to be a little less aggressive
European recovery – Marshall Plan money helped a lot, but the governments really helped get Europe back on its feet, this recovery made the Eastern Bloc not look so good, this made a fortress against the spread of Communism
U.S. was willing to fight in Korea – this showed Russia that the Americans were willing to fight and forced them to back off a bit
Food Shortages – there is still a lack of food in Russia, this makes Communism look bad Hold over satellites weaken – there is a lacking control over Eastern satellites
China went its own course, split in Communism
o United States – there were things that helped the U.S. relax a little bit as well
Eisenhower elected – said Truman wasn’t aggressive enough toward Communism Nikita Khrushchev – a politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War (19531964), responsible for deStalinization of Russia
Hungary – revolted in 1956 (Soviet Satellite), the Hungarians rose up and tried to overthrow the Soviet oppression, this is what the U.S. had been waiting for (Communism to start rotting from within)
North Vietnam went Communist
Russia now had an atomic bomb as well – this sort of made both sides back off in hopes of avoiding an atomic war
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o Peaceful Coexistence – the realization that the U.S. is better off just leaving things the way they are and not try and destroy the planet
∙ Berlin Wall – (1961) Berlin is divided into East and West zones still, by this time about 3.5 million people have left East Germany (this makes Communism look really bad), Communism was also losing a lot of talent (skilled workers), this was hurting the economy, so in August of 1961 they throw up a wall that became a symbol of the Cold War, it prevented movement between East and West Berlin
∙ Cuban Missile Crisis – (October 1962), in 1959 Castro came to power in Cuba as a result of a revolution, he had been struggling to overthrow Batista; the country he had power over was very poor and he wanted to carry out a Communist revolution to eliminate poverty; he looks for closer ties between Cuba and the Soviet Union; this made the U.S. nervous because Cuba is only 90 miles from the States; no one wanted to see Communism in the Western Hemisphere; John Kennedy decided he wanted to do something about this; they decided to invade Cuba and try and take over through the Bay of Pigs (Eisenhower hatched this plan and Kennedy carried it out) but it doesn’t work; Castro received much aid from Khrushchev and the Soviets; the Americans learned that the Soviets were settle up missile sites in Cuba; so Kennedy sent the U.S. Navy over to try and blockade Cuba and send back Russian ships trying to set up nuclear sites; eventually Khrushchev decided to pull the nuclear sites back; so the Americans pulled their missiles out of Turkey; this is the closest it came to a nuclear confrontation
∙ Space Race – in 1957 the U.S. learned that the Russians had sent the first satellite into space (Sputnik); the U.S. was alarmed that the Russians were the first into space; after there was an announcement in D.C. that the education in the U.S. was subpar compared to Russia; Yuri Gagarin (Russian) was the first man into outer space; Sputnik was a wake up call for Americans:
o There were major reforms (National Defense Education Act) to poor money into American education, there were curricular changes (instead of just learning arithmetic and algebra they began to teach physics, biology, etc.); there was sort of a boomerang effect
o NASA – created shortly after to get Americans into space; the 7 Mercury Astronauts (including Alan Shepard and John Glenn) became the new American heroes; from 1958 to 1962 the U.S. went from being beat into space to orbiting the Earth
∙ INDIAN NATIONALISM
∙ India was regarded as the jewel and crown of the British Empire. There were both positive and negative outcomes from the British presence and takeover in India. For example, India is still very poor and there is much poverty. Economically, India was set back by the cheap British goods. India supported Britain during WWI (they served in the military or became part of a crucial work force). India also supplied the British with money during WWI. After the World Wars nations like India sought decolonization – they wanted independence. Following WWI, India suffered famine and a flu epidemic (it killed millions of people). o British Policies – the British did things that helped the decolonization movement
Chelmsford Reforms – these reforms gave over certain roles to Indians (they used to have low level jobs, but now they could hold offices), the police remained strictly in British hands though and the British still held the most important political roles
Rowlatt Act – clamped down on freedom of the press, Preventive Detention: put someone in jail before they commit the crime, this was considered very authoritarian
Amristar Massacre – (1919) there was a nonviolent political demonstration, Indians came out to protest things like the Rowlatt Act, and General Dyer went in to break it up, he told his soldiers to fire on the crowd, 400 were killed and many were injured, this was outrageous to the Indians and made them want independence even more (Dyer also
received the highest award: knighthood), this ultimately became a nationalist movement for the Indians
o Gandhi – he was British educated, he is exposed to western/political values, his family was Hindu (his mother had a huge influence on him), his first job as an attorney was in South Africa, he represented Indians and he was up close the social and economic problems in Africa, he became an activist in South Africa, he worked to help his own people, he becomes the leader of the nationalist movements in India
NonViolent Resistance – Gandhi’s idea to lead nationalist movement, he said violence was not the way to go, they had to take the “moral high ground,” he thought you could
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accomplish much more without violence, he emphasized “getting right” spiritually, he promoted noncooperation, he told the Indians to quit cooperating with the British rule ∙ By 1920 Gandhi is the obviously leader of the movement, but in 1922 violence
broke out among his followers (he was disgusted so he withdrew from public
law), he began spinning his own cloth (which was against British law), he
eventually comes back though by 1930
March to the Sea – (1930) the British had a monopoly on the sale of salt, so you had to buy salt from the government, you couldn’t make your own salt, so as an act of non
cooperation Gandhi leads a huge crowd of people to the sea to make their own salt to
defy the British, it got a lot of global attention, it was more symbolic than anything
o New changes in India – Gandhi was sort of the leader, but there was also the Indian National Congress (created in 1885): it was designed to modernize India initially and it was also to try and achieve a degree of selfrule, it became very important
Nehru – became the face of Indian nationalism after Gandhi, graduated as an attorney from Cambridge, he wasn’t as spiritual as Gandhi, he is a realist, politically he becomes sort of a socialist, he is all about technology and modernizing India, he leads the Indian National Congress (Gandhi works with him and the Congress)
o India is primarily Hindu, but there is a small sect of Muslims.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah – led the Muslim League and held a part of the Indian National Congress, the Muslims were afraid of Gandhi because of how spiritual he is, they are
worried that if they get rid of the British Gandhi will set up a Hindu state and the
Muslims will be treated badly, so this became a three way struggle (British vs. Muslims vs. Hindus [Gandhi])
∙ In 1945, after WWII, Britain agreed to transition out of India and give them independence. This became official in 1947. India would be given to the Hindus, but part of India was given to the Muslims (this became modernday Pakistan). This became a blood bath. There was huge dislocation, people moved out of India into Pakistan. The first Prime Minister of India was Nehru. Gandhi was assassinated. Nehru was Prime Minister until he died in 1962. During his rule he accepts a lot of foreign aid from the Soviet Union, he also worked to modernize Indian technology. Then Indira Gandhi (Nehru’s daughter) came to power and ruled until 1984 when she was assassinated (she was much more democratic). Her son then took over and he embarked on a more Capitalist approach to the economy. India is one of the largest democracies today. There is still tension between India and Pakistan. Both nations have nuclear weapons. ∙ CHINESE NATIONALISM
∙ China didn’t experience the kind of colonization that India did, but it did experience Western imperialism. In China, Western powers exerted less formal forms of control.
o Opium War – (18391842) conflict between the British and China, the British were growing opium and selling it to China, China tried to resist the British opium trade and when they did the British attacked, the British sent in ships and ended up winning
o Extraterritoriality – there were places in China that were important to the British and other Europeans for business purposes, they were designated as “free ports,” people followed rules of their own countries not China’s
Manchu Dynasty – the last ruling dynasty in Chinese history, they were essentially powerless with the Westerners coming in
o Taiping Rebellion – (18501864) it is an expression of Chinese dissatisfaction with its government, it was a phenomenon, it was a rebellion in which 13 million people died
Hong Xiuquan – was an individual who sat multiple times for the Chinese Civil Service exam and did not pass, he is totally alienated from the government, he embraces
Christianity (part of the outsiders in China were Christian missionaries), he did put his own spin on Christianity though: he believed he was the brother of Jesus Christ, he had hostility towards other Chinese religions (says they are worshiping demons), and around this man a move came about: the AntiManchuMovement (this becomes the basis for the Taiping Rebellion), the Taipings are trying to “save” China from the government
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o Boxer Rebellion – (1900) was totally antiwestern antiforeigners, the Boxers began in various cities and attacked foreigners, it is another major expression of Chinese nationalism
∙ The Chinese Nationalism Movement went through various phases:
o Overthrow Manchu Dynasty
o Deal with internal civil war for ages
o Struggle to establish a Republic in China
o Struggle against Communism in China
o Struggle against the Japanese who later invade China
o Carry out a Communist Revolution in China
∙ Dr. Sun YatSen – he was a physician, western educated, he is in favor of a democracy in China, he wants to see land reform, he believes that the Chinese peasant will be the backbone of the Chinese democracy and economy
o 1911 – the last emperor was overthrown (end of Manchu/Qing Dynasty)
o Yuan ShiKai – becomes the first president of China, there is a parliament to go along with it, he turns out to be a dictator, antidemocratic, authoritarian, he was the opposite of what Sun YatSen wanted him to be
o Kuomintang (KMT) – was a Chinese political party led by Sun YatSen that tried to overthrow Yuan ShiKai, it fails so Sun YatSen and others must flee China for awhile, but Yuan ShiKai died earlier than they thought, this left the KMT in charge
∙ (19161926) – There is a major civil war in China between the KMT and the warlords. The KMT tries to fight this on their own, but they really need help and ended up turning to the West. The West refuses to help, so they turn to Russia. Russia sends a ton of help. By 1923, there is a lot of Soviet help in China.
o Chiang KaiShek – antiCommunist, was under Sun YatSen originally but took over the effort and the KMT when Sun YatSen died, he killed anyone who was or was suspected of being Communist in the KMT
o MaoZedong – fell under the influence of Li Dazhao, who was an early Marxist thinker himself and taught at the university MaoZedong studied at, there was a problem in Marxist theory in China though, MaoZedong and Li Dazhao had to tweak the theory, Li Dazhao said Marxism could be based on the peasantry, he said everyone has been victimized by western imperialism, he influences MaoZedong who later becomes a major player in the Chinese Communist movement
∙ The Long March – (1934) the Communists have a power base in the south but are seeking one in the north, so MaoZedong coordinates this “Long March,” they marched from the south to the northwest, and it was treacherous, they started out with 100,000 troops, but the KMT led by Chiang KaiShek attacked them all along the way, the 100,000 troops became about 4,000 (that many died or were killed), in the minds of many this effort solidified the Communist movement, even though many died the movement gained momentum
∙ Then in 1937, Japan invaded China. So the KMT are now fighting both the Communists and the Japanese. Chiang KaiShek sought assistance again but did not get it until 1941 when the west got involved with WWII. Chiang KaiShek was not democratic but the U.S. wanted to see democratic reforms in China. The U.S. did not press the issue; they just needed China to defeat the Japanese. Although Japan is out of the war (after the U.S. nukes them), there is still a struggle between the KMT and the Communists. This continues on until MaoZedong wins in 1949. The Communists take over and force Chiang KaiShek to leave China. He goes to Taiwan and sets up his own government. This is a game changer now. The Communists now rule China and Russia has nuclear weapons in 1949.
∙ CHINA UNDER MAO
∙ In 1949, Mao and the Communists were successful in taking over China. This communism focused on the Chinese peasantry. Marxism, to some extent, had to be tweaked to meet China’s circumstances. Mao says the peasantry is the backbone of the revolution.
o Mao goes to Russia not long after coming to power in China (he wanted to learn from the best). He admired what he saw in Russia and was very much influenced.
Purges – Mao purged the landowning elite, he held village trials in which peasants could come forward and vent against their owners (essentially it was payback time), many
people were executed during these purges [probably around 3 million people were killed because they were capitalist in the countryside], the land was given to peasants who
became small proprietors, this was popular among the people
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Collectivization – later in the 1950s Mao continued with the idea of collectivization (take land from peasants and set up huge collectivized farms that are run by the village as a
whole), he sort of started his own 5YearPlan, this was not very productive because the peasants didn’t like it, so it was a bit of a set back
“Let a thousand flowers bloom” – this was Mao’s program of selfexamination, self criticism, he invites intellectuals to offer their opinions and to critique what is good/bad about society, it was a program of total openness, this was to promote policies that were productive and good for China, this kind of took an ugly turn, Mao now knew who his enemies were so he punished them by sending them to prison or sending them to the
countryside to work on peasant communes
Great Leap Forward – (1958) this followed the “Let a thousand flowers bloom” program, this is Mao’s 5YearPlan, he wants to see rapid industrial development in China, he
wants to carry out a revolution this way (remember he is all about the peasants), so he conceptualizes industrialization, industrialization takes place within cities (its an urban phenomenon by definition), but he remakes it a rural phenomenon, he wants the peasants to be super productive agriculturally, they were able to construct dams and such in their freetime (they had to be very productive in order for this to happen), they would provide all the food, and this all took place in their backyards, this is what makes this program so unique, the effects of this plan are a complete disaster, it doesn’t work at all, it was also a human nightmare, many people died (2030 million) from hunger in the 1950s (from
major drought/failure of this program)
∙ There was a high birth rate during this time as well, it became a dangerous birth
rate because society couldn’t support it, the West offered to help with this (birth
control), Mao said “thanks, but no thanks,” he didn’t agree with birth control,
he said they could take care of it himself, basically they restricted the number
of children families could have
∙ The programs went so poorly that some of the Communist leaders emerged and proposed new ideas. o Deng Xiaoping and Zhou Enlai – pragmatic way of thinking, they said they need to use profit and market incentive to grow the economy, this did not sit well with Mao, he considers them “capitalistroaders”
o Cultural Revolution – (19651968) this was an effort, by Mao, to get rid of the “capitalistroaders,” this was complete turmoil, he used the “people’s liberation army” and university/high school students and mobilizes them, they hold demonstrations, speak publicly and name names, they talk about closet capitalists and identify the pragmatists (even if its their own parents), a lot of the elite was punished, some individuals were executed but most were sent to prison or the countryside, it does some damage to China because it removed some of the skilled elite, it was highly destructive, Xiaoping and Enlai were sent to prison and the countryside respectively
Red Guard – the student movement within the revolution, they looked at Mao as the “center of the universe,” the Little Red Book was the sayings of Chairman Mao
o Finally in 1968, Mao had to put the brakes on the Cultural Revolution, he tried to gain control of communes and cities again, but what happens as a result the pragmatist will eventually reemerge, Xiaoping and Enlai resurface, Mao died in 1976 then Enlai died in 1978 leaving just Xiaoping
∙ Women in China – it was a very patriarchal society, most women were still uneducated and lived under their parents, Mao wanted to change things for women in China, women did the behind the scenes work during the revolution but they were eventually put on the front lines during the revolution, there was much rhetoric that women should stay at home (Madame Chaing KaiShek said that women should stay home and be virtuous), there were two views: Communist vs. KMT, Mao insisted that women be educated and take jobs outside of
the home, his own wife fought alongside the communists in the war
∙ Deng Xiaoping came to power in 1978, he implemented Capitalist reforms, allowed peasants to produce for their own profit, he allows certain parts of the industrial sector to be privately owned and run, farming was increasingly private, this led to the creation of a stock market in China, he then allowed in foreign companies, it is a mixed economy, but there is a huge capitalist component
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o Democracy Movement – freedom of speech, more citizen involvement in government, Wei Jingsheng was a component of this movement, he was an electrician, he was put in jail, this movement survived underground while he was in jail but then it resurfaced in Tiananmen Square in 1989, this is where the conflict (government vs. students) came to light, some 400 students were killed, China was now connected electronically to the outside world
∙ THE WAR IN VIETNAM
∙ From the American perspective, the war in Vietnam was all about fighting/containing Communism. After Korea, America viewed this as another “Korean War,” in their eyes it was a spread of Communism. They saw it as a domino effect.
∙ From the Vietnamese perspective, the war in Vietnam was all about nationalism and decolonization. o Vietnam was a part of the French colony of IndoChina: Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and North Vietnam.
∙ Ho Chi Minh – emerges as a political leader in the 1930’s, he becomes a Communist, but he is also a nationalist, he wants to liberate Vietnam from the French (by means of Communism), he gained support over time and when WWII was over Ho Chi Minh and people from Cambodia/Laos went to France and said they wanted independence, France said no and internal conflict broke out
o Civil War – (1947) Ho Chi Minh and his followers fought the French, he had an army of about 15,000
o Dienbienphu – (1954) this was a turning point in world history, here Ho Chi Minh and his followers defeated the French army, this inspired nationalism around the world, the French decided to cut their loses and get out of Vietnam
Geneva Agreements – (1955) they agreed that they would divide Vietnam at the 17th parallel into the North and the South, the North became the part that Ho Chi Minh and his followers took over, but the idea was that in a couple of years free elections would take place to establish a government to reunite all of Vietnam (temporary division > free
elections > unite Vietnam)
o Ngo Dinh Diem – he tries to set up a government in South Vietnam, he got a lot of support from the U.S., he tried to set up a democracy but became much more authoritarian, he was Catholic (most Vietnamese were Buddhist), he represented Catholic largescale land owners, when he got into power he used his friends and family members to staff positions, he tends not to favor Buddhists (he disadvantaged them), he doesn’t favor peasants, this all blows up in his face, he also fails to allow the free elections to take place (so they never took place), in the 1960’s people who disagreed with Ngo Dinh Diem (especially Buddhists) would burn themselves in public, in 1963 his army pulled off a feat where they overthrew Diem and assassinated him (the Americans were very involved in this plan)
o Nguyen van Thieu – came to power after Diem, there is a lot of dissatisfaction in the countryside that he comes into
∙ The U.S. got deeply involved in the Vietnam War as a result of being involved in the Cold War. They sent money to the French in Vietnam to try and help them defeat Minh. In 1954, when the French decide to get out, the U.S. got very worried because they didn’t want Minh to take over Vietnam because he was a Communist (they thought Minh was a puppet of Mao [even though he wasn’t]). The U.S. then began to support Diem because he wasn’t communist, however, they did assist in the assassination when things got out of hand.
o National Liberation Front – was the political party that produced the Viet Cong (Anticolonial, Communist, nationalist movement), wanted to get rid of Diem and get rid of U.S. involvement, operated in the countryside with villagers, they used underhanded tactics (like terrorism) to make the people in the countryside support them
o Viet Cong – Guerilla, military branch of the National Liberation Front
∙ Gulf of Tonkin – the U.S., under JFK, the U.S. continued to get involved, there were many advisors stationed in Vietnam to try and sort things out, Lyndon Johnson took over after JFK was assassinated, anyways there was a U.S. ship attacked by the Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin, so Johnson went to Congress and asked for more money to support the effort against Communism in Vietnam, the U.S. troop strength in Vietnam began to sky rocket in 1965, from this incident forward the U.S. was very much involved in the war
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∙ TET Offensive – a major North Vietnamese offensive against South Vietnam and the U.S., this created so much concern at home, Johnson said he would not run for reelection but it was an indication for how bad things were going, Richard Nixon came into presidency in 1969
o Vietnamization – (1969) Nixon’s idea of preparing the South Vietnamese to take over the war by themselves (reduction), but then became expansion when he sent U.S. troops into Laos and Cambodia
o Saturation Bombing – it was one raid after another, essentially the U.S. was trying to eliminate their will to exist, more ordinance was dropped on North Vietnam than any of the theatres in England during WWI, these bombings did not work at all, it actually strengthened the North Vietnamese resolve, thus they turned to negotiations
∙ Finally, in the fall of 1972 when Nixon was running for his second term, he announced that peace was at hand with the Vietnamese, they were able to negotiate factors in 1973
o The war at home (in the U.S.) – it was the first war covered by T.V. correspondence, television journalists were in the field recording what was happening, this galvanized protest movements that reached a peak around 1968 when the U.S. stationed troops in Cambodia, there was a draft in the U.S. (18 year old men were being plucked and sent overseas), Nixon’s policies also
angered/worried a lot of people, the largest protest was held at Kent State University, the Ohio guard was called to shut down the protest and the guards were forced to fire on the crowd (4 people were killed), this unrest at home forced the U.S. government to seek out negotiations and end the war
∙ In the end, 12 million Vietnamese died and 59,000 Americans died, and finally Vietnam was reunited ∙ JAPAN AND THE PACIFIC RIM
∙ The “Pacific Rim” really is an economic term – today it refers to East and Southeast Asia. Japan in the early 20th century was in the middle of a huge economic project (modernization).
o Meiji Restoration – (late 19th century) when a group of Samurai overthrew the government and preceded to modernize Japan governmentally, socially, and economically, they looked at western industrialization and chose the nation that had the best banking/economic system then sent people over to learn from them, they borrowed selectively (the best) from the west, the result was rapid economic development (by the 1920s Japan had more electrical power than any other nation in the world), by the 19201930s the military was on the rise, the military became more modern (they came to see themselves as both special and as the guardians of Japan), they began to promote military expansion
1930s – the military murdered the prime minister so they could take control, the military essentially ran the government, they promoted Japanese expansion in the Pacific, by 1938 they had expanded into various surrounding nations, they pushed this expansion all for economic reasons (they were looking for markets)
∙ There was much destruction in the 1940s. There was much firebombing, and inflation ran rampant. Following this destruction, Japan pulled off its own economic miracle.
o The Japanese surrendered to the U.S. in 1945. The Americans took over. The Americans and British had two goals:
Demilitarization – Japan was too militaristic, they stripped Japan of its military, the U.S. had to assume the role of protecting Japan militarily
Democratization – takes place over a longer period of time, they wrote a new constitution for Japan, it had a very western flavor, the new constitution gave women the right to vote and it took all power from the emperor, the emperor had to renounce his divinity, there is no longer a national religion, Japan is now governed by its parties, the crucial job for the
Japanese was electing the parliament, there were also huge education reforms, they
decentralized the control of education, now they put the control at the local level, they also carried out land reforms, the most that anyone could own was 2.5 acres (if you
weren’t farming it yourself) and the surplus was taking away and sold, if you were a
farmer the most you could own was 7 acres
∙ Douglas MacArthur – was a major prominent in executing these goals, he and
his officials helped write the new constitution for Japan
Exam 3 (Page: 10)
∙ Japan’s economic recovery and miracle – Japan carried out a number of actions.
o Government Policy – it made economic development a top priority, it is capitalism but not laissez fair
o Education – Japan had a strong education system, the higher the education system they better the economy, they had high rates of literacy and an emphasis on math, engineering and science o Foreign Policy – for a long time, this was paid for by the U.S. (if you don’t have to pay for defense you can spend that money elsewhere), they did rebuild their own army and navy eventually o Labor Policy/Management – the relationship between management and labor was different from the west, the CEOs of companies aren’t making the huge salaries that American CEOs are making, the money is reinvested in the companies, it reduces the gap between workers and management, there were programs directed especially at the welfare of the workers, typically the workers made less than in the west but their wellbeing was taken care of more in Japan (they felt as though the corporations were taking care of them)
o Savings – Japan had high rates of saving, when people save money economies grow, the goal is a balance between consumption and saving
o Technology – thanks to changes in education Japan put a lot of emphasis on technology innovation, in the 1970s Americans began to buy big numbers of cars from the Japanese, Japanese cars were fuel efficient, they also were reliable, electronics were also huge components in the technological move forward in Japan
Emperor Hirohito – emperor of Japan from 1926 until his death in 1989. He was the longestreigning monarch in Japan’s history.
∙ Other Pacific Rim states: South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong
o South Korea – experienced a dramatic economic miracle, the Korean war delayed their development, but in the 1960s it starts to happen, Hyundai cars had a huge impact on this Chung Ju Yung – was the founder of Hyundai, began working when he was 16, he not only was building cars but also ships and other civil engineering projects
o Taiwan – the government policy and regulation led to an economic miracle as well, a welleducated public means better workers
Exam 3 (Page: 11)
8. North Korea
9. South Korea
10. North Vietnam
11. South Vietnam
17. Sri Lanka (Ceylon)
23. New Delhi
∙ Permanent Mandates Commission: a commission created by the League of Nations to oversee the developed nation’s fulfillment of their international responsibility toward their mandates
∙ SykesPicot Agreement: the 1916 secret agreement between Britain and France that divided up the Arab lands of Lebanon, Syria, southern Turkey, Palestine, Jordan and Iraq
∙ Balfour Declaration: a 1917 statement by British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour that supported the idea of a Jewish homeland in Palestine
∙ Treaty of Lausanne: the 1923 treaty that ended the Turkish war and recognized the territorial integrity of a truly independent Turkey
∙ Majlis: the national assembly established by the despotic shah of Iran in 1906
∙ Kibbutz: a Jewish collective farm on which each member shared equally in the work, rewards, and defense ∙ Lucknow Pact: a 1916 alliance between the Hindus leading the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League
∙ Satyagraha: loosely translated as “soul force,” which Gandhi believed was the means of striving for truth and social justice through love, suffering, and conversion of the oppressor
∙ May Fourth Movement: a Chinese nationalist movement against foreign imperialists, it began as a student protest against the decision of the Paris Peace Conference to leave the Shandong Peninsula in the hands of Japan
∙ New Culture Movement: an intellectual revolution, sometimes called the Chinese Renaissance, that attacked traditional Chinese, particularly Confucian, culture and promoted Western ideas of science, democracy, and individualism, from around 1916 to 1923
∙ Zaibatsu: giant conglomerate firms in Japan
∙ Long March: the 6,000mile retreat of the Chinese Communist army to a remote region on the northwestern border of China, during which tens of thousands lost their lives
∙ Cold War: the postwar conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union
∙ Truman Doctrine: American policy of preventing the spread of Communist rule
∙ Marshall Plan: American plan for providing economic aid to Europe to help it rebuild ∙ NATO: the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an antiSoviet military alliance of Western nations
Exam 3 (Page: 12)
∙ Superpowers: countries whose military (or economic) might dwarfed that of other countries underdevelopment
∙ Modernization Theory: the belief that all countries evolved in a linear progression from traditional to mature ∙ Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI): the use of trade barriers to keep certain products out of one’s country so that domestic industry can emerge and produce the same goods
∙ Liberation Theology: a movement within the Catholic Church to support the poor in situations of exploitation that emerged with particular force in Latin America in the 1960s
∙ Muslim League: political party in colonial India that advocated for a separate Muslim homeland after independence
∙ Arab Socialism: a modernizing, secular, and nationalist project of nation building aimed at economic development and the development of a strong military
∙ Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): created in 1964, a loose union of Palestinian refugee groups opposed to Israel and united in the goal of gaining Palestinian home rule
∙ Great Leap Forward: Mao Zedong’s acceleration of Chinese development in which industrial growth was to be based on smallscale backyard workshops run by peasants living in gigantic selfcontained communes ∙ Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: a movement launched by Mao Zedong that attempted to purge the Chinese Communist Party of longserving bureaucrats and recapture the revolutionary fervor of his guerilla struggle
∙ Red Guards: radical cadres formed of Chinese youth who would attack anyone identified as an enemy of either the Chinese Communist Party or Chairman Mao
∙ Tiananmen Square: the site of a Chinese student revolt in 1989 at which Communists imposed marital law and arrested, injured, or killed hundreds of students
∙ “Japan, Inc.”: a nickname from the 1980s used to describe the intricate relationship of Japan’s business world and government
∙ Détente: the progressive relaxation of Cold War tensions